Exercise 3. Read, complete the dialogue with the expressions from the box and dramatize it

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Exercise 3. Read, complete the dialogue with the expressions from the box and dramatize it

(Peggy Forman is talking with Jaff Downing, an administrative assistant in her company)

Jaff: How are you today, Peggy?

Peggy: Oh, fine, thanks.

Jaff: Glad to hear that. By the way, are you familiar with the …………for the company?
Peggy: No, I am not. What is it like actually?
Jaff: Well, the chart shows how the employees are divided into groups. It gives one an overview of the chain of command in the company.
Peggy: I see. The positions can be line and staff ones.
Jaff: Yes. The subject is not new to you. What else do you know about it?

Peggy: As far as I know a worker in a ………….receives orders from his immediate subordinate.
Jaff: Exactly, that's the line chain of command.

Peggy: A worker in a …………reports directly to a line worker but he neither gives nor receives orders to line workers. Am I right?
Jaff: Yes, you are. But someone may have line authority over people in his department and not be considered a line administrator.
Peggy: How can it be?
Jaff: That's possible when a whole department is a………... For example, in our company, the head of the credit department or the personnel department can hardly ever be president of the company.
Peggy: And what do the people in staff departments do, how is their work different?
Jaff: Well they are usually busy with services and they could do the same service for any company. So they are not in the line.
Peggy: It seems to be rather complicated.
Jaff: It only seems so. I think the chart should help.

Peggy: Oh, sure. But, Jaff, would you explain me what …………..is?
Jaff: Oh, …………..refers to the number of people whom one manages directly.

Peggy: Can you give me an example?
Jaff: Well. The President of our company directly manages the Vice-President of Production, the Vice-President of Marketing and the Controller. Thus, his span of control includes three people.
Peggy: Yes, now I see. Thank you for your help.
Jaff: Not at all.


Exercise 4. Explain the difference between staff position and line position in a company. Define the span of control. Use words and word combinations from the dialogue given above.


II. Reading

Exercise 5. Read the text “Company structure”

Company structure

In business organization structuremeans the relationship between positions and people who hold the positions. Organization structure is very important because it provides an efficient work system as well as a system of communication.

Most companies are made up of three groups of people: the shareholders(who provide the capital), the managementand the workforce.

The management structureof a typical company is shown in this organization chart.

At the top of the company hierarchyis the Board of Directors,headed by the Chairpersonor President.The Board is responsible for policy decisions and strategy. It will usually appoint a Managing Directoror Chief Executive Officer,who has to overall responsibility for the running of the business. Senior managersor company officershead the various departments or functions within the company, which may include the following:



Public Relations

Information Technology or IT

Personnel or Human Resources



Research and Development or R&D

Historically, line structureis the oldest type of organization structure. The main idea of it is direct vertical relationship between the positions and tasks of each level, and the positions and tasks above and below each level. For example, a sales manager may be in a line position between a vice-president of marketing and a salesman. Thus a vice-president of marketing has direct authority over a salesman. This chain of commandsimplifies the problems of giving and taking orders.

When a business grows in size and becomes more complex, there is a need for specialists. In such a case administrators may organize staff departmentsand add staff specialists to do specific work. These people are usually busy with services, they are not tied in with the company product. The activities of the staff departments include an accounting, personnel, credit and advertising. Generally, they do not give orders to other departments. Here is anexample of the organizational chart of the company:

International business styles

The characteristics of management often vary according to national culture, which can determine how managers are trained, how they lead people and how they approach their jobs.

The amount of responsibility of any individual in a company depends on the position that he or she occupies in its hierarchy. Managers, for example, are responsible for leading the people directly under them, who are called subordinates. To do this successfully, they must use their authority, which is the right to take decisions and give orders. Managers often delegate authority. This means that employees at lower levels in the company hierarchy can use their initiative that is make decisions without asking their manager.


Exercise 6. Say if the following statements are true or false:

1. Organization structure means the relationship between positions and people who hold the positions.

2. Most companies are made up of four groups of people.

3. The Board of Directors is at the top of the company hierarchy.

4. Managing Directorhas to overall responsibility for the running of the business.

5. Line structure is comparatively new type of organization structure.

6. Managers never delegate authority.


Exercise 7. Answer the questions:

1. Why is organization structure very important?

2. What is the Board responsible for?

3. What departments does usually a company include?

4. What is the main idea of the line structure?

5. What is a staff department?

6. What are managers responsible for?


Exercise 8. Describe the structure of the company according to the chart:


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