Exercise 20. Speak briefly about the body systems and their functions.



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Exercise 20. Speak briefly about the body systems and their functions.



Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

I. Перекладіть словосполучення: cистема організму людини кістково-м'язова система здоров’я людини взаємодіючі системи організму приймати, обробляти і передавати інформацію додаткові органи неперетравлена їжа лімфатична рідина кислотно-лужний баланс здатність рухатися   II. Дайте відповіді на питання: What are the major body systems of the human? What is the main contribution of each system? What system helps us to receive, process, and communicate information? What physiological process helps to maintain the internal systems of the body at equilibrium? What does the well-being of any person depend upon?   III. Розкрийте поняття: Cистеми організму людини

 

 

The Skeleton

 

Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary:

bone marrow [bəʊn ˈmærəʊ] кістковий мозок
breastbone, n [ˈbrɛstˌbəʊn] грудина
cartilage, n [ˈkɑːtɪlɪdʒ] хрящ
cervical, adj [ˈsɜːvɪkəl] шийний
coccyx, n [ˈkɒksɪks] куприк
cranial, adj [ˈkreɪnɪəl] черепний
facial, adj [ˈfeɪʃəl] лицевий
joint, n [dʒɔɪnt] суглоб
ligament, n [ˈlɪgəmənt] зв'язка
lumbar, adj [ˈlʌmbə] поперековий
marrow cavity, n [ˈmærəʊ ˈkævɪtɪ] кістково-мозкова порожнина
pelvis, n [ˈpɛlvɪs] таз
rib, n [rɪb] ребро
spine, n [spaɪn] спинний хребет
tendon, n [ˈtɛndən] сухожилля
thoracic, adj [θɔːˈræsɪk] грудний
vertebra, n pl vertebrae [ˈvɜːtɪbrə] [ˈvɜːtɪbrɪ] хребець хребці

 

Exercise 2. Read the word combinations and sentences with the new words and translate them into Ukrainian:

Сranial: cranial bones; cerebro-cranial symptom; cranial nerves; cranial radiograph; cranial X-ray.

The bones of the skull consist of cranial and facial parts.

Facial: anterior facial vein; bones of the facial skeleton; facial bones; facial asymmetry; facial muscles.

The facial bones are the bones of the anterior and lower skull.

Cervical: cervical artery; cervical glands; cervical nerves; cervical vertebra; deep cervical vein.

There are seven cervical vertebrae in the spine.

Thoracic: long thoracic artery; thoracic aorta; thoracic bones; thoracic cavity; thoracic organs.

Thoracic vertebrae compose the middle segment of the spinal column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae.

Lumbar: lumbar vein; lumbar part of spinal cord; lumbar puncture; lumbar region; lumbar vertebrae.

The lumbar vertebrae are five vertebrae that make up the spine in the lower back.

 

Exercise 3. Write in words (all the words are from the text below) and translate into Ukrainian:

[ˌæpənˈdɪkjʊlə], [kəmˈpraɪz], [ˈfiːmə], [spaɪn], [ˈkɑːtɪlɪdʒ], [ˈsteɪpiːz], [ˈmʌsəl], [ˈvɜːtɪbrə], [ˈkɒksɪks], [θɔːˈræsɪk], [ˈlɪgəmənt], [ˈseikrəl], [ˈbrɛstˌbəʊn], [ˈlʌmbə], [ˈæksɪəl], [ɪkˈstrɛmɪtɪ], [ˈkælsɪəm], [ˈmærəʊ], [ˈkævɪtɪ], [skʌl], [ˈkreɪnɪəl], [ˈsɜːvɪkəl], [θaɪ], [ˈfoːraːm], [ˈtɛndən], [ˈfeɪʃəl]

 

Exercise 4. Give adjectives for the following nouns (you will need to use a dictionary!):

noun adjective noun adjective
bone   cartilage  
spine   ligament  
skeleton   muscle  
vertebra   cell  
pelvis   blood  

Exercise 5. Read and translate the following word combinations:

The main supportfor the body; to give shape; to sit up straight; to protect the organs; to provide protection; to store calcium and fat; yellow bone marrow; red bone marrow; inside the marrow cavity of bones; three basic parts; axial skeleton; appendicular skeleton; comprised of bones; cervical vertebrae; thoracic vertebrae; sacral vertebrae; 12 pairs of ribs; the upper extremity; the lower extremity; total body weight; to vary between individuals; to fuse together.

 

Exercise 6. Read and translate the text:

The Skeleton

The skeleton is constructed of bones. A bone is any of the pieces of hard, whitish tissue making up the skeleton in humans.Bones are important in five ways. First, bones are the main support for the body; they give your body shape, the bones that make up your spine allow you to sit up straight, the bones in your legs support the weight of your body so that you can stand up and so on. Another function of your skeleton is movement. Muscles are attached to bones and when muscles move, bones move. Third, bones protect the organs beneath them. The ribs provide protection for the lungs and heart. The skull protects the brain. Fourth, yellow bone marrow stores calcium and fat. Finally, bones are the location where blood cells are produced by the cells of the red bone marrow. Bone marrow is located inside the marrow cavity of bones.

The skeleton can be divided into three basic parts: skull, axial skeleton, and appendicular skeleton. The bones of the skull consist of cranial and facial parts. There are 26 bones in the skull.

The axial skeleton is comprised of the bones that support the trunk. The bones of the trunk are the spinal column or the spine and the chest (ribs and the breastbone). The spine of the adult consists of 32 or 34 vertebrae. There are seven cervical vertebrae, twelve thoracic vertebrae, five lumbar, five sacral vertebrae and from one to five vertebrae which form the coccyx. The lumbar vertebrae are the largest vertebrae in the spinal column. The chest is composed of 12 thoracic vertebrae, the breastbone and 12 pairs of ribs.

The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the arms and legs, along with the bones that attach them to the axial skeleton. The lower extremity consists of the thigh, leg and foot. It is connected with the trunk by the pelvis. The upper extremity is formed by the arm, forearm and hand.

The bones of the skeleton are connected together by joints, cartilages, ligaments and tendons.

The biggest bone in the body is the femur in the upper leg, and the smallest is the stapes bone in the middle ear. In an adult, the skeleton comprises around 14% of the total body weight, and half of this weight is water.

The human skeleton takes 20 years before it is fully developed. There are 206 bones in the adult human skeleton, a number which varies between individuals and with age - newborn babies have over 270 bones some of which fuse together.

Exercise 7. Answer the questions:

1. What is the skeleton constructed of?

2. Why are bones important? What are their main functions?

3. What is the function of the skull?

4. Where is bone marrow located?

5. What parts can the skeleton be divided into?

6. How many bones are there in the skull of an adult?

7. What is the biggest bone in the body?

8. How many bones do newborn babies have? Why do adults have fewer bones?

 

Exercise 8. Find corresponding equivalents in the text:

Повністю розвинутий; складатися з кісток рук та ніг; прикріплені до кісток; зростатися; забезпечити захист; складати спинний хребет; накопичувати кальцій та жир; новонароджені діти; формувати куприк; потребувати 20 років; середнє вухо; варіюватися в залежності від віку; поділити на; черепна та лицьова частини; у дорослої людини; половина маси; зв’язки та сухожилля; розміщений у кістково-мозковій порожнині.

 

Exercise 9. Match the words with their definitions:

1. skeleton 2. vertebra 3. trunk 4. skull 5. femur 6. rib 7. spine 8. bone marrow a) any of the 24 curved elastic bones that together form the chest wall in man b) the spinal column c) one of the bony segments of the spinal column d) the fatty network of connective tissue that fills the cavities of bones e) the longest thickest bone of the human skeleton, located between the pelvis and the below f) the bony skeleton of the head g) a hard framework consisting of bones that supports and protects the soft parts of a human body and provides attachment for muscles h) the body excluding the head, neck, and limbs
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
               

 

Exercise 10. Fill in the gaps with the words from the box above:

nervous system; axial; spinal column; chest; appendicular; pelvis; vertebrae; joints

1. The axial skeleton is formed by the …, the chest and the skull.

2. The … in female skeletons is different from that of males in order to facilitate child birth.

3. The upright posture of humans is maintained by the … skeleton.

4. The … between bones allow movement.

5. The … protect the spinal cord.

6. Muscles, bones, and joints are all coordinated by the ….

7. The … skeleton (126 bones) is formed by the upper limbs and the lower limbs.

8. The … and the spine protect the human lungs, human heart and major blood vessels.

Exercise 12. What terms are described:

1. any of the pieces of hard, whitish tissue making up the skeleton in human;

2. a long flat vertical bone, situated in front of the thorax, to which are attached the collarbone and the first seven pairs of ribs;

3. a small triangular bone at the base of the spinal column in humans consisting of several fused rudimentary vertebrae;

4. one of a series of long curved bones occurring in 12 pairs in humans and extending from the spine to or toward the sternum;

5. a band of strong connective tissue serving to connect bones or hold organs in place;

6. the smallest bone in the human body;

7. a band of tough, fibrous, inelastic tissue that connects a muscle to a bone;

8. the junction between two or more bones.

Exercise 13. Complete the table with the missing degrees of adjectives:

POSITIVE DEGREE COMPARATIVE DEGREE SUPERLATIVE DEGREE
thin    
  easier  
    the worst
  more dangerous  
good    
    the farthest
interesting    
  fatter  
    the softest
happy    
    the sweetest
common    

 

Exercise 14. Open the brackets using the adjectives in the proper degree of comparison:

1. The lumbar vertebrae are (large) vertebrae in the spinal column.

2. This bone is (long) than that one.

3. He is (experienced) surgeon in this hospital.

4. It is a (good) idea.

5. This exercise is (difficult) than the one we did yesterday.

6. She is the (young) in her family.

7. Is Anatomy (interesting) than Physics for you?

8. That was the (bad) decision he could make.

Exercise 15. Open the brackets using the verb in an appropriate tense (Present, Past, Future Simple Active or Passive Voice):

1. The new equipment (to install) in the emergency room next week.

2. Yellow bone marrow (to store) calcium and fat.

3. The lungs (to protect) by the chest.

4. All the patients at the in-patient department (to examine) two hours ago.

5. The professor (to ask) a lot of questions after his lecture tomorrow.

6. This patient (to complain) of severe headache last week.

7. The doctor (to make) a diagnosis only after he gets the findings of your blood test.

8. The administration (to change), if he doesn’t feel better tomorrow.

 

Exercise 16. Put questions to the underlined words:

1. The chest is composed of 12 thoracic vertebrae, the breastbone and 12 pairs of ribs.

2. He will be administered a bed regimen.

3. Yellow bone marrow stores calcium and fat.

4. The human skeleton takes 20 years before it is fully developed.

5. There are 206 bones in the adult human skeleton.

6. The bones of the skull consist of cranial and facial parts.

7. The upper extremity is formed by the arm, forearm and hand.

8. His temperature will be taken in the morning.

 

Exercise 17. Translate into English:

1. Осьовий скелет складається з кісток, які підтримують торс.

2. Нижня кінцівка приєднюєтся до торсу за допомогою тазу.

3. М’язи прикріплені до кісток, і якщо м’язи рухаються, кістки також рухаються.

4. Скелету людини потрібно 20 років , щоб повністю розвинутися.

5. Грудна клітка складається з 12 грудних хребців, грудини та 12 пар ребер.

6. У дорослої людини скелет складає близько 14% від загальної маси тіла, та половина його маси – вода.

7. Верхня кінцівка складається з плеча, передпліччя та кисті.

8. Кістковий мозок розміщуєтся всередині кістковомозокової порожнини кісток.

 

Exercise 18. Make definitions of the terms bone, skeleton, skull using the sentences below:

a) It protects the brain.

b) The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the arms and legs, along with the bones that attach them to the axial skeleton.

c) Also, bones protect the organs beneath them.

d) Bones are the main support for the body.

e) The skeleton is a hard framework consisting of bones.

f) The bones of the skull consist of cranial and facial parts.

g) It supports and protects the soft parts of a human body and provides attachment for muscles.

h) A bone is any of the pieces of hard, whitish tissue making up the skeleton in humans.

i) The skull is made of a number of fused flat bones.

j) The axial skeleton is comprised of the bones that support the trunk.

k) Bone marrow is located inside the marrow cavity of bones.

l) There are 26 bones in the skull.

m) The skeleton can be divided into three basic parts: skull, axial skeleton, and appendicular skeleton.

n) The skull is the bony skeleton of the head.

o) Yellow bone marrow stores calcium and fat, red bone marrow produces blood cells.

 

BONE SKELETON SKULL
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

 

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

I. Перекладіть словосполучення: хребетний стовп кістковий мозок зв’язки та сухожилля шійні хребці осьовий скелет прикріплений до кісток накопичувати кальцій кістково-мозкова порожнина новонароджена дитина забезпечити захист   II. Дайте відповіді на питання: What is the function of the skull? What parts can the skeleton be divided into? What is the skeleton constructed of? How many bones are there in the skull of an adult? What is the biggest bone in the body?   III. Розкрийте поняття: скелет кістка череп
Anatomy of the Heart

 



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