Anatomy of Respiratory System



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Anatomy of Respiratory System



The cells of the human body require a constant stream of oxygen to stay alive. The respiratory system provides oxygen to the body’s cells by removing carbon dioxide.

There are 3 major parts of the respiratory system: the airway, the lungs, and the muscles of respiration.

The airway includes the nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles.

The nose and nasal cavity form the main external opening for the respiratory system through which air moves. The nasal cavity is a hollow space within the nose and skull that is lined with hairs and mucus membrane which warm, moisturize, and filter air.

The mouth or the oral cavity is the secondary external opening for the respiratory tract. It can be used to supplement or replace the nasal cavity’s functions when needed.

The pharynx, also known as the throat, is a muscular funnel. It extends from the nasal cavity to the larynx and esophagus.

The larynx, also known as the voice box, is a short section between the pharynx and trachea.

The trachea is a tube which extends from the base of the larynx to the lungs, where it divides into two bronchi.

The bronchi are two tubes which begin at the division of the trachea. The left bronchus is slightly longer than the right one as it passes around the heart to reach the left lung. Each bronchus leads into a lung. Inside the lungs, the bronchi divide, and subdivide, into smaller numerous bronchioles. The bronchioles end in very fine alveolar ducts leading to the alveoli.

The alveoli, or air sacs, are the ends of the air passages. Each alveolus is closely surrounded by blood capillaries. There are over 700,000,000 alveoli in the lungs. The total surface of the alveoli is about 90 sq.m (square meters).

The lungs are paired, spongy organs located in the chest. The lungs are divided into lobes - the right lung has three lobes and the smaller left lung has two lobes. Each lung is enclosed in a membranous sac, or pleura. The lungs have many capillaries with the total surface of about 80 sq.m.

It is considered that in the adult the vital capacity of the lungs is about 3-4 liters. When the depth of respiration increases the vital capacity may be 6 litres and even more.

Exercise 6. Find corresponding equivalents:

1. a single bronchiole 2. oral cavity & nasal cavity 3. a hollow space within the nose and skull 4. external opening 5. a short section of the airway 6. to be lined with hairs and mucus membrane 7. to range from … to… 8. to extend from … to… 9. to remove carbon dioxide 10. to be surrounded by blood capillaries 1. коротка ділянка повітряних шляхів 2. простягатися з … до … 3. виводити вуглекислий газ 4. бути оточеним кров’яними капілярами 5. варіюватися від … до … 6. ротова та носова порожнини 7. бути покритим волосками та слизовою оболонкою 8. одна бронхіола 9. порожнина в носі та черепі 10. зовнішній отвір

 

Exercise 7. Match the terms with their definitions:

1. oral cavity 2. trachea 3. larynx 4. bronchus 5. alveolus 6. lung 7. pleura   a) either of the two main branches of the trachea that lead to the lungs, where they divide into smaller branches; b) a membrane that encloses each lung and lines the chest cavity; c) either of the two saclike respiratory organs in the thorax of humans and the higher vertebrates; d) a tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air; e) the opening through which food is taken in and vocalizations emerge; f) any of the tiny air-filled sacs arranged in clusters in the lungs, in which the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place; g) a muscular and cartilaginous structure lined with mucous membrane at the upper part of the trachea in humans, in which the vocal cords are located.

 

Exercise 8. Answer the questions:

1. What is the respiratory system responsible for?

2. What are the main parts of the respiratory system?

3. What is the nose covered with?

4. What are pharynx and larynx?

5. Which bronchus is larger and why?

6. How many alveoli are there in the lungs?

7. What are the lungs? What is their vital capacity?

8. What are the common diseases of the respiratory tract?

Exercise 9. Fill in prepositions from the box below where necessary:

With; into; in; of; through; to; out;

1. Respiration is a process which provides body ……. oxygen for growth and other metabolic activities and removes waste products in the form …… carbon dioxide.

2. The lungs are the main organs involved ……… the respiration process.

3. Air passes ……. the lungs …… the nostrils and the air flows down the trachea …….. the lungs.

4. The lungs have alveoli which are small air sacs filled …….. tiny capillaries.

5. The respiration process is carried …….. in two ways in living organisms: aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

6. Some ……. the common diseases related …….. respiration are common cold, tonsillitis and laryngitis.

7. Asthma and pneumonia are diseases associated ……… respiration along with lung cancer.

Exercise 10. Fill in the gaps with the words and word-combinations from the box:

to take in; a stuffy nose; shortness of breath; trachea or bronchi; breathless; to supply; stress

About Respiratory Disorders

When you're short of breath, it's hard or uncomfortable for you ………… the oxygen your body needs. You may feel as if you're not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from ……… or hard exercise. But …………. can also be a sign of a serious disease.

Many conditions can make you feel short of breath. Lung conditions such as asthma, emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties. So can problems with your …………, which are part of your airway system. Heart disease can make you feel …………… if your heart cannot pump enough blood ………….. oxygen to your body. ………….. caused by anxiety can also make it hard for you to breathe. If you often have trouble breathing, it is important to find out the cause.

 

Exercise 11. Arrange sentences in the correct order to explain the term “lungs”:

___The lungs are divided into lobes - the right lung has three lobes and the smaller left lung has two lobes.

___The lungs are the main organs involved in the process of respiration.

___The lungs are paired, spongy organs located in the chest.

___Each lung is enclosed in a membranous sac, or pleura.

___Respiration is a process which provides body with oxygen for growth and other metabolic activities and removes waste products in the form of carbon dioxide.

 

Exercise 12. Arrange sentences in the correct order to explain the term “airways”:

___The trachea is a tube which extends from the base of the larynx to the lungs where it divides into two bronchi.

___Each bronchus leads into a lung where they divide and subdivide into smaller numerous bronchioles.

___The airway includes the nasal and oral cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles.

___The nasal cavity is a hollow space within the nose and skull that is lined with hairs and mucus membrane which warm, moisturize, and filter air.

___The pharynx extends from the nasal cavity to the larynx and esophagus.

___The bronchioles end in very fine alveolar ducts leading to the alveoli.

Exercise 13. Translate into your native language paying attention to Impersonal Sentences:

1. It is sometimes difficult to make proper diagnosis without laboratory tests.

2. It is always necessary to take an appropriate dosage of the drug.

3. It was nine o'clock when the ambulance arrived.

4. It's impossible for such infection to cause serious complications.

5. It wasn't dangerous for the patient to experience such kind of pain.

6. Is it important for medical students to watch surgical interventions by skilled surgeons?

7. Was it about six o'clock when the temperature decreased?

8. Will the patient be discharged out of the hospital tomorrow?

9. “It hurts in the upper part of the abdomen” – the patient said.

10. It won’t be good if you decide not to call in a doctor.

 

Exercise 14. Translate into your native language paying attention to Indefinite Personal Sentences:

1. It is known that infectious diseases are caused by viruses and microbes.

2. It is reported that a new epidemic of the flu will come soon.

3. It is likely that your son has measles.

4. It is supposed that the operation will be performed next week.

5. It is certain that a source of infection of the flu is a sick man.

6. It is likely that the wound will heal in about a week.

7. It is likely that the reaction will be prolonged.

8. It seems that the diagnosis is correct.

9. It is unlikely that he will fail the exam.

10. It appears that the patient’s analyses are normal.

 

Exercise 15. Make up interrogative sentences to the underlined words:

1. The respiratory tract is the pathway of air from the nose to the lungs.

2. The respiratory tract is divided into upper respiratory tract and lower respiratory tract.

3. In the process of breathing air enters into the nasal cavity through the nostrils.

4. Air travels through the pharynx to the larynx.

5. Larynx prevents the passage of food or drink into trachea and lungs.

6. The trachea connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs.

7. The bronchi are two tubes which end with alveoli where process of gaseous exchange takes place.

8. The lungs are the large, spongy, paired organs which are located in the thoracic cavity.

 

Exercise 16. Read the text, open the brackets in the correct tense and voice, and translate it into your native language:

Tina, aged 2 years, suffers from asthma. At her first treatment she (to be) very wheezy and had been prescribed steroids, which her mother didn’t want to use. Both parents (to smoke). The wheezing (to reduce) after the first treatment and has now disappeared, though there (to be) a period of mucus being produced. Her breathing has improved after 4 treatments. The steroids (to discontinue) before the first treatment. It (to be) very difficult to treat a two-year-old child who is sitting and squirming on her mother's knee. However, it ( to seem) to work well despite those difficulties. Normally, the child has had asthma attacks every two weeks or so during the winter. She has had none for over two months now.

 

Exercise 17. Speak on the following topics:

1. Famous scientists with asthma.

2. Air pollution affecting our health.

3. Oxygen cocktail as a tonic used for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes.

 

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

I. Перекладіть словосполучення: постачати тілу кисень доставляти кисень та виділяти вуглекислий газ доля легені простягатися від основи гортані до легень тонкі альвеолярні протоки носова та ротова порожнини загальна поверхня капілярів бути вкритим волосками та слизовою оболонкою життєва ємкість легень тонкі альвеолярні протоки   II. Дайте відповіді на питання: What are the main parts of the respiratory system? What process takes place in the lungs? Why is the left lung smaller than the right one? What is the respiratory system responsible for? What are the lungs? What is their vital capacity? III. Розкрийте поняття: Дихальні шляхи Легеня

 

 

Physiology of Respiratory System

Exercise 1. Learn the following new words:

bond, v [‘bond] зчіплювати
breathe, v [‘bri:ð] дихати
breath, n [‘breθ] дихання
capture, v [‘kæptʃə] схоплювати
cilium, n [‘siliəm] жмутик
coat (with), v [‘kout] вкривати
cough, n [‘kof] кашляти
dissolve, v [di’solv] розчинювати
emit, v [i’mit] виштовхувати, видаляти
expel, v [iks’pel] виділяти
germ, n [‘dʒ:m] мікроб
pollutant, n [pə’lu:tənt] забруднюючі речовини
sneeze, v [‘sni:z] чихати
supply, v [sə’plai] постачати
swallow, v [‘swoləw] ковтати

 

Exercise 2. Read the following examples and pay attention to the rules of reading. Give examples of your own:

g

e, i, y[dz] – gel, gene, general, oxygen, age

 

[g] – go, glad, again, gas, groin

 

ph [f] – phase, pharmacy, physics, photo, philosopher, pharynx

 

c

e, i, y [s] – face, cyst, cytoplasm, cycle, cell

 

[k] – carbon, calendar, cube, core, mucus

 

a + lf [a:] – calf, palm, half, calm

 

Exercise 3. Remember the rules of word-building in the English language. Translate them into Ukrainian:

a) form the Nounswith the help of suffix– mentfrom the verbs: to develop,to treat, to improve, to advance, to achieve, to excite, to nourish, to judge, to pay

b) form the Nounswith the help of suffix– nessfrom the adjectives: happy, busy, lazy, thick, greedy, sad, weak, tidy, white

c) form the Adjectiveswith the help of suffix– lessfrom the nouns: worth, use, friend, power, home, care, pain, hope, harm, speech

 

Exercise 4. Read and translate the word combinations into your native language:

To supply the body with oxygen; to enrich blood with oxygen; to remove carbon dioxide; a swollen larynx; to warm and moisten oxygen; fine hairs in the nose; to be coated with mucus; to capture germs and pollutants; to expel foreign matters; swallowing, coughing or sneezing; a network of arteries, veins and blood vessels; oxygen-rich or oxygenated blood; to be bonded to transport molecules; to increase a number of the opened alveoli and capillaries.

 

Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:



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