Physiology of the alimentary tract



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Physiology of the alimentary tract



The first step in the alimentary system can begin before the food is in your mouth. When you smell or see food, you start to salivate, thus beginning the digestive process.

Food is the body's source of fuel. Nutrients in food give the body's cells the energy they need to operate. Before food can be used, it has to be broken down into tiny pieces. Then it is easy to absorb by the body. In humans, proteins are broken down into amino acids, starches into sugars, and fats into fatty acids and glycerol.

During digestion two main processes occur at the same time:

· Mechanical Digestion: larger pieces of food break down into smaller pieces before the chemical digestion. Mechanical digestion starts in the mouth and continues in to the stomach.

· Chemical Digestion: several different enzymes break down macromolecules into smaller molecules. They are absorbed more efficiently. Chemical digestion starts with saliva and continues into the intestines.

In the alimentary tract the food really passes through the body rather than being in the body. The smooth muscles of the tubular digestive organs move the food efficiently along as it is broken down into absorb-able atoms and molecules. During absorption, the nutrients that come from food (such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals) pass through the wall of the small intestine and into the bloodstream and lymph. In this way nutrients are distributed throughout the rest of the body. In the large intestine there is re-absorption of water and absorption of some minerals and feces are formed.

Digestion begins in the mouth. A brain reflex triggers the flow of saliva when we see or think about food. Saliva moistens the food while the teeth chew it up and make it easier to swallow. The digestive enzyme in saliva, starts to break down starch into simpler sugars before the food leaves the mouth. The nervous pathway involved in salivary excretion requires stimulation of receptors in the mouth, sensory impulses to the brain stem, and parasympathetic impulses to salivary glands.

Swallowing your food happens when the muscles in your tongue and mouth move the food into your pharynx. The pharynx is the passageway for food and air. A small flap of skin called the epiglottis over the pharynx prevents food from entering the trachea and thus choking.

 

Exercise 8. Answer the following questions to the text:

1. When does the digestive process begin?

2. How many processes occur during digestion?

3. What is the difference between mechanical and chemical digestions?

4. What is the function of the smooth muscles?

5. What nutrients come from food during absorption?

6. What is the role of saliva in mastication?

7. What is the function of the enzyme?

8. How does the process of swallowing occur?

 

Exercise 9. Translate the following word combinations into English:

Початок травного процесу, виділяти слину, давати енергію клітинам тіла, білки та вуглеводи, розщеплювати жири на жирні кислоти і гліцерин, жування та ковтання, хімічне травлення, поглинати більш ефективно, розподілити по всьому тілу, рефлекторно викликати потік слини, вимагати стимуляції рецепторів, поширюватися по тілу, запобігти потрапляння в трахею, зволожити їжу, прохід для їжі та повітря, джерело топлива, поглинання мінералів.

 

Exercise 10. Match the terms with their definitions:

1. proteins   2. fats   3. starches   4. enzymes   5. digestion   6. mastication   7. chocking   8. swallowing a) any of various proteins, as pepsin, originating from living cells and capable of producing certain chemical changes in organic substances; b) a substance that has amino acids, compounds and carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur and is found in many foods (such as meat, milk, eggs, and beans) that is an important part of the human diet; c) any of various soft, solid, or semisolid organic compounds forming the esters of glycerol and fatty acids and their associated organic groups; d) the process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed and assimilated by the body; e) the process in the human or animal body that makes something pass from the mouth, to the pharynx, and into the esophagus, while shutting the epiglottis; f) the mechanical obstruction of the flow of air from the environment into the lungs. It prevents breathing, and can be partial or complete; g) a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds; h) the process by which food is crushed and ground by teeth.

 

Exercise 11. Arrange the following sentences in a correct order to describe the following term “enzyme”:

1. Enzyme does not control the direction of the reaction, it increases the rates of the reactions.

2. A substance produced by the body to assist in a chemical reaction.

3. Very few biochemical reactions carry on at a significant rate without the presence of an enzyme.

4. It acts as a catalyst, increasing the rate at which a chemical reaction occurs.

5. The human body probably contains about 10,000 different enzymes.

Exercise 12. Guess what enzymes are produced by fallowing organs:

Site Enzyme Role in Digestion
Mouth   Breaks down starches into disaccharides.
Stomach   Breaks down proteins into larger peptides.
Small intestine (from the pancreas)   Continues the breakdown of starch.
  Continues the breakdown of protein.
  Breaks down fat.
Small intestine   Breaks down remaining disaccharides into monosaccharades.
  Breaks down dipeptides into amino acids.
Salivary amylase, Pepsin, Amylase, Trypsin, Lipase, Sucrase and lactase, Pepsidase

 

Exercise 13. Define forms of the gerund and functions in the sentence. Translate:

1. Overeating is bad for your health.

2. Asking him about his diagnose was useless.

3. The role of teeth in digestion is chewing the food.

4. The speed of moving the food through the esophagus depends on its size.

5. Eating with an open mouth is a bad habit.

6. There are many ways of solving this problem.

7. They went on eating.

8. Doctors are always ready for helping people.

Exercise 14. Put questions to the underlined words:

1. The alimentary tract is a twisting tube about 8½ metres long.

2. All food consists of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.

3. The mucosa is the inner layer of the alimentary tract.

4. The alimentary tract constantly releases hormones to help regulate the digestive process.

5. Saliva contains an enzyme called salivary amylase which begins the digestion of starch.

6. Some foods and drinks can affect the function of the esophageal sphincter.

7. Smoking also weakens the esophageal sphincter and can produce heartburn.

8. Scientists believe that between 500 and 1000 different species of bacteria live in the large intestine.

 

Exercise 15. Arrange the following sentences in a correct order to describe the following term “The alimentary tract”:

1. During digestion proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals are broken down for better absorption.

2. It consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.

3. The alimentary tract is a musculomembraneous canal about 8½ metres in length.

4. The liver with gallbladder and pancreas are the large glands of the alimentary tract.

5. Three main processes take part in the alimentary tract: digestion, absorption and excretion.

6. It extends from the oral cavity to the anus.

 

Exercise 16. Continue the following sentences to describe the following term “digestion”:

1. Digestion is a process ….. .

2. Digestion begins ….. .

3. During digestion two main processes occur at the same time ….. .

4. Food is broking down into tiny pieces during ….. .

5. On chemical digestion enzyme in saliva starts ….. .

 

Exercise 17. Translate into English:

1. Жування — це процес механічної переробки їжі, що відбувається у роті.

2. Жування супроводжується виділенням слини.

3. Слина зволожує їжу, в той час як зуби пережовують її, для подальшого ковтання.

4. Ковтання відбувається, коли м'язи у язику та роті переміщують їжу у горло.

5. Надгортанник запобігає потраплянню їжі у трахею.

 

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

I. Перекладіть словосполучення: початок травного процесу механічне та хімічне травлення виділяти слину прохід для їжі та повітря зволожити їжу вимагати стимуляції рецепторів розподілити по всьому тілу розщеплювати жири на жирні кислоти і гліцерин розщеплювати складні вуглеводи на цукри запобігти потрапляння в трахею   II. Дайте відповідь на питання: When does the digestive process begin? How many processes occur during digestion? What nutrients come from food during absorption? What is the role of saliva in mastication? How does the process of swallowing occur?   III. Розкрийте поняття: Травна система Травлення Жування Ферменти

 

 

 

 

The Liver

 

Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary:

emulsify, v [i'melsifai] робити емульсію, емульсувати
fatty liver disease [ˈfæti ˈlɪvə dɪˈziːz] жирова дистрофія печінки
jaundice, n ['dʒɔ:ndɪs] жовтяниця
liver failure ['livə] ['feiljə] печінкова недостатність
portal vein ['pɔːt(ə)l veɪn] воротна вена
prone, adj [prəʊn] схильний (до чого-небудь)
rid, v [rid] очищати, звільняти
scarring, n [skɑ:rɪŋ] рубцювання
survival, n [səvaiv(ə)l] виживання
vertebrate, n ['vɜːtɪbreɪt] хребетний, високорозвинений (про тварин)

 

Exercise 2. Read and translate:

bilirubin – an orange-yellow pigment, cirrhosis – type of liver disease, detoxification – neutralization of poisoning or smth., dialysis – the process of removing waste products and excess fluid, hepatocyte – hepatic cell.

 

Exercise 3. Form adjectives using the suffix:

-ive: effect, prevent, infect, protect, penetrate, digest, irritate, product, connect, associate, excess, infiltrate.

- ful: harm, use, pain, care, hope, success, beauty.

- al: function, accident, behavior, clinic, intestine, bacteria, nutrition, norm, artery, abdomen.

 

Exercise 4. Read and translate the word combinations into your native language:

Vital organ of vertebrates, lobes of unequal size and shape, the hepatic artery and the portal vein, blood containing digested nutrients, detoxification and protein synthesis, to release the hormone, to emulsify fats, to rid of harmful substances, survival, an incredible capacity for regeneration, to be prone to disease, to cause long-term damage to the liver, permanent scarring, liver failure.

 

Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:

The Liver

The liver is a vital organ present in human beings and other vertebrates. It is the largest gland in the human body and a part of the digestive system.

The liver is a reddish brown organ consisting of four lobes of unequal size and shape. The lobes are further subdivided into lobules. Each lobule is made up of millions of hepatic cells which are the basic metabolic cells. A human liver normally weighs about 1.5 kg and is a soft triangular organ. It is located in the right upper part of the abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm and is protected by the ribs. It is connected with two large blood vessels - the hepatic artery and the portal vein. The hepatic artery carries blood from the aorta and the portal vein carries blood containing digested nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract. These blood vessels are subdivided into capillaries, which then lead to a lobule.

The liver has a wide range of functions, including detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion, vitamin storage, etc.

The liver plays an active role in the process of digestion through the production of bile. Bile is a mixture of water, bile salts, cholesterol, and the pigment bilirubin. Bilirubin is an orange-yellow pigment in the bile formed as a breakdown product of haemoglobin. Excess amounts of bilirubin in the blood produce the yellow appearance associated with jaundice. Hepatocytes in the liver produce bile, which then passes through the bile ducts to be stored in the gallbladder. The main function of bile is to emulsify fats, that helps the body to digest them much easier.

But the liver's main function is filtering the blood which comes from the digestive tract, before passing it to the rest of the body. It detoxifies the blood to rid it of harmful substances such as alcohol and drugs.

Vitamin storage is one more function of the liver. The liver stores fat-soluble vitamins such A, B12, D, E and K as well as minerals such as iron and copper.

The liver supports almost every organ in the body and is necessary for survival. Because the liver performs so many vital functions, it is prone to disease. Fortunately, the liver has an incredible capacity for regeneration of dead or damaged tissues; it is capable of growing very quickly to restore its normal size and function. In most cases, the liver produces symptoms only after extensive damage.

Common liver diseases include hepatitis A, B, C; cirrhosis, caused by long-term damage to the liver from any cause that leads to permanent scarring; fatty liver disease; cancer as well as damage from alcohol.

There is currently no way to compensate the absence of the liver function. Nowadays dialysis (machine performs the detoxification function of the liver) is used but it cannot support a person longer than a few years.

 

Exercise 6. Answer the questions to the text:

1. Where is the liver located?

2. What does the liver consist of?

3. What blood vessels is the liver connected with?

4. What functions does the liver have?

5. What is bile?

6. Why is the liver prone to infections?

7. What incredible capacity does the liver have?

8. What diseases of the liver do you know?

 

Exercise 7. Find corresponding equivalents:

1. hepatic artery and portal vein 2. to release hormones 3. to compensate the absence of the liver function 4. incredible capacity for regeneration 5. to perform vital functions 6. harmful substances 7. to be protected by the ribs 8. long-term damage 9. liver failure 10. lobes of unequal size and shape a) виконувати життєві функції b) надзвичайна здатність регенерації c) печінкова недостатність d) довготривале пошкодження e) долі з неоднаковим розміром та формую f) звільняти гормони g) компенсувати відсутні функції печінки h) печінкова артерія та воротна вена i) шкідливі речовини j) захищатися ребрами

 

Exercise 8. Find in the text words denoting gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system and fill in the table:

Gastrointestinal tract Cardiovascular system
   

 

Exercise 9. Match the terms with their definitions:

1. gallbladder 2. bile 3. bilirubin 4. duodenum 5. artery a) the small sac-shaped organ beneath the liver, in which bile is stored after secretion by the liver and before release into the intestine b) the first part of the small intestine immediately beyond the stomach, leading to the jejunum c) any of the muscular-walled tubes forming part of the circulation system by which blood is conveyed from the heart to all parts of the body d) an orange-yellow pigment formed in the liver by the breakdown of haemoglobin and excreted in bile e) a bitter greenish-brown alkaline fluid which aids digestion and is secreted by the liver and stored in the gall bladder

 

Exercise 10. Translate the words given in italics into English. Translate the whole sentences into your native language:

1. Jaundice was caused by the excessive amount of bilirubin that is продукт розпаду гемоглобіну.

2. The liver plays an active role in the process of травлення through the production of жовчі.

3. After the severe damage of the liver in the patient, it could регентувати пошкоджені тканини within a year.

4. The рубцювання of the liver tissues blocks the тік крові through the liver and slows the flow of nutrients, hormones etc.

5. As liver виконує життєво важливі функції in the body, it is important for survival.

6. Cirrhosis is the result of довготривале пошкодження печінки, characterized by replacement of the liver tissue by scar tissue.

7. As the liver functions are damaged by the infection, it can’t filter blood from шкідливих речовин.

8. There are 2 forms of печінкової недостатності acute and chronic.

 

Exercise 11. Continue the phrase:

1. … is a small organ where bile is stored.

2. … is an organ where bile is produced.

3. … is a system which perform the digestive processes in the body.

4. The liver … the blood to rid it of harmful substances.

5. The liver consists of ….

6. The liver is prone to disease because ….

7. … is caused by long-term damage to the liver from any cause that leads to permanent scarring.

8. … is a fluid produced by the liver that aids in digestion.

Exercise 12. Find synonyms in the text to the following phrases:

1. hepatic insufficiency –

2. injured tissues –

3. to carry out life functions –

4. injury of long duration –

5. hazardous agents –

6. to be vulnerable to diseases –

7. the decomposition product of haemoglobin –

8. rehabilitation, recovery of the liver cells -

 

Exercise 13. Put the words from the table into an appropriate gap:

the liver; hepatitis C; asymptomatic; sneezing and coughing; liver failure; infected; blood-to-blood contact

Hepatitis C is an infectious disease affecting … and caused by a virus. The infection is often …, but can lead to scarring of the liver and to cirrhosis. In some cases, patients with cirrhosis may develop … or liver cancer.

The virus is spread by … associated with intravenous drug use, poorly sterilized medical equipment and transfusions. You cannot get hepatitis C from casual contact such as kissing, …, or sharing food or drink. Having no symptoms, … may be present in the body for 15 years or longer before being diagnosed. Persons who have been infected with hepatitis C may clear the virus but remain … .

 

Exercise 14. Open the brackets and put the verbs in a correct form:

1. Cirrhosis most often (to cause) by chronic liver disease resulted from long-term alcohol abuse or hepatitis C.

2. If hepatitis A (to suspect), the doctor will test antibodies to detect the hepatitis A virus.

3. Since 1992, all donated blood and organs (to test) for hepatitis C.

4. Degeneration of hepatic cells, in the patient observed yesterday, (to cause) by hepatitis A.

5. This patient (to make) already a liver dialysis twice

6. Two patients (to admit) to the hospital an hour ago.

7. Next Monday the patient suffering from severe liver damage (to make) a dialysis.

8. The name of great surgeon Pirogov (to know) not only in our country.

Exercise 15. Put questions to the underlined words:

1. Hepatitis viruses can survive in water and food for days and weeks.

2. These patients were administered liver transplantation.

3. The patient is complaining of nausea and sometimes vomiting.

4. The scientists have established a total weight of blood in the human being.

5. All movements of the body are regulated by the cerebral cortex.

6. Scar tissue has already replaced healthy liver tissue.

7. The urine in this patient contained a small amount of protein and erythrocytes.

8. The patient has a slightly elevated body temperature.

Exercise 16. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Печінка — другий найбільший орган в організм людини після шкіри.

2. Печінка займає центральне місце в обміні речовин завдяки анатомічному розміщенню.

3. Печінка здатна знешкоджувати за допомогою фільтрації крові різні отрути.

4. Ознакою хворої печінки може бути низький артеріальний тиск, спричинений слабкістю венозної системи.

5. Вірусні інфекції, ожиріння, цукровий діабет, отруєння і надмірне вживання алкоголю можуть викликати проблеми в роботі печінки.

6. Гепати́т А (хвороба Боткіна, інфекційний гепатит) спричиняється вірусом, що потрапляє до організму з їжею або водою.

7. Печінка має здатність регентувати порушені або змертвілі клітини, та відновлювати своє функціонування.

8. Печінка також виробляє білки, які потрібні для згортання крові та іншім функціям.

Exercise 17. Put the sentences into the correct order to explain the term “liver”:

___The liver has a wide range of functions, including detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion, vitamin storage, etc.

___The liver is the largest gland in the human body and a part of the digestive system.

___It has an incredible capacity for regeneration of dead or damaged tissues; it is capable of growing very quickly to restore its normal size and function.

___It is located in the right upper part of the abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm and is protected by the ribs.

___The liver is a reddish brown organ consisting of four lobes of unequal size and shape.

 

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

  I. Перекладіть словосполучення: виконувати життєві функції надзвичайна здатність регенерації печінкова недостатність довготривале пошкодження компенсувати відсутні функції печінки печінкова артерія та воротна вена шкідливі речовини продукт розпаду гемоглобіну рубцювання тканин бути схильним до захворювання   II. Дайте відповіді на питання: What does liver consist of? What functions does liver have? Why is liver prone to infections? Why is liver considered to be vital for survival? What incredible capacity does liver have?   III. Розкрийте поняття:Печінка
The Endocrine Glands

Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary:

acromegaly, n [ækrə´megəli] акромегалія (збільшення у розмірі голови, рук та ліця)
adrenal, adj [əd'ri:nl] наднирковий
band, n [bænd] стрічка
cortex, n [´kɔ:teks] Кора головного мозку
duct, n [dΛkt] протока
dwarfing, n [´dwɔ:fiŋ] карликовість
excitement, n [ik´saitmənt] збудження, хвилювання
involuntary, adj [in´vɔl(ə)nt(ə)ri] мимовільний
lobe, n [ləub] доля
masculinity, n [mæskjə´liniti] схожість на чоловіка
medulla, n [me´dΛlə] мозок
narrow, adj [´nærəu] вузький
pituitary, n [pi'tju(:)it(ə)ri] гіпофіз
pour, v (into) [pɔ:] вливатися
thyroid, n [´θairנּɪd ] щитовидна залоза
uterus, n [´jutər(ə)s] матка

Exercise 2. Guess the meaning of the following words without using a distionary:

Endocrine, gland, hypophysis, secretion, hormone, substance, metabolism, activity, emotion, base, functioning, to stimulate, peristalsis, adrenalin, trachea, control, pancreas,

 

Exercise 3. а) Read the word combinations and translate them:

Gland:enlarged gland; swollen gland; salivary gland; pituitary gland; glands secrete hormones.

Amount:considerable amount; exact amount; to reduce the amount; limited amount; excessive amount; total amount.

Affect:to affect greatly; to affect indirectly; to affect slightly; to affect significantly.

Circulation:poor circulation; systemic circulation; pulmonary circulation; to improve circulation; to stimulate circulation.

b) Make up short sentences using the above given word combinations:

Exercise 4. Give Ukrainian equivalents to the following word combinations:

Ductless glands; internal secretions; reproductive glands; on either side; to produce masculinity; excitement and strong emotions; fear or anger; the glands of “flight and fight”; the pituitary fossa; sexual development; involuntary muscle;

Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:

The Endocrine Glands

All glands in the human body can be divided into glands with ducts and ductless. Ductless glands have no duct but they make a secretion which they pour into the blood stream. These secretions are called internal secretions or hormones, and glands which produce them are also called endocrine glands.

The chief ductless glands are: the thyroid gland, the adrenal glands and the pituitary gland.

There are also other important glands which produce internal secretions as well as other substances, e.g. the pancreas, the liver and the reproductive glands.

The thyroid gland lies in the front of the neck. It consists of two lobes lying on either side, joined by a narrow band which crosses the trachea immediately below the larynx. The gland is well supplied with blood vessels and consists essentially of secreting cells. The cells secrete thyroxin, which passes into the circulation. Thyroxin controls the general metabolism or activity of the body tissues.

The adrenal glands are two small triangular glands lying one over each kidney. They consist of two parts, cortex and medulla. The outer part produces a secretion which affects sex. Oversecretion produces masculinity in the female and in the male it produces too early development of the male reproductive organs.

The medulla produces a very important secretion called adrenalin, It secreted amount increases in excitement and strong emotions such as fear or anger. The adrenals are therefore sometimes called the glands of “flight and fight”.

The pituitary gland (hypophysis) is a small gland about the size of a pea and yet is of great importance. It lies in the pituitary fossa in the base of the skull. It consists of an anterior and a posterior lobe.

The anterior lobe is the larger and produces a number of important hormones affecting growth and sexual development and the functioning of the ductless glands, particularly the thyroid and the adrenal glands. Undersecretion of this lobe in childhood causes dwarfing. Oversecretion causes overgrowth or gigantism. In the adult this oversecretion causes overgrowth of the head, hands, and feet, particularly affecting the lower jaw. This condition is known as acromegaly.

The posterior lobe produces the secretion known as pituitrin. This stimulates involuntary muscle and therefore contracts the blood vessels and raises blood pressure, stimulates peristalsis, contracts the uterus; it affects the use of water by the body.

Exercise 6. Answer the questions:

1. How are glands in the human body classified?

2. What is hormone?

3. What are the main ductless glands?

4. What is the structure of the thyroid gland?

5. What does thyroxin control?

6. What is the structure of the adrenal glands?

7. When is adrenalin secreted?

8. What is the structure of the pituitary gland?

9. What does the pituitary gland affect?

Exercise 7. I. Form new words with the prefix OVER meaning “понад, вверх”. Translate them:

Model:over+ dosage →overdosage (передозування)

weight, cooling, heating, work, salt, sensitive, sleep, use, talkative, curious, load, excitement, dose, estimate, eating, growth, development, action.

II. Form new words with the prefix UNDER meaning „під, нижче".Translate them.

Model: under+ dose →underdose (недостатня доза)

estimate, salted, developed, weight, graduate, ventilation, act, nourished

Exercise 8. Form adjectives using the suffix –LESS meaning “відсутність”. Translate them.Model: power + less—powerless (безсилий)

Care, duct, fear, hope, pain, color, taste, use, harm, meaning, shame.

Exercise 9. Match the terms with their definitions:

1. acromegaly 2. gland 3. gigantism 4. adrenal gland 5. thyroid gland 6. hypophysis a) triangle-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys; b) a small, somewhat cherry-shaped double-lobed structure attached to the base of the brain, constituting the master endocrine gland affecting all hormonal functions of the body; c) a large endocrine gland situated in the base of the neck concerned with regulation of the metabolic rate; d) Increase in size of the hands, feet and the face due to excessive production of “growth hormone”; e) an organ or group of cells that is specialized for synthesizing and secreting fluids either for use in the body or for excretion; f) abnormal growth causing excessive height, most commonly due to oversecretion during childhood of “growth hormone”.
           
             

Exercise 10. Translate into English:

Головні залози, які не мають вивідних протоків; страх або гнів; вражати рост та статевий розвиток; скорочення кров’яних судин; струмінь крові; кількість, що секретується; втеча і боротьба; вузька стрічка; залози репродуктивної системи; постачатися судинами крові; трикутна залоза; карликовість; передня доля; задня доля; по обидві боки.

 

Exercise 11. Put the words from the table into an appropriate gap:

Influence; controlling; eight major glands; diabetes; supplements; a hormone disorder; hormones

 

Your endocrine system includes … throughout your body. These glands make … . If your hormone levels are too high or too low, you may have … . Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond to hormones the way it is supposed to. Stress, infection and changes in your blood's fluid and electrolyte balance can also … hormone levels. In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is … . There are many others. They are usually treated by … how much hormone your body makes. Hormone … can help if the problem is too little of a hormone.

Exercise 12. Open the brackets using the correct form of the verb. Translate the sentences:

1.Thyroxin ( to control) the general metabolism or activity of the body tissues

2.The patient already (to treat) by the doctor from pneumonia.

3.The wound is usually dressed by the nurse.

4.Blood pressure (to take) now.

5.Skin irritation (to cause) by overdosage of the drug.

6.The anterior lobe of the hypothesis (to produce) a number of important hormones

7.I (to treat) at this clinic for acute pneumonia last week.

8.We were said that the direction of the nerve fibers already (to establish) experimentally.

9.The thyroid gland (to supply) well with blood vessels.

Exercise 13. Make up questions to the underlined words:

1. The hormones are delivered to various organs.

2. The thyroid gland is well supplied with blood vessels.

3. The patient has been recommended to consult his pharmacist for professional advice on medicines.

4. Many hormones affect metabolism.

5. The chemical composition of some hormones is well-known.

6. Each gland consists of glandular epithelial tissue.

7. The hormones affect the functions of the different parts of the nervous system.

8. The pituitary gland is about the size of a pea.

9. The outer part of the adrenal glands produces a secretion which affects sex.

Exercise 14. Arrange the following sentences in a correct order to describe the following term. Use them in describing the terms:

А) The endocrine glands

1. Glands which produce internal secretions or hormones are called endocrine glands.

2. Ductless glands make a secretion which they pour into the blood stream.

3. The endocrine glands regulate all functions of the body.

4. All glands in the human body can be divided into glands with ducts and ductless.

5. The chief ductless glands are: the thyroid gland, the adrenal glands and the pituitary gland.

 

B) The thyroid gland

1. The cells of the thyroid secrete thyroxin, which passes into the circulation.

2. The thyroid gland lies in the front of the neck.

3. The gland is well supplied with blood vessels and consists essentially of secreting cells.

4. Thyroxin controls the general metabolism or activity of the body tissues.

5. The thyroid consists of two lobes lying on either side.

 

C) Adrenal glands

1. The adrenal glands consist of two parts, cortex and medulla.

2 .Adrenalin increases in excitement and strong emotions such as fear or anger.

3. The adrenal glands are two small triangular glands lying one over each kidney.

4. The medulla produces a very important secretion called adrenalin

5. The outer part produces a secretion which affects sex. Oversecretion produces masculinity in the female and in the male it produces too early development of the male reproductive organs.

 

D) The pituitary gland

1. The pituitary gland lies in the pituitary fossa in the base of the skull.

2. The anterior lobe produces a number of important hormones affecting growth and sexual development and the functioning of the thyroid and the adrenal glands.

3. The pituitary gland (hypophysis) is a small gland about the size of a pea.

4. Pituitrin stimulates involuntary muscle and therefore contracts the blood vessels and raises blood pressure, stimulates peristalsis,

5. The posterior lobe produces the secretion known as pituitrin.

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

I. Перекладіть словосполучення: збільшення у розмірі голови, рук та ліця карликовість нарниркова залоза щитовидна залоза гіпофіз передня та задня долі статевий розвиток трикутна залоза потік крові органи розмноження   II. Дайте відповіді на питання: What are the main ductless glands? What is the structure of the thyroid gland? What does thyroxin control? What is the structure of the adrenal glands? What is the structure of the pituitary gland? What does the pituitary gland affect?   III. Розкрийте поняття: Ендокринні залози Щитовидна залоза Надниркова залози Гіпофіз

 

Hormones

 

Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary:

alter, v ['ɔːltə] змінювати
contribute to, v [kən'tribju:t] сприяти
diabetes mellitus, n [ˌdaɪə'biːtiːz] цукровий діабет
dwarfism, n [ˈdwɔːfɪz(ə)m] карликовость
hypophysis, n [hʌɪˈpɒfɪsɪs] гіпофіз
mood, n [muːd] настрій
obesity, n [ə(u)'biːsɪtɪ] ожиріння
pineal gland, n ['piniəl] шишкоподібна залоза
release, v [rɪ'liːs] вивільняти, звільняти
thymus, n ['θaiməs] тимус, вилочкова залоза

 

Exercise 2.Form new words with the help of suffixes and prefixes. Translate them:

Example: un -: known (відомий) – unknown (невідомий)

un -: controllable, developed, useful, complicated, certain.

dis-: function, infect, integrate, balance, order.

Exercise 3. Read and translate:

To release chemicals, to alter behavior and patient’s mood, the function of pituitary gland, to contribute to the disorder of pineal gland function, to maintain the work of immune system, disturbed functions of adrenal glands, to have a significant impact, to regulate the wake-sleep cycle, the abnormal level of hormones, to change from head to toe at puberty, to contribute to bone and muscle building, used to combat infection and abnormal cells, to cope with different events and stresses.

 

Exercise 4. Read and translate:

Hormones

A hormone is a special chemical released by one or more cells that affects cells in other parts of the organism. Only a small amount of hormone is required to alter cell metabolism. It is a chemical messenger that transports a signal from one cell to another. They affect many different processes in the body including growth and development, metabolism, sexual function, behavior, reproduction, mood.

Endocrine glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary (hypophysis), pineal, thymus, thyroid, adrenal glands, and pancreas.

The pituitary gland is often called the “master gland” because it releases hormones that control other glands and such processes in the body as growth, blood pressure, temperature regulation, etc. The pineal gland secretes melatonin that helps to regulate the wake-sleep cycle. The thyroid gland produces hormones that control the rate at which cells burn fuels from food to produce energy. As the level of thyroid hormones increases in the bloodstream, so does the speed at which chemical reactions occur in the body. The adrenal glands produce corticosteroid hormones that regulate metabolism, the work of immune system, and aldosterone that regulates blood pressure, etc. The pancreas produces hormones that maintain a steady level of glucose in the blood. Thymus produces a hormone, that stimulates the production of antibodies and creates T-lymphocytes, which are white blood cells used to combat infection and abnormal cells. So the function of thymus is the maintenance of the immune system.

So, hormones are the cause why your arms are the same length and why you changed from head to toe at puberty.

Hormones are so powerful that it takes only a tiny amount to cause big changes in cells or even in the whole body. Hormone levels that are too high or too low are an indication of a problem with the endocrine system. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond to hormones. Hormone imbalances can have a significant impact on the human health.

The deficiency of any hormone leads to a particular disease, which can be cured by administration of that hormone. The abnormal level of leptin, produced by fat cells, can lead to obesity. The abnormal level of insulin, produced by the pancreas and responsible for the regulation of carbohydrate and fat metabolism, can lead to of diabetes mellitus II type. The pituitary gland in the brain produces growth hormone, which influences an individual’s height and contributes to bone and muscle building. The abnormal level of pituitary hormones can lead to gigantism (if it is too high) or dwarfism (if it is too little).

The endocrine system works with the nervous system and the immune system to help the body cope with different events and stresses.

 

Exercise 5. Find corresponding definition to the words on the left:

1. metabolism 2. hormone 3. pancreas 4. thymus 5. thyroid 6. immune system 7. gland a) the organs and processes of the body that provide resistance to infection and toxins; b) a lymphoid organ situated in the neck of vertebrates which produces T-lymphocytes for the immune system; c) the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life; d) a large ductless gland in the neck which secretes hormones regulating growth and development through the rate of metabolism; e) a regulatory substance produced in an organism that effects other cells in the organism; f) is an organ in the body that synthesizes a substance such as hormones or breast milk for release into the bloodstream; g) a large gland behind the stomach which secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum.

 

Exercise 6. Answer the questions:

1. What is a hormone?

2. What processes in the body can hormones affect?

3. What are the major endocrine glands?

4. What are thymus hormones responsible for?

5. What are the functions of hormones produced by adrenal glands?

6. How may the hormone imbalance influence the organism?

7. What diseases caused by hormone deficiency do you know?

8. What can lead to obesity?

9. What can the abnormal level of insulin, produced by the pancreas, result in?

10. What hormone does the pituitary gland produce?

Exercise 7. Give the appropriate translation:

шишкоподібна залоза та надниркова залоза  
  to cure the disease
підшлункова залоза та щитовидна залоза  
  to lead to obesity
вивільняти гормони  
  to combat infection and abnormal cells
виділяти хімічні речовини  
  the deficiency of hormones
гіпофіз та тимус  
регулювати обмін речовин  
  to maintain the immune system
призначення гормонів  
  to contribute to bone and muscle building

Exercise 8. Put the words from the table into an appropriate gap:

Hormones; diabetes; gigantism; deficiency; effects; the endocrine glands; insulin deficiency; dwarfism

 

Hormones are produced by the cells of ….. .

Hormones have several …... on the body that are vital to its function. An excess or …... of hormones can significantly influence an individual's normal daily life. …..., for example, leads to a decrease in the body's ability to synthesize and utilize the blood glucose absorbed from food, giving rise to …… .

…… also regulate the growth and development of the body. A deficiency in a vital hormone such as growth hormone can lead to severely growth problems in children and even …… . By contrast, excess of growth hormone can lead to …… or excessive height.

 

Exercise 9. Translate the words given in italics into English. Translate the whole sentences into your native language:

1. Гіпофіз secretes nine hormones that regulate homeostasis.

2. Шишкоподібна залоза produces melatonin that helps to regulate sleep/wake functions, and even seasonal functions.

3. The deficiency of iodine can lead to functional disturbances of щитовидної залози.

4. The immunity in this patient is significantly reduced due to the hyperfunction of тимусу.

5. Надниркові залози regulate the secretion of adrenalin.

6. As the patient’s condition was getting better, his настрій was improved.

7. Hormones are the reason why people change from head to toe at статевої зрілості.

8. Призначення of insulin saved the patient’s life.

 

Exercise 10. Fill in the gaps with the correct word:

1. ……….. makes hormones that control other endocrine glands.

2. ……….. produces antibodies and T-lymphocytes.

3. Hormones of ………….. maintain the level of glucose.

4. …………………… produce corticosteroid hormones, epinephrine, aldosterone.

5. The hormone, secreted by …………………..regulates the wake-sleep cycle.

6. ……………………needs frequent consumption of iodine for the production of hormones.

7. …………………… produces melatonin.

8. The abnormal level of the hormone produced by ……………. leads to diabetes mellitus.



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