Decide if the statements are true or false.




ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Decide if the statements are true or false.



1. The first farmers in Britain appeared more than six thousand years ago.

2. In Middle Ages agriculture lost its importance.

3. In the 19th century more than a half of the population lived in towns.

4. The share of agriculture in the British economy is steadily increasing.

5. Food chain greatly depends on domestic agricultural produce.

Find the English equivalents to the Ukrainian words and phrases.

Лісові хащі, достатні запаси провіанту, настриг вовни, завдячувати своєю спадщиною, перетворювати на тканину, покласти край, міські жителі, частка національного доходу, повна або часткова зайнятість, сільська громада, харчовий ланцюжок, відносно низький, фінансова життєздатність.

SPEAKING TASK

Describe the agriculture of Great Britain.

LANGUAGE FOCUS

Passive Voice. Continuous Tenses

Introduce correct passive forms of the verbs in

a) Present Continuous.

1) One of my rooms _____ (paint) at the moment.

2) We _____ (already/serve). Thank you.

3) An important match between Manchester and Chelsea _____ (play) now.

4) I have a feeling we _____ (follow) by Jim.

5) My computer _____ (use) by my sister at the moment.

6) Our papers _____ (correct) by Professor Brown now.

7) Her whole flat _____ (redecorate) this week.

8) A test _____ (prepare) by our teacher.

b) Past Continuous:

1) I _____ (laugh) at when I slipped on a banana skin.

2) The dishes _____ (clear away) when I was resting on the sofa.

3) The plan _____ (discuss) all night yesterday.

4) Candidates _____ (interview) when I was sitting in the office.

5) Tom _____ (operate) on at 8 in the morning yesterday.

6) The drinks _____ (still/serve) at 11 in the pub yesterday.

7) When we arrived, the supper _____ (eat).

8) Mary's cat _____ (feed) when I came to her place.

Change these sentences from active to passive.

1) I think spies are watching my house. - I think my house _____.

2) The teacher was punishing the children as I walked past. - The children _____ as I walked past.

3) The police are investigating the murder at the moment. - The murder _____ at the moment.

4) She thought someone was bullying her children at school. - She thought her children _____ at school.

5) The doctors are treating him for pneumonia. - He _____ for pneumonia.

6) Is anyone doing anything to protect the environment? - _____ to protect the environment?

7) Last year, Apple were selling IPADs for £500. - Last year, IPADs _____ for £500.

8) They aren't giving us enough information. - We _____ enough information.

Passive Voice. Perfect Tenses

Introduce correct passive forms of the verbs in

a) Present Perfect

1) Another book _____ (write) by my favourite author recently.

2) My articles _____ (read) by very few readers so far.

3) The task _____ (complete) and we're free now.

4) Helen and I _____ (invite) to Bill's party again.

5) Kate _____ (award) first prize in the swimming competition lately.

6) The two criminals _____ (not/arrest) yet.

b) Past Perfect

1) The table looked nice because it _____ (polish).

2) My window _____ (smash) three times by the day before yesterday.

3) The water _____ (keep) in the fridge so it was cold.

4) Mike _____ (see) near the cinema so we went there.

5) She _____ (not/love) so much before she met Jim.

6) I _____ (inform) about the accident before I returned home.

c) Future Perfect

1) By the end of the week my flat _____ (sell).

2) The report _____ (print) by next Friday.

3) All the seedlings _____ (plant out) by tomorrow.

4) By next month Bill _____ (promote).

5) That picture _____ (draw) by the end of the day.

6) All necessary things for our journey _____ (buy) by 5 o'clock tomorrow.

 

Change into passive voice.

1) Sue hasn't invited Martin to the party.

2) Who has damaged my mobile phone?

3) They will have installed a new alarm by tomorrow.

4) We had prepared the room before they arrived.

5) The professor will have finished the lecture by 9 pm.

6) They have built a new bus stop.

Match.

1) Has everyone been informed 2) Everything possible is being 3) The project was completed 4) Have all the rooms been 5) The bottles are filled before the labels 6) The car was stolen 7) He was forced to resign after 8) The tickets were posted to 9) The books are printed 10) It was filmed in an old   a) from the car park. b) the company made a huge loss. c) by a subcontractor. d) of the latest changes? e) village near here. f) are put on. g) you more than a week ago. h) booked yet? i) done to find the children. j) on time.

 

17. Change these sentences into the passive.

 

MODEL: Someone's interviewingDr Jonhson at the moment. - Dr Jonhson is being interviewed at the moment.

 

1) You mustn't use this machine after 5:30 p. m.

2) We had warned him the day before not to go too near the canal.

3) They are mending your shoes at the moment.

4) Someone will drive your car to Edinburgh on Tuesday.

5) They don't allow smoking at this restaurant.

6.) You should pay your bill before you leave the hotel.

7) I have told the children about the party.

8) About thirty million people are watching this programme.

9) We expect students not to talk during the examination.

10) You mustn't touch this button while the experiment is in progress.

11) Someone will blow a whistle if there's an emergency.

12) You should keep flowers in a warm sunny place.

13) Someone has moved my chair.

14) The police are questioning Mr and Mrs Davidson.

15) They invited two hundred people to the wedding.


 

Unit 16 Agriculture of the USA
  Vocabulary in Use Agriculture of the USA Farming Regions of the United States Language Focus Conditional Sentences

Vocabulary In Use

1. Find the Ukrainian equivalents in the right-hand column for the following:

1) nursery crops 2) food supplier 3) nature’s bounty 4) rangeland 5) irrigation 6) capital investment 7) artificial pond 8) oversight a) щедрість природи b) саджанці (сіянці), вирощені в розпліднику c) зрошення d) капіталовкладення e) штучний ставок f) нагляд g) природне пасовище h) постачальник харчових продуктів

Match the words to their definitions.

1) ranch 2) surplus 3) abundance 4) rainfall 5) drought a) great amount b) the amount of precipitation in a specified place and time c) a large plot of land used for raising livestock d) a prolonged period of scanty rainfall e) a quantity or amount in excess of what is required

3. Match the adjectives with similar meanings:

1) temperate 2) fortunate 3) immense 4) plentiful 5) unrivalled 6) favourable a) huge b) prevalent c) moderate d) appropriate e) matchless f) lucky

Fill in the gaps using the words from the box.

surpluses economy rainfall powerhouse crops irrigation

 

1) Agriculture and its related industries serve as a foundation of American _____.

2) Crop _____ and low prices have made it hard for many farmers to make a profit.

3) The USA agricultural market has long been a global _____.

4) _____ ranges from modest to abundant.

5) Rivers and underground water allow for _____ where necessary.

6) America has many types of climate, so different _____ can be grown.

READING AND speaking

Read the following text.

Agriculture of the USA

America's history with farming is immense and synonymous with the story of the country. Farming is a tradition that has created a vast industry that still employs nearly a million people nationwide. Due to the plentiful fields and inventive techniques, America has been able to raise a wide variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, and livestock that have created a surplus for the country. This surplus has transformed the nation into an economic powerhouse and an important food supplier for the world.

United States is still an agricultural nation. Fifty percent of the country (907 million acres) is cropland, pastureland, and rangeland on privately owned land. About one-fifth of Americans are employed in the agricultural industry. The United States has an abundance of fertile soil and good climates in which to grow food.

In America, there are many types of farms, such as dairy farms; grain and cereal farms; ranches that raise beef cattle; fruit orchards; cotton, tobacco, and tea plantations; and vegetable farms. The most prevalent are the cash grain farms, specializing in corn and soybeans with various grains, beans, and rice. Field crop farms specialize in potatoes, sugar beets, hay, hops, sunflowers, and others. Farms that grow vegetables, fruits, tree nuts, and nursery crops are known as high value. Tobacco and cotton farms are usually kept to lands of their own, due to the specialization needed to raise them. The livestock farms raise cattle, hogs, poultry.

Thanks to nature's bounty and to the effective use of machines, fertilizers and chemicals, American farmers are virtually unrivalled in producing crops cheaply and in quantity. America produces the largest amount of food in the world, sustaining itself and other countries. It yields as much as half of the world's soybeans and corn for grain, and from 10 to 25 percent of its cotton, wheat, tobacco and vegetable oils.

The system that has been established between farmers and the government by means of subsidizing crops has developed over the years. Farms are paid to plant certain types of crops and to not plant others. This has created better government oversight on the agricultural well-being of the country as a whole. It has prevented overproduction or underproduction of individual crops, hence stabilizing prices.

With some of the best farmland in the world, America has been able to perfect its process of raising crops and animals. American farmers owe their ability to produce large yields to a number of factors. For one thing, they work under extremely favourable natural conditions. The American Midwest has some of the richest soil in the world. Rainfall is modest to abundant over most areas of the country; rivers and underground water permit extensive irrigation where it is not. Large capital investments and increasing use of highly trained labour also have contributed to the success of American agriculture. It is not unusual to see today's farmers driving tractors with air-conditioned cabs hitched to very expensive, fast-moving ploughs, tillers, and harvesters. Biotechnology has led to the development of seeds that are disease- and drought-resistant. Fertilizers and pesticides are commonly used. Computers track farm operations, and even space technology is utilized to find the best places to plant and fertilize crops. What's more, researchers periodically introduce new food products and new methods for raising them, such as artificial ponds to raise fish.

Because of modern technology for moving, storing, and processing crops, Americans are fortunate to have just about any type of food they want during the year.

Answer the questions.

1) What role has agriculture played in America’s transformation into an economic powerhouse?

2) How much land is used for farming?

3) What are the main types of farms in the USA?

4) What crops do the American farmers grow?

5) What helps to prevent overproduction or underproduction of certain crops?

6) Are America’s natural conditions favourable for agriculture?

7) In what way is space technology applied?

7. The following factors contribute to the success of American agriculture:

ü capital investments ü highly trained labour ü plentiful fields ü pesticides ü disease-resistant seeds ü fertile soil ü drought-resistant seeds ü modest to abundant rainfall ü fertilizers ü subsidies

Which refers to

natural conditions? government policy? education? biotechnology?

 





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