Exercise 4. Read and translate the text.



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Exercise 4. Read and translate the text.



Mykola Ivanovich Pirogov

Mykola Ivanovich Pirogov was a prominent Russian scientist, doctor, and pedagogue. He was born in Moscow in 1810. He is considered to be the most famous personality in the history of Russian medicine and the greatest of all Russian surgeons.

Pirogov was the 13-th child in the family. His father died in 1824, leaving his family without means. M. Pirogov intended to become a civil servant. However, the family doctor Efrem Mukhin, who was a professor of anatomy and physiology at Moscow University, persuaded the authorities to accept him as a student of the Medical Faculty of Moscow University in 1825, even though Pirogov was only fourteen.

Pirogov decided to specialize as a surgeon when he completed his studies in 1828. He was sent to Dorpat (now Tartu) to complete further studies. In 1832 he defended his doctor’s thesis.

He travelled in Germany, visiting the Universities of Berlin and Göttingen to observe the state of surgery, and became a professor at the German University of Dorpat in 1836, aged only 26.

In 1840 Pirogov took up an appointment as professor of surgery at the academy of military medicine in Saint Petersburg.

Pirogov worked as an army surgeon in the Caucasian war in 1847, in the Crimean war in 1854, in the Franco-Prussian war in 1870, and in the Russian-Turkish war in 1877. From his work in the Crimea, he is considered to be the father of field surgery.

Pirogov also originated the intravenous administration of ether as an anesthetic. He was the first surgeon to use anesthesia in a field operation. From 1848 he conducted an important investigation of cholera, based on almost 800 sections.

Pirogov’s work during the Crimean War is of such importance that he is considered to be the founder of field surgery. Pirogov was the first to use the plaster cast in field conditions. He conceived the technique of plaster casting while observing the work of a sculptor.

At that time Pirogov also developed a new method for amputation of the foot, known as the “Pirogov’s amputation”.

He returned to Saint Petersburg after the end of the Crimean war in 1856, but withdrew from the academy. He wrote a paper on the problems of pedagogy, arguing for the education of the poor, non-Russians, and women. While living in Odessa, Pirogov resided at Deribasovskaya, 31 and first suggested the formation of Odessa State Medical University (as the medical faculty of Novorossiysk University).

In 1861 he retired to his estate in Vishnya in central Ukraine. He treated the local peasants, established a clinic, and learnt the Ukrainian language as a show of respect. Now the Pirogov Museum exists at his former estate.

 

Exercise 5. Answer the following questions:

1. Who was M. I. Pirogov?

2. When and where was he born?

3. At what age did he become a professor?

4. Why is Pirogov considered to be the father of field surgery?

5. What did Pirogov develop while observing the work of a sculptor?

6. What disease did Pirogov investigate?

7. What exists at the place of Pirogov’s former estate?

 

Exercise 6. Translate into English:

Мати намір стати державним службовцем, студент медичного факультету Московського університету, завершити подальше навчання, захистити докторську дисертацію, військова медицина, польова хірургія, гіпсова пов’зка, працювати в якості військового хірурга, запропонувати створення медичного факультету, заснувати клініку, знак поваги, освіта для бідних.

 

Exercise 7. Match the terms with their explanations:

1. surgery 2. aorta 3. anesthesia 4. amputation 5. cholera 6. ether a) a liquid used as an anesthetic; b) the removal of any part of the body; c) the branch of medicine that treats injuries or diseases by operation; d) an acute infectious disease affecting the small intestine; e) the main artery of the body; f) the technique of reducing an individual’s sensation of pain.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
           
             

 

Exercise 8. Put up questions to the underlined words:

1. Efrem Mukhin persuaded the authorities to accept Pirogov as a student at the age of 14.

2. His father died in 1824.

3. Pirogov worked as an army surgeon in the Crimean War.

4. From 1836 to 1840 Pirogov worked at the German University of Dorpat.

5. His experience in field surgery became well-known abroad.

6. Pirogov performed 12,000 dissections.

7. He treated the local peasants.

8. Pirogov originated the intravenous administration of ether.

 

Exercise 9. Use verbs in brackets in proper tense forms. Translate the sentences:

1. M.I.Pirogov (to be) a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of sciences.

2. Pirogov (to be) a heavy smoker and (to die) of cancer.

3. To prevent infections Pirogov (to use) substances which (to be) still in use today.

4. Pirogov (to treat) Giuseppe Garibaldi for a trauma of his foot.

5. In 1840 the minister Kleinminchel (to invite) Pirogov to work in St. Petersburg.

6. Later Pirogov (to test) and (to begin) using another anesthetic – chloroform.

7. The Pirogov Museum (to exist) in Vinnitsa now.

 

Extecise 10. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple Active or Passive:

1. Pirogov’s lectures (to attend) not only by medical students, but also by other people.

2. Newspapers (to dedicate) him articles, comparing the surgeon’s lectures with performance of famous Italian singer.

3. The surgeon (to accept) all appointments in hospitals, consulting local medics.

4. Pirogov’s project of first Anatomy Institute in the world (to approve) by the tsar.

5. He (to invent) equipment for performing fast and accurate surgical operations.

6. As soon as Nikolay Pirogov (to send) to Caucasus, he (to start) performing surgery on wounded soldiers.

7. Once his activities (to provoke) a conflict with local authorities, and Pirogov (to force) to leave his position.

 

Exercise 11. Insert prepositions:

1. … the age …14 Pirogov entered the faculty of medicine in Moscow State University.

2. The boy got a position … prosector … local anatomy theatre.

3. The job gave him a priceless experience … anatomy and promoted his desire to become a surgeon.

4. Pirogov graduated … the university among best students.

5. The young man spent 5 years … local surgery clinic and brilliantly defended his PhD, becoming Doctor of Medicine.

6. His dissertation was dedicated … abdominal aorta bandaging.

7. The surgeon went … France, and … 1841 was invited to head surgery department … St. Petersburg Academy … Surgery and Medicine.

8. … his clinic the medic founded another branch … medical science – hospital surgery.

 

Exercise 12. Tell about M.I. Pirogov according to the plan:

· Pirogov’s family

· Studies of the future scientist

· Pirogov’s investigations and achievements

 

Завдання для самостійної роботи студента (СРС)

I. Перекладіть словосполучення: проводити дослідження холери захистити докторську дисертацію використовувати гіпсову пов’язку засновник польової хірургії запропонувати створення медичного факультету заснувати клініку застосовувати анестетики військова медицина започаткувати внутрішньовенне застосування ефіру розробити новий метод ампутації   II. Дайте відповіді на питання: When and where was Pirogov born? What was N.I. Pirogov famous for? What important investigation did N.I. Pirogov conduct? Why is N.I. Pirogov considered to be the founder of field surgery? What did Pirogov suggest to create in Odessa?   III. Розкажіть про життя і творчу діяльність М.І.Пирогова.

 

 

 

Hippocrates

 

Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary:

accurately adv. [ˈækjərətli] точно, правильно
cleanliness n. [ˈklɪnlɪnəs] чистота
conclude v. [kənˈkluːd] дійти до висновку, завершити
соре with v. ['kəup wɪð] подолати
disfavor n. [dɪsˈfeɪvə] немилість
evil adj. [ˈiːv(ə)l] злий
explanation n. [ɛkspləˈneɪʃ(ə)n] пояснення
holistic adj. [həʊˈlɪstɪk] цілісний, глобальний
possession n. [pəˈzeʃən] одержимість
postpartum adj. [pəʊstˈpɑːtəm] післяпологовий
reject v. [rɪˈdʒɛkt] відкидати, не приймати
seizure n. [ˈsiːʒə] напад
superstition n. [ˌsuːpəˈstɪʃ(ə)n] забобон

Exercise 2. Speak correctly:

Hippocrates [hıʹpɒkrəti:z], epilepsy [ˈepɪlepsi], pneumonia [njuːˈməʊnɪə], throughout [θruːˈaʊt], melancholia [ˌmɛlənˈkəʊlɪə], mania [ˈmeɪnɪə], phobia [ˈfəʊbɪə], paranoia [ˌparəˈnɔɪə], hysteria [hɪˈstɪərɪə], oath [‘əʊθ], psychology [sʌɪˈkɒlədʒi], temperament [ˈtɛmp(ə)rəm(ə)nt].

Exercise 3. Form nouns with the help of suffixes. Translate them:

Model:to recommend (рекомендувати) – recommendation (рекомендація)

- tion/sion: to manifest, to consider, to observe, to correct, to explain, to reject, to examine, to administer.

- ment: to improve, to enlarge, to impair, to establish, to treat, to measure, to develop, to require.

 

Exercise 4. Translate the following word combinations:

The founder of medicine, medical practice, the study of the human body, to be based on observations, to reject the views of his time, to present clear descriptions, to be caused by superstition, by possession of evil spirits, tо be in disfavor of the gods, natural healing process, to cope with disease, postpartum depression, holistic treatment.

Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:

Hippocrates

Hippocrates was a Greek physician born in 460 ВС on the island of Cost, Greece. He became known as the founder of medicine and was regarded as the greatest physician of his time. He based his medical practice on observations and on the study of the human body. He held the belief that disease had а physical and a rational explanation. He rejected the views of his time that considered illness to be caused by superstitions and by possession of evil spirits and disfavor of the gods.

Hippocrates was able to draw some accurate conclusions from his observations. He concluded correctly, that the right side of the body is controlled by the left side of the brain, and the left side of the body by the brain’s right side. He presented clear descriptions of melancholia, mania, postpartum depression, phobias, paranoia, and hysteria.

Hippocrates held the belief that the body must be treated as а whole and not just a series of parts. Не accurately described disease symptoms and was the first physician to accurately describe the symptoms of pneumonia, as well as epilepsy in children. He believed in the natural healing process of rest, a good diet, fresh air and cleanliness. He noted that there were individual differences in the severity of disease symptoms and that some individuals were better able to cope with their disease and illness than others. He was also the first physician that held the belief that thoughts, ideas and feelings come from the brain and not the heart as others of him time believed. Hippocrates traveled throughout Greece practicing his medicine.

Нippocrates founded medical school on the island of Cost, Greece and began teaching his ideas. In the 5th century BC Hippocrates developed an Oath of Medical Ethics for physicians to follow. Since that time it is called Hippocratic Oath. “ I shall enter any house for the good of the patient, I shall not do my patient any harm” – these are the words from the Hippocrates Oath. This Oath is taken by physicians today as they begin their medical practice. The oath has been modified numerous times. When the Oath was rewritten in 1964, that version has been widely accepted and is still in use today by many medical schools.

Hippocrates died in 377 ВС. Тоday Hippocrates is known as the "Father of Medicine". He might also be regarded as an ancient “father of psychology”. He described natural causes of psychological conditions, recommended holistic treatments, presented the first clear descriptions of many behavioral problems, and formulated long-lasting theories of temperament and motivation.

 

Exercise 6. Answer the questions:

1. Who was Hippocrates?

2. When and where was Hippocrates born?

3. Why is he regarded as the founder of medicine?

4. What did Hippocrates base his medical practice on?

5. Symptoms of what diseases were described by Hippocrates?

6. What was his contribution to psychology?

7. What is Hippocrates famous for?

8. What is said in Hippocrates Oath?

9. What Oath did Hippocrates develop?

10. What were Hippocrates innovations?

 

Exercise 7. Match the following Ukrainian words and word combinations with the English ones:

1. observations and study a) різниця у тяжкості симптомів хвороби
2. a rational explanation b) післяпологова депресія
3. to reject the views c) спостереження та вивчення
4. to draw a conclusion d) раціональне пояснення
5. differences in the severity of disease symptoms e) пояснення проблем поведінки
6. natural causes of psychological conditions f) прийти до висновку
7. description of behavioral problems g) впоратися з хворобою
8. to take an Oath h) природні причини психологічних станів
9. postpartum depression i) заперечувати точку зору
10. to cope with their disease j) давати клятву

Exercise 8. Complete the following sentences according to the text:

1. Hippocrates was a Greek physician born in....

2. Не was regarded as the ... of his time.

3. Hippocrates held the belief that the body must be... and not just à series of parts.

4. Не was the first physician to accurately describe ....

5.... in the severity of disease symptoms.

6. Hippocrates traveled throughout Greece ....

7. Не soon developed ... to follow.

8. Today Hippocrates is known as ....

 

Exercise 9. Match the following terms with their definition:

1. melancholia 2. phobias 3. psychology 4. paranoia 5. pneumonia 6. epilepsy 7. temperament a) the way you tend to behave or the types of emotions you tend to exhibit; b) an inflammatory condition of the lung, mainly alveoli; c) a group of neurological disorders characterized by seizures; d) a mental condition characterized by extreme depression; e) a mental disorder with delusions or extreme irrational fear or distrust of others; f) a persistent and abnormal fear of a specific thing or situation; g) a scientific study of mental functions and behaviors.

 

Exercise 10. Translate into English:

Впоратися з хворобою, подорожувати світом, тяжкість симптомів хвороби, медична практика, базуватися на дослідженнях, бути у немилості, раціональне пояснення, давати клятву, заснувати медичну школу, найвидатніший вчений, заперечувати точку зору, точно описати симптоми хвороби, процес загоєння, епілепсія у дітей, післяпологова депресія, довготривала теорія.

Exercise 11. Translate the words given in italics into English. Translate the whole sentences into your native language:

1. The students точно описали симптоми хвороби.

2. Різниця у тяжкості симптомів хвороби depends upon the health and heredity of the patient.

3. The doctors прийшли до висновку that the patient should undergo surgery.

4. Процес загоєння of the wound was delayed by infection.

5. Pirogov заснував медичну школу for nurses to take care about the wounded.

6. Hippocrates gave пояснення проблем поведінки in different people.

7. Спостереження та вивчення of the human body gave Hippocrates opportunity to define different diseases.

8. Hippocrates заперечував точку зору that diseases were caused by the disfavor of the gods.

Exercise 12. Insert the prepositions where it is necessary:

1. Hippocrates was a Greek physician born 460 ВС ... the island ... Соst, Greece.

2. He is known ... an ancient “father of psychology”.

3. He based his medical practice ... observations and the study ... the human body.

4. Не believed ... the natural healing process ... rest, a good diet, fresh air and cleanliness.

5. Не noted that some individuals were better able to соре ... their disease and illness than others.

6. Не founded а mediсаl school ... the island of Cost, Greece.

7. This Oath is taken ... physicians today as they begin their medical practice.

8. He described natural causes ... psychological conditions.

 

Exercise 13. Choose the one correct title that fits the description:

Model: He treats children's diseases.

a. He is an orthopaedist. b. He is a pediatrician. c. He is a pathologist.

 

1. He corrects deformities of the body.

a. He is a gynaecologist. b. He is an orthopaedist. c. He is a pathologist.

 

2. He is a medical doctor who specializes in diseases of the eye.

a. He is an oculist. b. He is an optician. c. He is an orthopaedist.

 

3. He specializes in disorders of the mind.

a. He is an intern. b. He is a psychiatrist. c. He is a physiotherapist.

 

4. His specialty is taking and interpreting X rays.

a. He is a gynaecologist. b. He is a neurologist. c. He is a radiologist.

 

5. He specializes in diseases of the nervous system.

a. He is a cardiologist. b. He is a dermatologist. c. He is a neurologist.

 

6. He treats diseases of old age.

a. He is a cardiologist. b. He is a geriatrician. c. He is a pediatrician.

 

7. He specializes in skin diseases.

a. He is a dermatologist. b. He is a geriatrician. c. He is a pathologist.

 

8. He brings children into the world.

a. He is a gynaecologist. b. He is an obstetrician. c. He is a pediatrician.

Exercise 14. Translate the sentences paying attention to Gerund:

Model: Reading of scientific journals is useful. – Читання наукових журналів дуже корисно.

I like being read. – Я люблю,коли мені читають.

1. Writing case history took the intern much time.

2. They insisted on calling a doctor.

3. He looks like being seriously ill.

4. The students understood the text without translatingit.

5. Becominga doctor is a dream for millions of students around the world.

6. He began treating patients by the use of antibiotics.

7. The surgeon started performing the operation.

8. The doctor insisted on operating this patient immediately.

Exercise 15. Complete the sentences with the Gerund form of the verbs in parentheses:

1. She is good at (give) injections.

2. He is crazy about (study) Histology.

3. The students continued (to ask) the professor many questions about Hippocrates.

4. They are afraid of (make) dissections.

5. You should give up (smoke).

6. Sam dreams of (be) a neurosurgeon.

7. He is interested in (perform) operations.

8. Doctors generally advise (to do) physical exercises.

 

Exercise 16. Put questions to underlined words:

1. Hippocrates was born in 460 ВС on the island of Cost, Greece.

2. He became known as the founder of medicine.

3. Observations were the basis of his medical practice.

4. He held the belief that illness had а physical and a rational explanation.

5. Hippocrates was able to draw some accurate conclusions from his observations.

6. The right side of the body is controlled by the left side of the brain.

7. He presented clear descriptions of melancholia, mania, postpartum depression, phobias, paranoia, and hysteria.

8. Hippocrates is regarded as an ancient “father of psychology”.

Exercise 17. Open the brackets (active or passive is possible) and translate the sentences into your native language.:

1. The patient (not to take) this medication now.

2. The diagnosis (to confirm) by the results of analyses.

3. After the drug, taken an hour ago, the patient (to feel) much better.

4. The drug (to store) in a place protected from light.

5. The human organism (to fight) against the microorganisms.

6. The professor (to deliver) an interesting lecture in Biology in 2 days.

7. A formal and serious promise to tell the truth or to do something (to call) the oath.

8. The Institute of Eye diseases (to found) in Odesa by Filatov.

Exercise 18. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Гіппократа вважають першим лікарем, який відкинув забобони й віру, що хвороба є породженням божественної сили.

2. Клятву Гіппократа було написано у 5 сторіччі.

3. Текст клятви було багато разів змінено та переписано.

4. Гіппократ поділяв причини хвороб на загальні (вплив пори року, клімату, води, і так далі) і індивідуальні (вік, стать, темперамент, звички, недостатність або відсутність фізичних вправ і так далі).

5. Він вважав, що надмірне вживання алкоголю є важливим фактором слабкості і захворювань.

6. Гіппократ розробив етологію хвороб, що не було пов’язано з карою богів.

7. Я увійду у кожен будинок на благо пацієнта.

8. Я не спричиню пацієнту ніякої шкоди.

 

Exercise 19. Speak about Hippocrates answering the following questions:

1. What is an oath?

2. Who is the author if the Oath of Medical Ethics?

3. When was this Oath written?

4. What is said in this Oath?

5. When do the students take this Oath?

 

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

I. Перекладіть словосполучення: різниця у тяжкості симптомів хвороби прийти до висновку раціональне пояснення заснувати медичну школу процес загоєння описати симптоми хвороби давати клятву заперечувати точку зору пояснення проблем поведінки спостереження та вивчення   II. Дайте відповідь на питання: What were Hippocrates innovations? Why is Hippocrates regarded as the founder of medicine? What was Hippocrates contribution to psychology? What is said in Hippocrates Oath? Symptoms of what diseases were described by Hippocrates?   III. Розкрийте поняття:клятва Гіппократа

 


Health Care in Ukraine

 

Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary:

acute, adj [əˈkjuːt] гострий
curative, adj [ˈkjʊərətɪv] лікувальний, цілющий
detection, n [dɪˈtɛkʃ(ə)n] розкриття, виявлення
environment, n [ɪnˈvʌɪrənm(ə)nt] середовище, оточення
inherited, adj [ɪnˈhɛrɪtɪd] успадкований
invasive, adj [ɪnˈveɪsɪv] агресивний
majority, n [məˈdʒɒrɪti] більшість
network, n [ˈnɛtwəːk] мережа
preventive, n [prɪˈvɛntɪv] профілактичний
prophylaxis, n [ˌprɒfɪˈlæksɪs] профілактика
purpose, n [ˈpəːpəs] мета, намір; задум
unfavourable, adj [ʌnˈfeɪv(ə)rəb(ə)l] несприятливий

Exercise 2. Read the following word-combinations and translate them into Ukrainian:

Acute:acute alcoholism, acute mixture, acute myocardial infarction, acute stage of disease.

Environment: internal environment, physical environment, biological environment, healthy environment.

Considerable:considerable attention, considerable danger, considerable discomfort, considerable weight.

Purpose:all-purpose, general purpose, dual purpose, purpose-built.

Exercise 3. Translate the word combinations and translate them into Ukrainian:

Invasive investigations; to be able to work; deep changes; to touch upon; preventive and curative; a wide network; distinctive feature; to pay attention; health care; insurance medicine; rural (hospital); emergency service, maternity home; to manage illness.

Exercise 4. Form adjectives from the verbs using the suffix -able (-ible). Translate them:

E.g.:understand – understandable (розуміти – зрозумілий).

Separate, break, change, read, recognize, work, count, teach, comfort, cure, move, observe, prevent, use, treat, consider, response, notice, depend, control.

Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:

Health Care in Ukraine

At the beginning of the third millennium Ukraine is facing deep changes and reforms in all spheres of political, economic and public life. These changes touch upon medicine as well, and health service in particular. The Constitution of Ukraine adopted on June 28, 1996 guarantees the rights of Ukrainian citizens to life, health protection, medical care and medical insurance, safe and healthy environment.

The present health service in Ukraine both preventive and curative was inherited from the former state. It was available to the whole population. It is an establishment and support of strong post graduate programs for training in family medicine, introducing insurance medicine, the creation of a wide network of private consulting rooms, dental and eye surgery etc. They are equipped with modern apparatus and devices, but their services are very expensive for the majority of the Ukrainian population. Many people still go to the state hospitals and polyclinics for their medical needs.

The most distinctive feature of health service in our country is prophylaxis of different diseases, the early detection of the first signs of the disease. Much attention is paid to popularization of medical science among the population. For this purpose the press, cinema, radio and TV programs are very helpful.

The basic medical units in our country are rural, district, regional or municipal polyclinics. The hospitals have different departments, which specialize in the treatment of particular diseases. In case of emergency you may dial 103 for the ambulance to come, which operates day and night and is free of charge, except private emergency service, for example “Borys” in Kyiv or “Into-Sana” in Odessa.

Special attention is paid to the health of mother and child. Maternity homes, Mother-and-Child Health Care Centres concentrate their efforts on the problems of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology. These problems are especially acute now when the majority of our population lives under ecologically unfavorable conditions and the questions of demography are of deep national concern.

A doctor in the modern world should develop the basic skills necessary to exclude serious illnesses, to diagnose early, to treat common health problems without expensive, sometimes invasive investigations and therapies, to manage chronic illnesses.

Ukrainian society needs citizens who are healthy, educated, motivated, and able to work for their country.

Exercise 6. Answer the questions to the text:

1. What does the Ukrainian Constitution guarantee?

2. How can the present day health service be described?

3. What is the most distinctive feature of health service?

4. What efforts are made for mother and child health care?

5. What are the basic medical units in Ukraine?

6. What kind of skills should a modern day doctor have?

7. What should a person do in case of emergency?

8. What is the cost of medical help in Ukraine?

 

Exercise 7. Give English equivalents of the following word combinations:

Спеціалізуватися на лікуванні; медичні потреби; відмінна особливість; раннє виявлення ознак захворювання; здорове навколишнє середовище; охорона здоров'я; профілактична та лікувальна медицина; загальні проблеми зі здоров'ям; страхова медицина; сімейна медицина; укомплектований сучасною апаратурою; державні лікарні і поліклініки; працювати цілодобово; приватна служба швидкої допомоги; пологовий будинок; сільські, районні і обласні поліклініки.

 

Exercise 8. Divide the given words into the table and translate them into Ukrainian:

Whole, inherited, sign, right, concern, effort, constantly, unfavourable, care, healthy, need, common, treatment, diagnose, distinctive, emerge, basic, operate, treat, practice, static, consulting, face, act, adopt, support, state, dial, considerable.

Noun Adjective Verb
     

 



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