Exercise 13. Read the following information, get ready to define terms “neuron”, “nervous system”.

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Exercise 13. Read the following information, get ready to define terms “neuron”, “nervous system”.

1. A neuron is a nerve cell that is the basic building block of the nervous system. Neurons are similar to other cells in the human body in a number of ways, but there is one key difference between neurons and other cells. Neurons are specialized to transmit information throughout the body.

These highly specialized nerve cells are responsible for communicating information in both chemical and electrical forms. There are also several different types of neurons responsible for different tasks in the human body.

Sensory neurons carry information from the sensory receptor cells throughout the body to the brain. Motor neurons transmit information from the brain to the muscles of the body. Interneurons are responsible for communicating information between different neurons in the body.


2. The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body. Together, these organs are responsible for the control of the body and communication among its parts. The brain and spinal cord form the control center known as the central nervous system, where information is evaluated and decisions made. The sensory nerves and sense organs of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) monitor conditions inside and outside of the body and send this information to the CNS. Efferent nerves in the PNS carry signals from the control center to the muscles, glands, and organs to regulate their functions.


Завдання для самостійної роботи студента (СРС)

I. Перекладіть словосполучення: головний і спинний мозок діяльність організму м’яз, що довільно скорочується відповідати за рухи ланцюг нервових вузлів умовний рефлекс мимовільні рухи передавати електричні нервові імпульси чутливість до подразників провокувати реакцію в клітині або тканині   II. Дайте відповіді на запитання: What is the main function of the nervous system? What is the central nervous system formed by? How are nerve cells called? What works in balance with sympathetic nervous system? What reflexes are called conditional?   III. Розкрийте поняття: Нервова система Нейрон


The Brain

Exercise 1. Topical vocabulary:

afferent, adj. ['æf(ə)rənt] аферентний, доцентровий
consciousness, n ['kɔnʃəsnɪs] свідомість
core, n [kɔ:] ядро
enclosed, adj. [in'kləʊzd] закритий, обгороджений
interpret, v [ɪn'tɜːprɪt] тлумачити; пояснювати
medulla, n [me'dʌlə] кістковий мозок; спинний мозок
reasoning, n ['riːz(ə)nɪŋ] міркування
sensory, adj. ['sens(ə)ri] чутливий
stimulus, n ['stɪmjələs] стимул; подразник
touch, n [tʌʧ] дотик, торкання


Exercise 2. Make nouns from the given verbs by means of noun-forming suffixes:

Diagnose, examine, prescribe, suffer, connect, move, recover, analyze, replace, communicate, weigh, improve, protect, solve, connect, discover, remove, compose, mix, circulate, transmit.


Exercise 3. Guess the meaning of the words without a dictionary:

Vital, membranous, circulatory, nervous, mass, formation, respiration, analyze, mixture, composition, diagnose, fibrous, functioning, portion, systemic, cerebral, electrochemical, component, emotion, memory.


Exercise 4. Translate into Ukrainian:

a core of grey matter, average brain weight, bundles of nerves, medulla oblongata, afferent fibers, sensory centers, voluntary muscles, nerve stimulus, vital functions, reflex movement, to be enclosed in vertebral column, complex network of cells, layers of membrane, vital functions, sight and hearing; smell, touch and taste; will power and consciousness; respiration and circulation; entire system.


Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:

The Brain

The brain (cerebrum) is the enlarged and highly developed mass of nervous tissue that forms the upper end of the central nervous system. The average adult human brain weighs about 1400 g and is continuous below with the spinal cord. The spinal cord is the portion of the central nervous system enclosed in the vertebral column, consisting of nerve cells and bundles of nerves connecting all parts of the body with the brain. It contains a core of grey matter and is enveloped in three layers of membrane (the meninges) and extends from the medulla oblongata in the skull to the level of the second lumbar vertebra.

The brain is a complicated organ which consists of grey matter or nerve cells on the surface, and white matter or nerve fibers in the center. It contains many important nerve centers which make it not only the largest but the most important part of the brain.

The functions of the brain.The role of nervous system in our body is often compared to that of a centralized computer which controls the functioning of an entire system. The nervous system plays an important role in the smooth functioning of the different parts of our body. It is basically a complex network of cells with specialized functions. These cells communicate with each other by means of electrochemical waves. The neurons are the important components of the nervous system.

Central nervous system is the seat of all sensation due to the bringing in of the stimuli from the tissues by afferent fibers to the sensory centers of the brain. These stimuli pass through three or more afferent neurons before they reach the sensory centers of the cerebrum. Central nervous system controls all movements of voluntary muscles – muscles of the head, limbs and trunk. Movement is due to nerve stimulus. Movement is classified as voluntary and reflex one. The brain is the special seat of all the special senses – sight, hearing, smell, touch, and taste. The brain is the seat of all the higher mental powers – reasoning, will power, consciousness, memory, emotions, etc. The brain also controls the vital functions of the respiration and circulation, the controlling centers being located in the medulla.


Exercise 6. Answer the questions:

1. What is the brain?

2. What is the average weight of the human brain?

3. What is the spinal cord like?

4. Where does the spine extend?

5. What parts does the brain comprise?

6. What is the most important part of the brain?

7. What is the role of nervous system in the body?

8. What processes does CNS control?

9. What is movement due to?


Exercise 7. Translate into English:

Cпинний і головний мозок, складна сітка клітин, складний орган, електрохімічні хвилі, цілісна система, контролюючі центри, жмутик нервових волокон, вільне функціонування, безумовні рефлекси, ядро сірої речовини мозку, рух, подразник, життєво важлива функція, міркування, свідомість, пам’ять, чутливі нейрони, мимовільний рух.


Exercise 8. Complete the sentences:

1. The role of nervous system is compared to…

2. The brain forms…

3. The spinal cord is enclosed…

4. Nervous system plays an important role in…

5. … are important components of the nervous system.

6. The cells communicate by means of…

7. The brain also controls the vital…

8. … is classified as voluntary and reflex one.


Exercise 9. Match terms with their definitions:

1. consciousness 2. spinal cord 3. sensitivity 4. stimulus 5. brain 6. memory 7. medulla a) It is the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate animals. It is located in the head, usually close to the primary sensory organs for such senses as vision, hearing, balance, taste, and smell; b) It is the ability to remember past experiences, and the power or process of recalling to mind previously learned facts, experiences, impressions, skills and habits; c) In physiology it is a detectable change in the internal or external environment; d) The ability of an organism or organ to respond to external stimuli; e) It is the quality or state of being aware of an external object or something within oneself; f) It is the part of the brainstem that is situated between the pons and the spinal cord; g) It is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.


Exercise 10. Choose the proper word from the given below to complete the sentences:

1.The brain and the spinal cord form the … nervous system.

2. The nerves which connect the brain and structures of the head are … .

3. An immediate response of the body to a stimulus is a … action.

4. A stimulus is received by a … .

5. Nerve cells are known as … .

6. Normally nerve cells are divided into motor, autonomous and … .

7. In the spinal cord, neuronal cell bodies are known as … .

8. A collection of neuronal cell bodies lying outside the CNS is called ... .

9. The internal environment of the body is controlled by the … nervous system.

10.Nerves which supply the body wall, skeletal muscle and skin are … nerves.

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