Complete the sentences with the correct tense of the verb in brackets.

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Complete the sentences with the correct tense of the verb in brackets.

1) We always have to take the bus home. I wish we _____ (not/live) so far from the city centre.

2) We are completely soaked. I wish we _____ (bring) the umbrella.

3) He is always whistling. I wish he _____ (not/do) that all the time.

4) We are having a wonderful holiday on the beach. I wish you _____ (be) here.

5) This computer is useless. I wish my parents _____ (choose) a better one when they bought it.

6) She’s got a new job but she feels bored. She wishes her boss _____ (give) her more responsibility.

7) He is sorry he missed the wedding ceremony. He wishes he _____ (go).

8) I wish my neighbours _____ (not make) so much noise. I can hardly sleep at night.

9) Citizens wish their leaders _____ (start) doing something to improve the economic situation.

10) They have lots of money. Even so, they wish they _____ (have) more and more.

18. Continue the sentences starting with “I wish ...”. The words in brackets will help you to form your sentences.

1) We lost the game yesterday, . . . . . (win)

2) I sat at the back of the hall, and couldn't hear his speech very well, . . . . . (every word)

3) The sea is rough, we can't sail to the island, . . . . . (calm)

4) There were no taxis, so I had to walk from the station, . . . . . (find)

5) I went to bed very late last night, and I'm half asleep this morning, . . . . . (so late)

6) I could only answer three of the questions at the last examination, . . . . . (all of them)

7) The box was heavy, I couldn't carry it. . . . . . (help me)

8) My father gave me some good advice, but I didn't take it. . . . . .(his advice)

9) One of my friends went to London for a holiday last summer, but I couldn't go. . . . (with him)

10) Why didn't you watch the cat? It ate all the fish. I'm so angry with you. . . . . . (more attentive)

Translate into English using “wish”.

1) Шкода, що я не можу піти в кіно з вами.

2) Добре було б, якби Пітер був художником.

3) Шкода, що в мене вчора був не вихідний день.

4) Шкода, що в тебе не було часу допомогти мені.

5) Добре було б, якби він завжди приходив вчасно.

6) Якби лише я знав відповідь на твоє питання.

7) Джек хотів би вміти плавати.

8) Шкода, що ми не поїхали з вами в Карпати.

9) Шкода, що вона не знайшла тоді свого друга.

10) Добре було б, якби ти міг допомогти мені вирішити цю проблему.


Unit 18 Sustainable Agriculture
  Vocabulary in Use Sustainable Agriculture Sustainable Livestock Husbandry Language Focus Sequence of Tenses. Reported Speech

Vocabulary In Use

1. Find the Ukrainian equivalents in the right-hand column for the following:

1) sustainable agriculture 2) future generation 3) biodiversity 4) conservation tillage 5) food security 6) growth promoter 7) value chain 8) depleted soil a) активатор росту b) продовольча безпека c) альтернативне (екологічно-раціональне) сільське господарство d) виснажений ґрунт e) ланцюг створення вартості f) прийдешнє покоління g) біорозмаїття h) збереження орного шару

Match the words to their definitions.

1) ecosystem 2) deforestation 3) erosion 4) monoculture a) destruction of forests by human beings and their replacement by agricultural systems; b) the continuous growing of one type of crop c) a community of organisms interacting with each other and with their environment d) the process by which soil is gradually destroyed by wind or rain

3. Match the words with similar meanings:

1) demand 2) livelihood 3) impact 4) core 5) erosion 6) confinement 7) welfare a) income b) restriction c) centre d) destruction e) requirement f) wellbeing g) influence

4. Underline the words that mean good for the environment’:


environmentally friendly contaminated  
  hazardous eco-friendly
sustainable   recyclable  
polluted biodegradable
renewable   organic

Fill in the words from the list.

environment generations agroecology pasture techniques tillage


Farmers of sustainable agriculture look at agriculture and ecology together, and refer to it as 1) ____. By using farming 2) ____ such as crop rotation, conservation 3) ____, raising animals on 4) ____ and natural fertilization, sustainable farmers produce food without having a negative effect on the 5) ____. Instead of harming soil, air and water, sustainable farms actually enhance and preserve the land so that future 6) ____ can continue to use it for food production.


READING AND speaking

Read the following text.

Sustainable Agriculture

The world’s population is expected to rise dramatically over the next 40 years, to 9.2 billion by 2050. At the same time, economic development will lead to an increase in demand for meat, dairy, vegetables and fruit. To feed the world and to feed it well, global food production will need to double by 2050. The problem, however, is that half of the habitable land on Earth is already used for farming. As resources are limited, the challenge is to achieve global food security while having a positive impact on the environment and society. Sustainable agricultural practices provide the solution.

In simplest terms, sustainable agriculture is the production of food, fibre, or other plant or animal products using farming techniques that protect the environment, public health, human communities, and animal welfare. This form of agriculture enables us to produce healthful food without compromising future generations' ability to do the same.

Sustainable agriculture takes many forms, but at its core is a rejection of the industrial approach to food production developed during the 20th century. This system, with its reliance on monoculture, mechanization, chemical pesticides and fertilizers, biotechnology, and government subsidies, has made food abundant and affordable. However, the ecological and social price has been steep: erosion; depleted and contaminated soil and water resources; loss of biodiversity; deforestation; and the decline of the family farm.

Sustainable farms produce crops and raise animals without relying on toxic chemical pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, genetically modified seeds, or practices that degrade soil, water, or other natural resources. By growing a variety of plants and using techniques such as crop rotation, conservation tillage, and pasture-based livestock husbandry, sustainable farms protect biodiversity and foster the development and maintenance of healthy ecosystems.

Food production should never come at the expense of human health. Since sustainable crop farms avoid hazardous pesticides, they're able to grow fruits and vegetables that are safer for consumers, workers, and surrounding communities. Likewise, sustainable livestock farmers and ranchers raise animals without dangerous practices like antibiotics or growth promoters. They treat animals with care and respect. By raising livestock on pasture, these farmers enable their animals to move freely, engage in instinctive behaviors, consume a natural diet, and avoid the stress and illness associated with confinement.

A critical component of sustainable agriculture is its ability to remain economically viable, providing farmers, farmworkers, food processors, and others employed in the food system with a livable wage and safe, fair working conditions. Sustainable farms also support local and regional economies, creating good jobs and building strong communities.

As it can be seen sustainable agriculture gives equal weight to environmental, social, and economic concerns in agriculture - all three must be considered together. Focusing on one or two in isolation will not give the desired results. From an ecological perspective, sustainable agriculture must contribute to conserving and improving soil fertility and water quality, restoring biodiversity and making economical use of energy. The social dimension covers labour rights and the health of communities, including access to and affordability of food, labour rights and community health. Food quality, safety and animal welfare are also important social aspects. On the economic side, sustainable agriculture is productive, efficient and competitive. The benefits should be seen in farm profitability, in thriving local economies, and throughout the whole value chain.

Answer the questions.

1) Why is it necessary to increase food production in the world?

2) What is sustainable agriculture?

3) What does industrial farming rely on?

4) What are the consequences of factory farms’ activity?

5) What techniques are used by sustainable crop farms?

6) In what way do sustainable livestock farmers raise animals?

7) What are the three concerns considered by sustainable agriculture?

8. The primary benefits of sustainable agriculture are:

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