Read the information below and say if the financial reward is the main thing when you think of your future job? 

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Read the information below and say if the financial reward is the main thing when you think of your future job?

Although the majority of people say that they work ‘for the money’, the financial reward isn’t actually the only thing that they think about. Recently the research has shown that people consider many different factors to be of importance when they make their choice. A worldwide survey of students showed that after graduation they would be looking for jobs that allowed them to balance their personal lives with their work lives.

It’s not just the younger generation who think like this either. There has even been an increase in the number of middle-aged workers who are moving away from highly-paid executive positions into less stressful jobs. They are looking for something which is more enjoyable and gives them more leisure time. All this has meant that employers are realizing that they need to do more than just offer good wages if they are going to keep their workers happy and motivated!

8. What is important for you in a job?Rank these things from 1 to 9.

___ a chance to travel

___ a supporting boss

___ an excellent salary

___ good benefits

___ easy work

___ friendly co-workers

___ flexible hours

___ a chance for promotion

___ a short commute


9. a) Read the story told by Karol, who is an architect.

The World of Work

The best thing about my job is that I don’t have to travel to work and I haven’t got a boss because I’m self-employed. I don’t have to wear a uniform because I work from home. Also, I’ve got flexible working hours so I don’t have to get up early in the morning. I can work when I want and I can go on holiday at quiet times of the year, when tickets and hotels are cheap. I like working at home because I see a lot of my daughter, who is six.

The worst thing about my job is that I don’t have a salary. I don’t get paid every month and I don’t get any holiday pay. Some months I earn a lot of money, but other months I don’t earn anything! Also, I have to fill in my tax forms every three months so I have to spend hours with a calculator. I hate that! I could pay an accountant but I don’t because it’s expensive.

On the whole, there are more good things than bad things about my job.

b) Make notes about Karol’s job.

good points bad points
don’t have to travel to work …

Copy the table and make notes about your future job. Use these notes to speak about good and bad points of your future job.



Speak about your future profession


Participial Constructions

Point out the Objective Participial Construction and translate into Ukrainian.

1) She liked to watch him digging or planting.

2) Jane watched her brother unpacking the clothes.

3) I found myself wondering about what he was going to do.

4) Suddenly he heard someone running down the stairs.

5) I could readily understand George falling in love with Lynn at first sight.

6) He saw the car coming over the rise of a hill.

7) She could hear the man and Soames talking together.

8) He found her having coffee in the sitting room.

9) She doesn’t want her sister worried.

10) We must have our tickets registered.

Complete the sentences using the Present Participle.

1) I smelled something (burn) in the house.

2) She did not see the car (come) closer.

3) Do you notice Tom (talk) to Amelia?

4) We heard the boys (knock) at the door.

5) We listened to the mother (sing) her child to sleep.

6) She could feel herself (blush).

7) I found my two cats (sit) on the table.

8) She jealously watched her boyfriend (flirt) with another girl.


14. Complete the sentences and make clear that the people don't / didn't do it themselves. (The first sentence is given as an example.)

1) Yesterday, (I / cut / my hair) I had my hair cut.

2) Every Friday, (Joe / wash / his car).

3) Tomorrow, (she / repair / her shower).

4) Each Saturday, (we / deliver / a pizza) to our home.

5) Last year, (Bob / clean / his house) by a charwoman.

6) As Phil had a broken arm, (he / type / his texts) by his wife.

7) (I / pick up / the goods) tomorrow in the afternoon.

8) (we / redecorate / our walls) last summer.

9) Whenever Clara is staying at this hotel, (she / carry / her bags) into her room.

10) (we / organise / our last party) by professionals.

Point out the Subjective Participial Constructions and translate into Ukrainian.

1) Through the window Florence was seen packing a suitcase.

2) In the evening Gertrude was found sitting on the porch of the neighbouring house.

3) One evening he was seen going into this very house

4) Some of the birds can be noticed sitting in the trees.

5) They were heard talking together.

6) Her footsteps were heard crossing the room.

7) A voice was heard calling his name.

8) Each day his short stout figure could be seen going along the corridor.

16. Point out Absolute Participial Constructions. Translate into Ukrainian.

1) Each of them being my friend, the news that they were engaged had interested me very much.

2) They sat out with the lantern, John telling his tale.

3) This question settled, the reunion was on again.

4) The last train having gone, we had to walk home.

5) Peter acting as guide, we shall easily find the caves.

6) Edwin was advancing through the undergrowth, his gaze fixed upon the ground.

7) Weather permitting, the football match will take place on Wednesday.

8) All the essays having been written and collected, the teacher sent the class home.

9) The classes finished, we went to have dinner.

10) The electrons move with various speed, their speed depending on the temperature.


17. Transform the following complex sentences into simple ones using the Absolute Participial Construction.

MODEL: As it was late, he bolted the windows. – It being late, he bolted the windows.

1) As the weather was unusually mild at that time of the year, we didn’t go skating.

2) After the sun had risen, we continued our way.

3) As it is rather cold, I put on my coat.

4) As his mother teaches English, he knows the language very well.

5) As it was a hot day, all of us were thirsty.

6) As my friend had bought the tickets beforehand, we did not need to hurry.

7) As all shops were closed, we couldn’t buy anything.

8) When the work had been done, they went home.

9) When the house had been built, we got a new flat.

10) As the key had been lost, she couldn’t get into the room.


18. Point out the Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction and translate into Ukrainian.

1) Madge watched me as I sat there with my head drooping.

2) She was standing on the rock ready to dive, with the green water below inviting her.

3) She hurriedly left the room with her eyes red.

4) It was a lovely morning, with a keen breeze whipping the water.

5) The girl wandered away, with tears rolling down her cheeks.

6) The moonlit road was empty, with the cool wind blowing in their faces.

7) Then, with her heart beating fast, she went up and rang the bell.

8) I can't write with you standing there, Margery.

19. Translate into English using participial constructions.

1) Я чув, як він відчиняв двері.

2) Вона відчула, як він торкався до її руки.

3) Він спостерігав, як мама мила посуд.

4) Ми бачили, як вони повільно наближалися до нас.

5) Я чула, коли про нього говорили.

6) Мені надрукують цього листа.

7) Її помітили, коли вона переходила вулицю.

8) Оскільки ніч була темна, ми рухалися повільно.

9) Оскільки було дуже рано, я не міг знайти його.

10) Коли мій брат закінчив школу, моя сім’я переїхала до Луцька.



Why Management Is Needed

Management is needed whenever people work together in an organization and to reach organizational objectives. The objective of most firms and companies is to provide services for people and to make a profit for the owners. If the firm stops giving service, people will no longer patronize it. If there are no profits, the company will soon be unable to perform the needed service.

To achieve objectives, managers need to maintain the balance among the conflicting demands of the stakeholders of an organization. Stakeholders are all those, who have a stake in an organizational success, including employees, owners, customers, creditors and others. Owners seek a satisfactory return on their investment; employees want good pay and comfortable working conditions; management must also please its customers, for without them the company will have little purpose; creditors, suppliers, trade associations should also be considered. So, management must balance the interests of different groups.

Management is also needed to achieve efficiency and effectiveness. Efficiency is ability to get things done correctly. An efficient manager is the one, who gets higher output relative to the inputs (labour, materials, money, machines and time). Effectiveness is the ability to choose the most suitable goals and proper steps to achieve them. That is, effective managers select the right things to do and the right methods for getting them done.

Management is the process of managing people. Any manager has some functions. He performs planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Planning is choosing an organizational mission, and then determining the courses of actions (programs, projects, methods, systems, strategies) to achieve them. All other functions depend on this one, for they can't succeed without sound, thorough planning and decision making.

Organizing is determining what resources and activities are required and delegating the authorities to employees, who are to carry out managers' instructions.

Plans and organization are useless without the function of leading. Leading is getting employees to do the things the manger wants them to do. Therefore, leader's qualities, style and power are very important. This function can be performed in the face-to-face manner, or through written orders and job descriptions.

For effective control there must first be planning, organizing and leading.


Learning How to Manage

The important thing to remember is that no one is born with management knowledge. People who wish to have a career as a manager must study the discipline of management as a means toward practicing the process of management. On the other hand, many individuals whose interest in management was or is strictly scientific have contributed knowledge to the field. Many psychologists, sociologists and anthropologists consider management to be very important social phenomenon and managers to be an important social resource. Their interest then, is strictly scientific; they want to understand and to explain the process of management. Numerous other professions such as mathematics, accounting, economics, law, political science, engineering, and philosophy also have contributed to the discipline of management.

Contemporary management knowledge is the product of three basic approaches: the classical approach, the behavioural approach, and the management science approach. We believe that the ideas of each approach contribute positively to the total body of knowledge of the discipline of management. Through these three approaches, you can see an evolution of what is known and what should be known about management.

Theories are important as organizers of knowledge and as road maps for action. Understanding the historical context and precursors of management and organizations provides a sense of heritage and can also help managers avoid repeating the mistakes of others.

Isolated pieces of evidence date interest in management back thousand of years, but a scientific approach to management has emerged only in the last hundred years. Over the course of the development management thought, three primary perspectives on management emerged. The earliest of these was classical management perspective. The other two schools of thought are referred to as the behavioural management perspective and the quantitative management perspective.


The Process of Management

The process of management consists of certain basic management functions such as: planning, organizing and controlling, linked together by leading. Planning determines what results the organization will achieve; organizing specifies how it will achieve the results; and controlling determines whether the results are achieved. Throughout planning, organizing and controlling, managers exercise leadership.

The planning function is the capstone activity of management. Planning activities determine an organization’s objectives and establish the appropriate strategies for achieving those objectives. The organizing, leading and controlling functions all derive from planning in that these functions carry out the planning decisions.

After managers develop objectives and plans to achieve the objectives, they must design and develop an organization that will be able to accomplish the objectives. Thus, the purpose of the organizing function is to create a structure of task and authority relationships that serves this purpose.

Once objectives have been developed and the organizational structure has been designed and staffed, the next step is to begin to move the organization toward the objectives. The leading function serves this purpose. Sometimes called directing or motivating, leading involves influencing the members of the organization to perform in that accomplish the organization’s objectives.

Finally, a manager must make sure that the actual performance of the organization conforms to the performance that was planned for the organization. This is the controlling function of management, and it requires three elements: established standards of performance, information that indicates deviations between actual performance and the established standards, and action to correct performance that does not meet the standards. Simply speaking, the purpose of management control is to make sure the organization stays on the path that was planned for it.


What Is a Manager

A number of different terms are used for “manager”, including “director”, “administrator” and “president”. The term “manager” is used more frequently in profit-making organizations, while the others are used more widely in government and non-profit organizations such as universities, hospitals and social work agencies.

What, then, is a manager?

When used collectively the term ''management" refers to those people who are responsible for making and carrying out decisions within the system.

An individual manager is a person who directly supervises people in an organization.

Some basic characteristics seem to apply to managers in all types of organizations. They include hard work on a variety of activities, preference for active tasks, direct personal relationships.

Almost everything a manager does involves decisions. The reason for making a decision is that a problem exists. In decision-making there is always some uncertainty and risk.

Managing is a hard job. There is a lot to be done and relatively little time to do it. The engineer can finish a design on a particular day, and the lawyer can win or lose a case at a certain time. But the manager's job is like "Old Man River" - it just keeps going.




Accounting shows a financial picture of the firm. An accounting department records and measures the activity of a business. It reports on the effects of the transactions on the firm’s financial condition. Accounting records give a very important data. It is used by management, stockholders, creditors, independent analysts, banks and government.

Most businesses prepare regularly the two types of records. That is the income statement and balance sheet. These statements show how money was received and spent by the company.

One major tool for the analysis of accounting records is ratio analysis. A ratio analysis is the relationship of two figures. In finance we operate with three main categories of ratios. One ratio deals with profitability, for example, the Return on Investment Ratio. It is used as a measure of a firms operating efficiency.

The second set of ratios deals with assets and liabilities. It helps a company to evaluate its current financial position. The third set of ratios deals with the overall financial structure of the company. It analyses the value of the ownership of the firm.


Corporations need financing for the purchase of assets and the payment of expenses. The corporations can issue shares in exchange for money or property. Sometimes it is called as equity funding. The holders of the shares form the ownership of the company. Each share is represented by a stock certificate, which is negotiable. It means that one can buy and sell it. The value of a share is determined by the net assets divided by the total number of shares outstanding. The value of the share also depends on the success of the company. The greater the success, the more value the shares have.

A corporation can also get capital by borrowing. It is called debt funding. If a corporation borrows money, they give notes or bonds. They are also negotiable. But the interest has to be paid out whether business is profitable or not.

When running the corporation, management must consider both the outflow and inflow of capital. The outflow is formed by the purchase of inventory and supplies, payment of salaries. The inflow is formed by the sale of goods and services. In the long run the inflow must be greater than the outflow. It results in a profit. In addition, a company must deduct its costs, expenses, and losses on bad debts, interest on borrowed capital and other items. It helps to determine if the financial management has been profitable. The amount of risk involved is also an important factor. It determines the fund rising and it shows if a particular corporation is a good investment.


Market Economy

In a market economy, the questions of What, How and for Whom to produce are made by individuals and firms acting in their own interests. In economic term a market is an arrangement that allows buyers and sellers to come together to conduct transactions.

Since consumers like products with low prices and high quality, producers in a market economy will try to supply such products. Those who make the best products for the lowest prices will make profits and stay in business. Other producers will either go out of business or switch to different products consumer can buy.

A market economy has several major advantages that traditional economy doesn't have. First, a market economy is flexible and can adjust to change over time.

When gas prices in the United States began to level off in 1985 and then decline in 1986, the trend slowly began to reverse.

The second major advantage of the market economy is the freedom that exists for everyone involved. Producers are free to make whatever they think will sell. They are also free to produce their products in the most efficient manner. Consumers on the other hand are free to spend their money or buy whatever goods and services they wish to have.

The third advantage of the market economy is the lack of significant government intervention. Except for national defence, the government tries to stay out of the way. As long as there is competition among producers, the market economy generally takes care of itself.

The final advantage of the market economy is the incredible variety of goods and services available to consumers. In fact, almost any product can and will be produced so long as there is a buyer for it.


Marketing includes all the business activities connected with the movement of goods and services from producers to consumers. Sometimes it is called distribution. On the one hand, marketing is made up of such activities as transporting, storing and selling goods and, on the other hand, a series of decisions you make during the process of moving goods from producer to user. Marketing operations include product planning, buying, storage, pricing, promotion, selling, credit, traffic and marketing research.

The ability to recognize early trends is very important. Producers must know why, where, for what purpose the consumers buy. Market research helps the producer to predict what the people will want. And through advertising he attempts to influence the customer to buy. Marketing operations are very expensive. They take up more than half of the consumer's dollar. The trend in the USA has been to high mass consumption. The construction of good shopping centres has made goods available to consumers. It provided a wide range of merchandise and plenty of parking facilities.


Wholesaling is a part of the marketing system. It provides channels of distribution which help to bring goods to the market. Generally indirect channels are used to market manufactured consumer goods. It could be from the manufacturer to the wholesaler, from the retailer to the consumer or through more complicated channels. A direct channel moves goods from the manufacturer or producer to the consumer.

Wholesaling is often a field of small business, but there is a growing chain movement in the western countries. About a quarter of wholesaling units accounts for one-third of total sales.

Two-third of the wholesaling middleman is merchant wholesalers who take title to the goods they deal in. There are also agent middlemen who negotiate purchases or sales or both. They don't take title to the goods they deal in. Sometimes they take possession though. These agents don't earn salaries. They receive commissions. This is a percentage of the value of the goods they sell.

Wholesalers simplify the process of distribution. For example, the average supermarket stocks 5.000 items in groceries alone, a retail druggist can have more than 6.000 items. As a wholesaler handles a large assortment of items from numerous manufacturers he reduces the problem of both manufacturer and retailer. The store-keeper does not have to deal directly with thousands of different people. He usually has a well-stocked store and deals with only a few wholesalers.



Retailing is selling goods and services to the ultimate consumer. Thus, the retailer is the most expensive link in the chain of distribution. Being middlemen, they make their profit by charging the customer 25 to 100 per cent more than the price they paid for the item.

The retailers operate through stores, mail-order houses, vending machine operators. There are different types of retail stores: department stores, discount houses, cooperatives, single line retailers. The major part (over 95 per cent) of retail establishments concentrate on a single line of merchandise for example, food, hardware, etc. But nowadays there is a trend for many single line stores to take on a greater variety of supplies.

The retailer performs many necessary functions. First, he may provide a convenient location. Second, he often guarantees and services the merchandise he sells. Third, the retailer helps to promote the product through displays, advertising or sales people. Fourth, the retailer can finance the customer by extending credit. Also the retailer stores the goods in his outlet by having goods available.


Human Rights

A right is a freedom of some kind. Human rights are the rights to which everyone is entitled – no matter who they are or where they live – simply because they are human beings.

There are thirty human rights. They include: the right to live in freedom and safety; the right to travel, the right to belong to a country; the right to own things and share them; the right to believe in what you want to believe; and the right to say what you think. They even include the right to do things that you enjoy doing.

During World War II, tens of millions of people died. When the war ended the victorious nations met to decide how to prevent such acts from happening again. They formed the United Nations Organization (UN) to advance human rights and peace. Ukraine was one of the 51 founder states of the UN. It was the only Soviet republic that became a member state alongside with the USSR.

The UN created the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the first truly universal human rights document. The basic laws of many nations today include the rights contained in the Declaration.



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