Exercise 2. Complete the four conversations. Use the phrases in the box.



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Exercise 2. Complete the four conversations. Use the phrases in the box.



Реєстр. № 1/964 – 07.02.2013

Методичні рекомендації

до практичних занять

 

 

з дисципліни ділова іноземна мова (англійська)

для студентів4-5 курсу

для спеціальності 8.18010010 Якість, стандартизація та сертифікація

галузі знань 1801 Специфічні категорії

факультету Технологій і дизайну

 

Херсон – 2013


Методичні рекомендації до практичних занять з дисципліни ділова іноземна мова (англійська) .

Укладач : викладач Морозова Т. О. кількість сторінок 104.

 

 

Рецензент: канд. філол. наук., доц. Возненко Н.В.

 

Затверджено

на засіданні кафедри іноземних мов

протокол №

Зав. кафедри ___________________

канд. філол. наук., доц. Подвойська О.В.

 

 

Відповідальний за випуск канд. філол. наук., доц. Подвойська О.В.


Вступ до методичних рекомендацій

 

Методичні рекомендації до практичних занять призначені для навчання студентів спеціальності “8.18010010 Якість, стандартизація та сертифікація” діловому спілкуванню англійською мовою та спрямовані наформування комунікативної компетенції, необхідної для кваліфікованої інформаційної та творчої діяльності у різних сферах та ситуаціях ділового співробітництва, спільної виробничої та наукової роботи. Методичні рекомендації сприяють подальшому розвитку різних видів комунікативної компетенції, які використовуються в межах курсу „Ділова англійська мова” : читання, усне мовлення і аудіювання, письмо.

МР містять 10 тем: “Meeting a business partner”, “Organizing a business meeting”, “Telephoning”, “My speciality”, “Standardization”, “Certification”, “Business correspondence”, “Quality control”, “Basic principles of metrology”, “Job hunting”, “Company structure”. Кожний урок (unit) складається з таких розділів: Language, Reading, Writing, Speaking, Discussion. Тексти МР підібрані з сучасної економічної оригінальної літератури англійською мовою та Інтернету, що викликає у студентів інтерес до вивчення текстового матеріалу. Система лексико-комунікативних вправ спрямована на засвоєння лексичного матеріалу з подальшим використанням його в царині професійно спрямованого спілкування. З метою розвитку комунікативної компетенції в галузі усного мовлення пропонуються діалоги, рольові ситуації, а також проблемні завдання для проведення дискусій.


UNIT 1

MEETING A BUSINESS PARTNER

I. Language

Ex.1. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations:

acquaintance -знайомство

agreement –угода, згода

appointment –призначена зустріч

staff, personnel –штат, співробітники

to introduce –представляти (когось)

to introduce oneself –представлятися

to deal –мати справу

let`s get down to business –давайте перейдемо до справи

to be airsick –страждати від повітряної хвороби

suitcase -багаж

to extend -розширювати

body language –мова тіла (міміка та жести)

to reserve (to book) –бронювати, замовляти (номер в готелі, квитки)

superior -начальник

subordinate -підлеглий

to be at smb`s disposal –бути у розпорядженні.

Greetings (привітання)
Formal Good morning. Good afternoon. Good evening. Let me introduce…to you. I would like you to meet… Pleased to meet you. /until lunch-time 12-2 p.m./ /until 5-6 p.m./ /until 11 p.m./
Semi-formal Morning. Afternoon. Evening. Hello. I want you to meet… Glad to meet you.  
Informal Hi  
Formal — How are you? — How are you getting on? — I am very / fairly / quite well, thank you. — Fine, thanks. — Not too / so bad, thank you.  
Semi-formal — All right, thank you (thanks).  
Informal   — O.K., thanks /familiar/ — A bit tired, otherwise all right.  
Formal   — And how are you? — What about you? — Not very/too well, I'm afraid. — Oh, dear, sorry to hear that.
Semi-formal — And you? — How's life? — I`m afraid, I`m not well today.
Informal — How are things with you? — I've got a bad cold.
Leavetaking (завершення розмови) Pre-closing phrases
Formal   Well, I must be going (go) now. I`m afraid I must go (now). I'm afraid I must be going (now). It's time I was going (off). I'd better be going. I must be off now. Well, I think I'd better go now.  
Semi-formal I'm in a bit of a hurry. I must be off, I'm afraid. It's been nice meeting you. Hope to see you again. Nice meeting you.  
Informal See you then/later. See you.  
Closing phrases (Прощання)
Formal Good-bye.  
Semi-formal (Good-)bye for now. Bye (then). Bye-bye. Cheerio.  
Informal All the best (when you are seeing your friend off). Good luck (before smb. is going for an interview for a job or before smb.is taking an examination).  
If you want to be remembered to some other people (members of the family, friends, acquaintances), use these phrases:
Formal   (Please) give my (kind) regards to.... Thank you. I (certainly) will.
Semi-formal Remember me to....  
Informal Give my love to.... Thanks.

Illustrative Dialogues

Formal

***

Mr Jones: Good morning, Mr Smith.

Mr Smith: Good morning. How are you?

Mr Jones: Very well, thank you. And you?

Mr Smith: Quite well, thank you.

Semi-formal, informal

***

Chris: Hello, Jenny.

Jenny: Hello, Chris. How are you?

Chris: Fine, thanks. What about you?

Jenny: Oh, not too bad.

***

David: Hello.

Jean: Hello, David. How are you getting on?

David: All right, thanks. And how are things with you?

Jean: Oh, more or less the same as usual.

 

Formal

***

Mr Adams: I'm afraid I must be going.

Mr Brent: Must you really?

Mr Adams: Yes, I'm afraid so. I've got some urgent work to do.

Mr Brent: Well, I won't keep you then.

Mr Adams: Good-bye.

Mr Brent: Good-bye. Remember me to your wife,

Mr Adams: Thank you. I will.

 

Semi-formal, informal

***

Susan: Well, I must be off now.

Mary: Stay and have a cup of coffee first.

Susan: Thanks very much but I really must go. I've got an interview for a job tomorrow

morning.

Mary: Oh. Well, you'd better go to bed early then.

Susan: Yes. Well, cheerio then.

Mary: Bye. And good luck.

Susan: Thanks. I'll let you know how I get on.

 

***

Andrew: I've come to say good-bye.

Roger: When are you off?

Andrew: My plane leaves at 12.30 tomorrow.

Roger: Well, have a good journey.

Andrew: Thanks. Good-bye.

Roger: Bye. Keep in touch.

Andrew: I will. And thanks for everything.

Roger: Don't mention it. Well, all the best.

Andrew: Thanks. Bye-bye.

Exercise 3.

II Reading.

At the airport

Volodymyr Ivchenko: Excuse me... Are you Mr Woodman?

Stephen Woodman: Yes?

VI: I'm Volodymyr Ivchenko, from Ukrforestry Ltd. How do you do?

SW: How do you do? I am glad to meet you, Mr Ivchenko. I hope I haven't kept you waiting.

VI: No, not at all. The plane's just arrived. Did you have a good trip?

SW: Yes, thank you. I was a bit airsick, but now I'm O.K.

VI: My car's just outside the airport. My driver will take your suitcase.

SW: Thank you.

In the car

VI: We are going to our office in the centre of the city. It'll take us about half an hour to get there. Mr Petrenko is waiting for you.

SW: Please remind me who Mr Petrenko is.

VI: He's our Director General. He is going to discuss the details of our future agreement with you.

SW: Which hotel am I staying in?

VI: We've reserved a single room with a private bathroom at a hotel near the centre.

SW: That's O.K. Thank you very much.

In the office

VI: I'd like you to meet Mr Petrenko, our Director General.

SW: Glad to meet you, Mr Petrenko.

Mr Petrenko: Glad to meet you too. Have you ever been to Kyiv before, Mr Woodman? SW: No, it's my first visit to Kyiv. P: What are your first impressions of Kyiv?

SW: I like Kyiv, it's a very beautiful city and quite different from London. P: I hope you'll enjoy your visit, Mr Woodman. Let me introduce my staff to you. This is my secretary, Miss Klymenko.

SW: Nice to meet you, Miss Klymenko.

Miss Klymenko: Nice to meet you too. Call me Ann.

P:I also want you to meet Viktor Berezniak, our Sales Manager. You've already met Mr Ivchenko.

SW: What does Mr Ivchenko do?

P: He is our Export-Import Manager... Do take a seat. Would you like a cigarette?

SW: No. Thank you.

P: Would you like something to drink?

SW: Er... Yes. I'd like a cup of coffee.

P: Ann, could you make coffee for us, please?

K: Certainly, sir. How would you like your coffee, Mr Woodman, black or white?

SW: Black, please.

K: With sugar?

SW: No, thanks.

P: By the way, Mr Woodman, what is your profession?

SW: I'm an engineer, but at Forestry Equipment I work as the Sales Manager. Here's my card.

P: Let's get down to business, Mr Woodman. We're extending our business and want to buy equipment for producing some goods in Ukraine, rather than importing them from western countries as we do now. We know that some companies, including yours, produce the sort of equipment we need. Your company provides advanced technology and efficient service, which small firms can't provide. That's why we're interested in doing business with you.

SW: Yes. I see. You'll be pleased to hear that the service life of our equipment has been increased, and also prices have been reduced.

P: It's very interesting, but first I would like to know if it's possible to adapt your equipment to our needs.

SW: To answer your question, Mr Petrenko, I have to visit your factory and study your requirements.

P: I'll show you around tomorrow.

SW: What time?

P: Let me see... I have an appointment with my lawyer at 9 a.m. How about 10?

SW: That's fine.

P: At the moment we are looking for a Commercial Director for this project so in the future you should deal with him. If we decide to buy your equipment, he'll visit your company and you'll discuss the contract with him in detail.

SW: Fine. I've got some advertising leaflets so you'll be able to study the main characteristics of our equipment yourself.

P: Thank you, Mr Woodman. Our driver is at your disposal during your visit. His name is Oleh.

SW: Thank you very much, Mr Petrenko.

P: Well. That's all for now... our driver's waiting for you. He'll take you to your hotel

SW: Goodbye, Mr Petrenko.

P: Goodbye, Mr Woodman. See you tomorrow.

 

Exercise 6. What phrases in the dialogue are used for…

a) meeting a representative of a foreign company at the airport without knowing exactly if he is a person you look for;

b) introducing yourself;

c) apologizing for being late;

d) asking about the travel;

e) suggesting him to take your car on the way to the office;

f) helping him carry his suitcase?

 

III. Speaking.

Exercise 8.

A. Introduce the staff of your company, using phrases:

Let me introduce my staff to you. This is........................

He(She)is........................

I'd like you to meet....................... He (She) is.......................

May I introduce..................... to you. He (She) is.......................

Here are some personal qualities you may use while introducing your staff:

open-minded, loyal, reliable, well-organized, dynamic, adaptable, accurate, punctual, honest, self-motivated, good at making decisions and solving problems, active, hard-working, responsible, good at team work and others.

B. Ask a representative of a foreign firm:

1) What company he represents; about his official position in the company; what country (town) he comes from.

2) If he would like something to drink, offer him a cup of coffee (tea, juice).

3) Ask him about his plans for tomorrow; fix an appointment for tomorrow; say "good-bye".

 

Exercise 9. Make your own dialogues on the topic “Meeting a business partner” according to the following plan:

  1. Meeting a partner at the airport.
  2. Conversation on business affairs at the office (introduce your staff concerning your speciality: experts in quality control in the State Inspection, engineers in standardization, managers in goods quality, engineers in Labour safety, etc., speak on your future cooperation)
  3. Arranging a meeting for the next day.

(Use the phrases (in a bold type) from the Ex. 5 and words and word combinations to the Unit1)

IV. Listening.

Exercise 10. Listen to the text:

In business, people have to deal in person with all kinds of people. You may have to use English when talking to different people within your company who don't speak your language: these may be colleagues or co-workers, superiors or subordinates — who may work with you in your own department, in another part of the building or in another branch. And you may also have to deal in English with people from outside the organization: clients, suppliers, visitors and members of the public. Moreover, these people may be friends, acquaintances or strangers — people of your own age, or people who are younger or older than you. The relationship you have with a person determines the kind of language you use.

This relationship may even affect what you say when you meet people: for example, it's not appropriate to say "Hi, how are you!" when meeting the Managing Director of a large company or to say "Good morning, it's a great pleasure to meet you" when being introduced to a person you'll be working closely with in the same team.

Remember that people form an impression of you from the way you speak and behave- not just from the way you do your work. People in different countries have different ideas of what sounds friendly, polite or sincere — and of what sounds rude or unfriendly! Good manners in your culture may be considered bad manners in another.

Remember also that your body language, gestures and expression may tell people more about you than the words you use.

V. Discussion.

Exercise 14. Which of the following do you think are important to make a good conversation? Tick * your choices and add suggestions.

1. listen carefully

2. give only'yes'or'no'answers

3. show interest and ask questions

4. both listen and talk

5. answer questions and add extra information

6. only ask questions if you are the host

7………………...................................

8...........................................................

9...........................................................

10…………………………………….


UNIT 2

I. Language

Exercise 1. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations:

to inform smb/ to let smb. know — поінформувати, повідомити когось

to find out — виявити (дані, інформацію)

to be in / out (away, off) — бути присутнім /відсутнім

to (tele)phone (ring (up), call) — телефонувати

to make / give a call / ring — подзвонити

receiver — телефонна трубка

to lift / take up / pick up the receiver — підняти трубку

the line is free — лінія вільна

the line is engaged / busy — лінія зайнята

to connect / to put a call through — з'єднувати абонентів

to disconnect/ to clear — роз'єднувати абонентів

coin-box telephone / telephone booth/ box phone -телефон-автомат

trunk-call / long distance call (Am.) — міжміський телефонний виклик

digit— цифра

to dial the number — набрати номер

dialling tone — тривалий гудок

rapid pip — короткий гудок

to spell smth. — назвати по буквах

subscriber— абонент

International Subscriber Dialling (ISD) — міжна­родний автоматичний телефонний зв'язок

Subscriber Trunk Dialling (STD) — міжміський автоматичний телефонний зв'язок

The city is not on STD. — Із містом нема автоматичного телефонного зв'язку.

Telephone Directory / Book — телефонний довідник

a touch-tone phone — телефон з тоновим нa6oром

a collect call (Am)/ transferred charge call (GB) — дзвінок за рахунок абонента

to hold on –чекати на лінії

to call back – передзвонювати

to trouble, to bother – турбувати

to book a call to /to place a call –замовити дзвінок.

 

TELEPHONE CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES

Speaking.

This is (Taylor) calling.

Ivanenko speaking

Who's calling, please?

Could you put me through to Mr.... ?

I`m putting you through.

The line is engaged.

Can you hold on?

I'll see if he is in.

Mr.... is on the other line.

Mr. ... is out at the moment.

Could you take a message?

Will you spell your name?

Could I speak to Mr ... , please?

Hold on, please, the number is engaged.

Hold the line, please.

Is there any message?

I'll call back later.

Your voice is fading and there's some background noise interfering.

(ваш голос зникає та заважає сторонній шум)

We had a very bad connection.

I want to book a call to /to place a call/ at New York for 8 p.m.

What number are you calling from?

I'm terribly sorry that you have been disconnected.

I'll ring you as soon as I have your number again.

You've got the wrong number.

Sorry to have troubled you.

I'm sorry to have bothered you. - That's quite all right.

There is no one by name of Smith here.

Mr ... is not available. (не доступний)

Can you speak louder, please? I can't here you.

Can you speak slower, please? I can't follow you.

Can you say it again?

My office number is 66-75-43.

The telephone is quite dead (не відповідає)

 

 

Illustrative Dialogues

1. — Can I speak to Mr Spider, please?

— Hold the line, please.

 

2. — Could I talk to Frank Black, please?

— Hang on a moment. I'll just see if he is in.

 

3. — Sorry, Mr White is out. Can I take a message?

—It's Tom Buller here. Would you ask him to call back?

 

4. — Sorry, Mr Black is not here. But he'll be back soon.

— Can you tell him to ring me up when he gets back?

— OK!

 

5. — Can I have your name, please?

— Smith.

— Sorry, would you spell it?

— OK. S-M-I-T-H.

 

 

Exercise 2. Fill the gaps with words and phrases from the box in the following phrases:

1. The phone's ringing. Why don't you…………..the receiver?

2. I'm afraid she isn't available at the moment. Can you………..later?

3. I'm afraid she's with a client, shall I……you…..to her secretary?

4. If you here rapid pips that means the line is…..

5. If you don`t have someone`s telephone number you can look it up in the….

6. Hello? Are you still there? I think we were………for a moment.

7. If a representative of a Ukrainian company wants to communicate with his business partner in New York he must….trough…

 

Exercise 3. Complete the dialogue:

A.: “Infoline Advertizing” . Can I help you?

B.: ………………………

A.: I`m afraid Mr. White is not here. Who`s calling please?

B.: ……………………….

A.: …………………………

B.: Yes, please. I can discuss this problem with Mr. Black as well.

A.: ……………I`m putting you through.

 

II Reading.

Exercise 4. Read the dialogue, fill in the gaps with given phrases and dramatize it:

Phrases: I'll ring him back; When are you going to come?; Hold on, please; And where are you calling from?; I`m very busy at the moment;Could you spell it, please?; Can I help you?;I'd like to reservea single room with a bathroom,; Could you tell me your telephone number; Which hotel in London do you recommend?; May I speak to Mr Maliarchuk?;

Viktor Maliarchuk, the new Commercial Director of Ukrforestry Ltd is going to England on business. He telephones Stephen Woodman. Viktor asks John to reserve a room at a hotel.

III Speaking

Exercise 6. Compose and act out your own dialogues. Imagine that your business partner from England is calling you. Use phrases in a bold type from Ex.5 Discuss:

a). the date of his arrival to your town;

b). the aim of his arrival;

c). reserving a room in a hotel for some days.

d). the profession of the visitor;

e). the company he/she works at.

 

IV Reading

Exercise 7. Read the text:

E-MAIL ELECTRONIC ADDRESSES

E-mail addresses are very interesting. At first glance, they are not properly understood to novice, but these short sets of numbers, letters, and symbols can assure their owners of e-mail from anywhere in the world. The most important symbol in an e-mail address is the @ sign, which separates the personal user's identification (user ID) on the left, from the domain, or machine address, on the right. Here's an example of e-mail address:

ahbsc@cuatvm.cuat.edu

The part to the left of the @ is a personel user ID (AHBSC), which stands for Alan H. Brown, Somewhere College. The part immediately after the @ shows the machine. Many universities use VM machine (VM = virtual machine), so the machine address is CUATVM, which means "City University of Any-Town Virtual Machine". Then there is a dot to separate

the different "domains" or "subdomains" within the address. After thedot, we have the name of the institution, City University of Any-Town (CUAT), andfinally we have the domain EDU which stands for "education".

Domains can be:

EDU — for education

GOV — for government

COM — for commercial

MIL — for military

NET — for Internet or related network service provider

ORG — for organisation, probably non-profit.

ComputerServe addresses are all @cornpuserve.com.

 

There are searching servers:

www.yahoo.com

www.infoseek.com — to search different information

www.altavista.com

wikipedia.org/wiki/

www.rambler.ru — to search essays

www.muzic.ru —for searching music

Exercise 8. Complete the sentences according to the text:

1. Important documents or valuable items can be sent by…

2. A fax is…which is transmitted by….

3. Faxes are printed on…

4. …. is a way of sending messages between computers. The message appears on … and can be …...

5. …can be a legally binding document.

6. International mail within a company or between branches of the same firm is usually in the form of…

7. …separates the personal user's identification (user ID) on the left, from the domain, or machine address, on the right.

8. the domain EDU stands for…

 

Exercise 9. Answer the questions:

1. How must a good business letter look like? Why are important documents often sent by courier?

2. A fax is not usually a legally binding document. What is the reason?

3. What is Skype?

4. What are the peculiarities of telex?

5. What does the style of memos depend on? How do they look like?

6. What does an average e-mail address consist of?

7. What domains are used in e-mail addresses? What do they show?

8. What are the purposes of searching services?

 

V. Writing

VI. Listening

Exercise 11. Listen to the text:

Telephone techniques

ü Identify yourself by giving your name and your position in the company.

ü Make sure you're talking to the right person.

ü Say right away you're calling about. Be brief, and don't waste time.

ü If it's a bad line, say that you'll call back at once. Then start the call again.

ü Speak slowly and clearly, but in a friendly voice. Smile while you're speaking. Your listener can 'hear' your smile.

ü Don't try to be funny — you may be misunderstood.

ü Don't use technical terms or abbreviation, because the other person may not understand these as well as you do.

ü Give important information, like figures, names, quantities, dates and so on, slowly and carefully.

ü Don't interrupt the other person even if you think you know what he or she is going to say, let them finish what they want to say.

ü Don't phone during the other person's lunch hour — find out what time it is in the other country before you call.

ü Note down all the important information you're given by the other person.

ü Send a following-up fax or letter to confirm any important details (especially prices and numbers), so that you both have a written record of them.

 

Exercise 12. Work in pairs. Make the lists of DOs and DON`Ts of a good telephone conversation. Add some points to your lists. Use the information you have listened to.

VII. Discussion

Exercise 13. Discuss the following issues with your group-mates:

1. Some people suffer from the “telephone conversations fear”. How can this affect business?

2. The best means of business communication (e-mail, telephone, written correspondence, skype or maybe personal talk). Give your reasons, advantages and disadvantages of each.


UNIT 3

MY SPECIALITY

 

I. Language

Exercise 1. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations:

 

Light and textile industry –легка та текстильна промисловість

Standard definition –визначення стандарту

Raw material –сировина

Demand –попит

Chair –кафедра, бюро

Labour Safety –техніка безпеки

To attest –атестувати, засвідчити

Custom Services –Митна служба

Appointment –призначення

To deal –вести справу

Stocking –зберігання

Tax Services –податкова служба

Evidence of right –правовий документ

Inevitably –неминуче

Managing quality control –Управління якістю товарів

To ensure –забезпечувати

Entire –повний

To implement –забезпечувати виконання

Copyright –авторське право

Inherent –притаманний

To deepen –поглиблювати

Utility patent –утилітарний, простий патент

Thereof – з цього

To grant –видавати

Design patent –патент на проект, задум

Petty patent –обмежений патент

Letters patent –звичайний патент

Pursuance –виконання

Patent application –прохання про надання патенту

My speciality

I am a forth-year student of the Technology and Design faculty, the department of Certification and standardization of natural fibers. This department trains specialists on light and textile industry.

Nowadays processing standardization and certification of light industry products have a great perspective of development. Certification according to the international standards has just begun to progress in Ukraine. Standardization is the process of establishing a technical standard, which could be a standard specification, standard test method, standard definition, standard procedure (or practice), etc. Today there are many different kinds of standards and specialists must know how to work with them and where they are used. That is why specialists in analysis, international standards, ecological control and certification of consumer properties of raw materials and products are in great demand.

The chair of Processing, Standardization and Certification of Raw Materials trains different specialists. The department offers four years courses leading to the degree of Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng.) and five years courses leading to the degree of Master of Engineering (M.Eng.)

The diploma in “Processing, Standardization and Certification of Light Industry Products” gives the specialists the opportunity to work as an expert-auditor, a manager in goods quality, an engineer in standardization, an engineer-technologist, an engineer in Labour Safety. These specialists can organize the work of Standardization and Metrology Service; can attest the manufacturing of certificated products. They also control the quality of exported and imported products at different institutions, establishments and Custom Services. Having got the specialization in “Certification of Raw Materials of Light Industry” the graduates get an appointment in enterprises that process raw materials of vegetable and animal origin.

Holders of a Master's degree get the diploma in “Quality control, standardization and certification of Light Industry Products”. They can work as head experts and inspectors in certification, as scientific researchers and assistants or professors at educational establishments. These specialists work at flax-hemp plants, cotton mills, silk and skin primary processing and in institutions dealing with standardization and certification. They control the quality of raw materials, their stocking, processing and realization. The graduates from this department can become experts in quality control at the State Inspection. They can work at the Standardization and Certification of raw materials Bureaus, at the expert Laboratories under Customs and Epidemic Control Services, inspectors of Tax Services as well.

But it is impossible to become a good specialist without deep knowledge of many general and special subjects. The students of the department of Technology study Higher Mathematics, Physics, History of Ukraine, English or German, French or Spain. Among special subjects are Industry Technology, Properties of Fibre Materials, Industrial Economy, Metrology, Quality control, Certification marks, Systems of computer aided design, Computational Technology, Equipments and Methods of Process Control.

Successful businesses inevitably place a great emphasis on managing quality control - carefully planned steps taken to ensure that the products and services offered to their customers are consistent and reliable and truly meet their customers' needs. Multinational corporations have entire departments of highly trained specialists to design and implement their quality assurance programs. For a custom countertop fabricator, as for other small businesses that make unique, handcrafted products, quality control is also essential. Such companies cannot rely on a staff of trained experts or the standardization inherent in mass production to take care of quality control. One or a handful of managers must handle it themselves, along with every other management function. That is a part of being a small business person. So it makes no matter if you work at a big enterprise or a small firm in any case you need to know different quality control procedures.

In this way the University tries to link theoretical knowledge with its application and the students have some practical training at different enterprises and institutions to become good specialists in these fields. At these institutions the students get to know with up-to-date equipment and deeрen their knowledge of the speciality.

III. Language.

Exercise 5. Find in the text the following word-combinations and translate them to your native language:

Specialists in light and textile industry, a great perspective of development, the process of establishing a technical standard, standard procedure, certification of consumer properties, storage and realization of raw materials, Fire Department, quality assurance program, handcrafted products, a handful of managers.

 

IV. Comprehension.

Exercise 8. Answer the following questions:

1) What is your speciality?

2) What is standardization?

3) Do you know what diplomas you can obtain after graduating from the University? Name them.

4) What subjects do the students study to become good specialists? Give examples.

5) What is the main purpose of the managing quality control?

6) For whom is quality control essential?

7) How does the University prepare good specialists?

 

V. Speaking.

Exercise 12. Role-play. Imagine that you are a reporter who wants to make an interview with a lecturer from the department of Certification and standardization of natural fibers. Ask him about diplomas and places of work for graduates. Stress the importance of their speciality. Work in pairs.

Patents

The term patent usually refers to a right granted to anyone who invents or discovers any new and useful process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof. The additional qualification utility patent is used in the United States to distinguish it from other types of patents (e.g. design patents) but should not be confused with utility models granted by other countries. Examples of particular species of patents for inventions include biological patents, business method patents, chemical patents and software patents. Some other types of intellectual property rights are referred to as patents in some jurisdictions: industrial design rights are called design patents in some jurisdictions (they protect the visual design of objects that are not purely utilitarian), plant breeders' rights are sometimes called plant patents, and utility models are sometimes called petty patents or innovation patents. Certain grants made by the monarch in pursuance of the royal prerogative were sometimes called letters patent, which was a government notice to the public of a grant of an exclusive right to ownership and possession. These were often grants of a patent-like monopoly and predate the modern origins of the patent system. There are other meanings that reflect the original meaning of letters patent that had a broader scope than current usage: a land patent is evidence of right, title, and/or interest to a tract of land, usually granted by a central, federal, or state government to an individual or private company, and a printing patent or printing privilege, a precursor of modern copyright. It was an exclusive right to print a work or a class of works.

A patent application is a request pending at a patent office for the grant of a patent for the invention described and claimed by that application. An application consists of a description of the invention (the patent specification), together with official forms and correspondence relating to the application. The term patent application is also used to refer to the process of applying for a patent.

The procedure for granting patents, the requirements placed on the patentee, and the extent of the exclusive rights vary widely between countries according to national laws and international agreements. Typically, however, a patent application must include one or more claims defining the invention which must be new, inventive, and useful or industrially applicable. In many countries, certain subject areas are excluded from patents, such as business methods and mental acts. The exclusive right granted to a patentee in most countries is the right to prevent others from making, using, selling, or distributing the patented invention without permission.

Under the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, patents should be available in WTO member states for any inventions, in all fields of technology, and the term of protection available should be the minimum twenty years. Different types of patents may have varying patent terms or durations.

 

VII. Language.

VIII. Comprehension.

Exercise 16. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1) Examples of particular species of patents for inventions include printing patent and patent application.

2) Certain grants made by the monarch in pursuance of the royal prerogative were sometimes called letters patent.

3) A land patent was an exclusive right to print a work or a class of works.

4) A patent application is an industrial design right.

5) The procedure for granting patents, the requirements placed on the patentee, and the extent of the exclusive rights vary widely between countries.

6) The exclusive right granted to a patentee in most countries is the right to permit others to sell, to use or to distribute the patented invention.

7) According to the WTO Agreement patents should be available in WTO member states for only some inventions and the term of protection should be the minimum five years.

 

Exercise 17. Answer the following questions to the text B:

1) What is a patent?

2) Why is the term “utility patent” used?

3) What other types of intellectual property rights are offered to as patents in some jurisdictions?

4) What other meanings reflect the original meaning of letters patent in a broader scope?

5) What does a patent application consist of?

6) What term is used to describe the process of applying for a patent?

7) Are certain subject areas, such as business methods and mental acts excluded from patents?

8) How many years should the patent be protected?

 

IX. Speaking.

Exercise 18. Describe the procedure for granting patents. Use the following expressions:“ It is important to say..”; “ It should be stressed…”; “ Summing up…”; “ It should be noted…”; etc.

 

Exercise 20. Role-play. Act out a dialogue. Imagine that you have invented something and want to protect your invention. Describe your invention at a patent office to obtain a patent. Describe the procedure of getting patent.

X. Listening.

Exercise 21. Listen to the text C and answer the following questions:

Vocabulary:

a survey – дослідження

an apparel – одяг, сукня

fashion – мода

fiber genera – сорт волокна

to grasp the subtle – вловити (відчути, помітити) тонку відмінність (різницю)

to reconcile – погодити, узгодити, примирити

to furnish – постачати, спорядити

 

1) What do many men engaged in fabric manufacture do?

2) What qualities and properties do every woman look for when buying a garment?

3) Does men’s fashion exist?

4) What do we need in today’s apparel manufacture?

5) What complex of possibilities must the specialist of today reconcile?

6) What key opens the first door to success in this field?

 

UNIT 4

STANDARDIZATION

I. Language

Exercise 1. Read and memorize the following words and word combinations:

To agree –погоджуватись

Mandatory –обов'язковий

To stamp –штампувати, ставити печатку

To imply –мати на увазі, натякати

Trade union –профспілка, тред-юніон

Building code – закон про будівництво

To consider –розглядати, обмірковувати

Compliance –згода

Item –окремий предмет, пункт

Validation –затвердження

To handle people –керувати людьми

Interaction –взаємодія

Homogenization – однорідність, гомогенізація

Specific syntaxes –специфічні синтаксиси

De facto standard –фактичний, неофіційний стандарт

De jure standard –юридичний, офіційний стандарт

Dominant usage –домінуючий вжиток

Voluntary standard –необов’язковий стандарт

Score –причина, підстава, рахунок

Assessment –оцінювання

Supply chain management –управління поставками

Procurement – придбання

Reference –рекомендація, посилання

Open standard –відкритий стандарт

To restrict –обмежувати

Royalty-free –безоплатний

To preclude –усувати, запобігати

To implement –здійснювати

Internet Engineering Task Force –оперативний технічний підрозділ Інтернету

Explicitly –детально, точно

Specification –специфікація, перелік, уточнення

 

Standardization

Standardization is the process of developing and agreeing upon technical standards. A standard is a document that establishes uniform engineering or technical specifications, criteria, methods, processes, or practices. Some standards are mandatory while others are voluntary. The existence of a published standard does not necessarily imply that it is useful or correct. Just because an item is stamped with a standard number does not, by itself, indicate that the item is fit for any particular use. The people who use the item or service (engineers, trade unions, etc) or specify it (building codes, government, industry, etc) have the responsibility to consider the available standards, specify the correct one, enforce compliance, and use the item correctly. Validation of suitability is necessary.

In the context of social criticism and social sciences, standardization often means the process of establishing standards of various kinds and improving efficiency to handle people, their interactions, cases, and so forth. Examples include formalization of judicial procedure in court, and establishing uniform criteria for diagnosing mental disease. Standardization in this sense is often discussed along with (or synonymously to) such large-scale social changes as modernization, bureaucratization, homogenization, and centralization of society.

In the context of business information exchanges, standardization refers to the process of developing data exchange standards for specific business processes using specific syntaxes. These standards are usually developed in voluntary consensus standards bodies such as the United Nations Center for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT), the World Wide Web Consortium W3C, and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). Formal standards organizations, such as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) or the American National Standards Institute, are independent of the manufacturers of the goods for which they publish standards. In general, each country or economy has a single recognized National Standards Body (NSB).

Standards can be:

- de facto standards which means they are followed by informal convention or dominant usage;

- de jure standards which are part of legally binding contracts, laws or regulations;

- voluntary standards which are published and available for people to consider for use.

The uses of standards may be also found:

- In statistics, standardization refers to conversion to standard scores.

- In test theory, standardization refers to measurements or assessments conducted under exact, specified, and repeatable conditions.

- In supply chain management, standardization refers to approaches for increasing commonality of part, process, product or procurement.

Note: there are at least four levels of standardization: compatibility, interchangeability, commonality and reference. These standardization processes create compatibility, similarity, measurement and symbol standards.

III. Language.

Exercise 5. Find in the text the following word-combinations and translate them to your native language:

The process of developing and agreeing, technical specifications, mandatory, published standard, to enforce compliance, improving efficiency to handle people, judicial procedure, Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business, International Organization for Standardization, National Standards Institute, informal convention, legally binding contracts, voluntary standards, supply chain management, compatibility.

 

IV. Comprehension.

Exercise 8. Answer the following questions:

1) What is a standard?

2) What does standardization mean in the context of social criticism and social sciences? Give examples.

3) What does standardization mean in the context of business information exchanges?

4) Do you know the titles of the centres and organizations that deal with standardization?

5) How can we divide standards?

6) Are there any other uses of the standards?

7) What are 4 levels of the standardization?

V. Speaking.

Exercise 9. Characterize the standardization:

a) in the context of social criticism;

b) in the context of business information exchanges.

 

Open standard

 

An open standard is a standard that is publicly available and has various rights to use associated with it, and may also have various properties of how it was designed (e.g. open process).

The terms "open" and "standard" have a wide range of meanings associated with their usage. The term "open" is usually restricted to royalty-free technologies while the term "standard" is sometimes restricted to technologies approved by formalized committees that are open to participation by all interested parties and operate on a consensus basis.

The definitions of the term "open standard" used by academics, the European Union and some of its member governments or parliaments such as Denmark, France, and Spain preclude open standards requiring fees for use, as do the New Zealand and the Venezuelan governments. On the standard organization side, the World Wide Web (W3C) ensures that its specifications can be implemented on a Royalty-Free (RF) basis.

Many definitions of the term "standard" permit patent holders to impose "reasonable and non-discriminatory" royalty fees and other licensing terms on users of the standard. For example, the rules for standards published by the major internationally recognized standards bodies such as the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), ISO (International Organization for Standardization), IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) , and ITU-T (International Telecommunications Union) permit their standards to contain specifications whose implementation will require payment of patent licensing fees. Among these organizations, only the IETF and ITU-T explicitly refer to their standards as "open standards", while the others refer only to producing "standards". The IETF and ITU-T use definitions of "open standard" that allow "reasonable and non-discriminatory" patent licensing fee requirements, but in practice most are royalty free.

The term "open standard" is sometimes coupled with "open source" with the idea that a standard is not truly open if it does not have a complete free/open source reference implementation available. Open standards which specify formats are sometimes referred to as open formats.

Many specifications that are sometimes referred to as standards are proprietary and only available under restrictive contract terms (if they can be obtained at all) from the organization that owns the copyright on the specification. As such these specifications are not considered to be fully Open.

VII. Language.

VIII. Comprehension.

Exercise 16. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1) An open standard is a standard that is not publicly available and it was designed under an undocumented closed process.

2) The term "open" is usually restricted to royalty-free technologies.

3) The term "standard" is sometimes restricted to technologies approved by formalized committees that are open to participation by all interested parties and operate on a consensus basis.

4) The definitions of the term "open standard" used by academics, the European Union and some of its member governments or parliaments such as Great Britain, Greece and Germany preclude open standards requiring fees for use.

5) Few definitions of the term "standard" do not permit patent holders to impose "reasonable and non-discriminatory" royalty fees and other licensing terms on users of the standard.

6) Open standards which specify formats are sometimes referred to as closed formats.

7) Many specifications that are sometimes referred to as standards are not proprietary and available without any restrictions.

Exercise 17. Answer the following questions to the text B:

1) What is an open standard?

2) What do the terms “open” and “standard” mean?

3) What are the actions of the governments of Denmark, France, and Spain concerning an open standard?

4) Does the World Wide Web ensure that its specifications can be implemented on a Royalty-Free (RF) basis?

5) How can holders of the patents act in accordance with the definitions of the open standard?

6) Can you name some international standards bodies?

7) Why is the term "open standard" sometimes coupled with "open source"?

 

IX. Speaking.

X. Writing.

De facto standard

 

A de facto standard is a custom, convention, product, or system that has achieved a dominant position by public acceptance or market forces (such as early entrance to the market). De facto is a Latin expression that means "by fact". In law, it means "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but without being officially established". It is commonly used in contrast to de jure (which means "concerning the law") when referring to matters of law, governance, or technique (such as standards) that are found in the common experience. When discussing a legal situation, de jure designates what the law says, while de facto designates action of what happens in practice. The term de facto may also be used when there is no relevant law or standard, but a common and well established practice that is considered the accepted norm. Other standards may be voluntary or may be de jure ("ordained by law") standards enforced by government.

In contrast, a technical standard is an established norm or requirement. It is usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria, methods, processes and practices.

In social sciences, a de facto standard is a usual solution to a coordination problem. The choice of a de facto standard is the better choice for situations in which all parties can realize mutual gains, but only by making mutually consistent decisions.

Examples:

- The QWERTY system was one of several options for the layout of letters on typewriter (and later keyboard) keys. It became a de facto standard because it was used on the most commercially successful early typewriters, and once people had learned the QWERTY layout they did not want to re-learn a different system.

- When the VHS format for videotape recording was introduced, other recording formats were already available in the market. Regardless of whether Betamax was superior from a technical point of view or not, the VHS format won the format war due to superior marketing tactics by its proponents. The market could not support two competing formats; VHS became the de facto standard and Betamax was eventually withdrawn.

- The driver's seat side in a country.

- The use of the AA battery (as opposed to AAA or other previously proposed standards for low-voltage and small-size batteries).

- Computer file formats:

1) AutoCAD DXF: a de facto ASCII format for import/export of CAD drawings and fragments in the 1980s and 1990s. In the 2000s, XML standards such as SVG emerged as de facto standards.

2) Microsoft Word DOC: one of the best known de facto standards. Due to the market dominance of Word, it is supp



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