Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary.



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Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary.



atrium, n pl atria ['eɪtrɪəm] ['eɪtrɪə] передсердя
beat, v [bi:t] битися
bulk, n [bʌlk] маса; об'єм; місткість
cartilage, n ['kɑ:təlɪʤ] хрящ
contract, v [kən'trækt] скорочуватись
enclose, v [ɪn'kləʊz] oточувати; замикати
ensure, v [in'ʃʊə] гарантувати, забезпечувати
forcibly, adv ['fɔ:səblɪ] примусово
initiate, v [i'niʃieit] почати
mediastinum, n [mi:dɪə'staɪnəm] середостіння
nutrient, n ['nju:trɪənt] поживна речовина
oxygenate, v [ɒk'sɪʤɪneɪt] насичувати киснем
resistance, n [ri'zistəns] опір, протидія
rhythmic, adj [ˈrɪðmɪk] ритмічний
septum, n pl septa ['septəm] ['septə] перетинка
sinoatrial, adj ['sainəu'eitrɪəl] синусно-передсердний
surface, n ['sə:fis] поверхня
transfer, v [træns'fə:] переносити
ventral, adj ['ventrəl] черевний
ventricle, n ['ventrikl] шлуночок

Exercise 2. Pronounce correctly and translate without dictionary:

impulse ['ɪmpʌls], endocardium [endəu'kɑ:dıəm], pericardium [perɪ'kɑ:dıəm], myocardium [maiəʊ'kɑ:dɪəm], membranous ['membrənəs], sternum [ 'stə:nəm], venae cavae [ 'vi:nə'keɪvi], tricuspid [trai'kʌspid], bicuspid [bai' kʌspid], rhythmical ['rıðmıkəl], mitral ['maitrəl], valve [vælv], semilunar [semi'lu:nə], aortic [ei 'ɔ:tik], chamber [tʃeimbə]

 

Exercise 3. Read and translate the word combinations into your native language:

Both atria; the left atrium; on an average; to beat rhythmically; muscular bulk; a costal cartilage; to continue process; to contract continuously; to be enclosed in a bag; to ensure protection; to contract more forcibly; to initiate the cardiac impulse; a membranous septum; the middle of the mediastinum; to be covered by a sternum; the surface of the heart; the right ventricle; the muscular pump; to receive deoxygenated blood; to lose carbon dioxide; one-way valves; the semilunar pulmonary valve; body resistance.

Exercise 4. Form the adverb from the adjectives and translate them:

Model:slow – slowly – повільний – повільно

Special, internal, central, large, general, forcible, great, rhythmical, ventral, intramuscular, superficial, global, temporary, continuous, eventual.

Exercise 5. Read and translate the sentences paying attention to the adjectives and their degrees:

1. The resistance to blood flow through the general circulation is much greater than resistance through the lungs.

2. The left side of the heart must contract more forcibly than the right so it has greater muscular bulk.

3. The right atrium of the heart is larger than the left one.

4. The walls of the left atrium are thicker than those of the right one.

5. The left ventricle is longer than the right ventricle.

6. The left ventricle is more conical in form than the right one.

7. The smallest veins in the body are called venules.

8. The venules branch into larger veins which eventually carry the blood to the largest veins in the body, the vena cava.

Exercise 6. Read and translate the text:

Anatomy of the Heart

The heart is the muscular pump in the centre of the chest that beats continuously and rhythmically to send blood to the lungs and the rest of the body. It is located on the diaphragm between the lower borders of the lungs, occupying the middle of the mediastinum. It is covered ventrally by the sternum and the adjoining parts from the third to the sixth costal cartilages. The organ is about 12 cm long, 8 cm wide at its broadest part, and 6 cm thick. The weight of the heart in men averages between 280 and 340 g and in women, between 230 and 280 g. Much of the heart consists of myocardium, a special type of muscle. The heart muscle is supplied with oxygen and nutrients by 2 coronary arteries.

The internal surface of the heart is lined with a smooth membrane, called endocardium, and the entire heart is enclosed in a tough, membranous bag, the pericardium. A thick central muscular wall, the septum, divides the heart cavity into right and left halves. Each half consists of an upper chamber, called an atrium, and a larger lower chamber, called a ventricle. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the entire body via 2 large veins called the venae cavae. This blood is transferred to the right ventricle and pumped to the lungs via the pulmonary artery to be oxygenated and to lose carbon dioxide. The left atrium of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs (via the pulmonary veins); this blood is transferred to the left ventricle and then pumped to all tissues in the body.

The valves of the heart include the tricuspid valve, the bicuspid (mitral) valve, the semilunar aortic valve, and the semilunar pulmonary valve. The sinoatrial node in the right atrium of the heart initiates the cardiac impulse, causing the atria to contract. These one-way valves at the exits from each chamber ensure that blood flows in only 1 direction. As resistance to blood flow through the general circulation is much greater than resistance through the lungs, the left side of the heart must contract more forcibly than the right one that’s why it has greater muscular bulk.

Exercise 7. Answer the questions:

1. What is the heart?

2. Where is it located?

3. What is the average weight of the heart in men and women?

4. What supplies the heart with oxygen and nutrients?

5. What is the heart enclosed in?

6. What does septum serve for?

7. What does each half of the heart consist of?

8. What are the valves of the heart?

9. What is the function of the right atrium?

10. What is the function of the left atrium?

11. What do one-way valves at the exits from each chamber ensure?

12. Why does the left side of the heart have greater muscular bulk?

 

Exercise 8. Match the two columns:

1. to pump 2. to contract 3. to oxygenate 4. to deoxygenate 5. to receive 6. to transfer 7. to enclose 8. to divide into 9. to supply 10. to compose of a) to put together or make up by combining b) to separate into parts c) to acquire or get something d) to surround on all sides; close in e) to enrich with oxygen f) to raise or cause to flow by means of a pump g) to make available for use; provide h) to reduce in size by drawing together; shrink i) to convey or remove something from one place to another j) to deprive of oxygen

 

Exercise 9. Fill in the gaps using the verbs from the previous exercise:

1. A thick central muscular wall, the septum, … the heart cavity into right and left halves.

2. Two coronary arteries … the heart muscle with oxygen and nutrients.

3. The pulmonary veins are large blood vessels that … oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of then heart.

4. Blood is … in the lungs.

5. The heart is … in the pericardium.

6. The right atrium … deoxygenated blood from the entire body via 2 large veins called the venae cavae.

7. Both atria … simultaneously, followed quickly by the simultaneous contraction of the ventricles.

8. The wall of the heart … three layers: the epicardium, the myocardium, and the endocardium.

9. The heart is a chambered muscular organ in vertebrates that … blood received from the veins into the arteries, thereby maintaining the flow of blood through the entire circulatory system.

10. This blood is transferred to the right ventricle and pumped to the lungs via the pulmonary artery to be ….

 

Exercise 10. Match the terms with their definitions:

1. atrium 2. endocardium 3. pericardium 4. myocardium 5. ventricle 6. septum 7. valve 8. venae cavae 9. mediastinum 10. heart a) the hollow muscular organ in vertebrates whose contractions propel the blood through the circulatory system; b) a dividing partition between two tissues or cavities; c) any device that shuts off, starts, regulates, or controls the flow of a fluid; d) a cavity or chamber in the body, especially the upper chamber of each half of the heart; e) a chamber of the heart, having thick muscular walls, that receives blood from the atrium and pumps it to the arteries; f) the part of the thoracic cavity that lies between the lungs, containing the heart and its vessels; g) the membranous sac enclosing the heart. It fixes the heart to the mediastinum and gives protection against infection; h) the membrane that lines the cavities of the heart and forms part of the valves and provides protection to the valves and heart chambers; i) the muscle tissue of the heart, which forms a thick middle layer between the outer epicardium layer and the inner endocardium layer; j) are large veins that return deoxygenated blood from the body into the heart (the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava) and both empty into the right atrium

 

Exercise 11. Make questions to the underlined words:

1. The heart beats continuously and rhythmically to send blood to the lungs.

2. Much of the heart consists of myocardium.

3. The heart muscle is supplied with oxygen by 2 coronary arteries.

4. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the entire body.

5. The left atrium of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs.

6. One-way valves ensure that blood flows in only 1 direction.

7. The left side of the heart must contract more forcibly than the right one.

8. Tricuspid valve lies between the right atrium and the right ventricle.

9. Descending aorta is the body’s main artery, which supplies oxygenated blood.

10. The aorta has a large diameter in order to cope with the high pressure and large volume of blood passing through it.

Exercise 12. Find the corresponding equivalents in the text:

М’язовий насос, складатися з 2-х передсердь та двох шлуночків, вивільняти вуглекислий газ, скорочуватись безперервно та ритмічно, велике коло кровообігу, внутрішня та зовнішня оболонки серця, більша м’язова маса, верхня та нижня камери, скорочуватися з більшою силою, розташовуватись на діафрагмі, нижні межі легенів, реберні хрящі, кисень та поживні речовини, внутрішня поверхня серця, камера серця, гладенька оболонка, позбавлена кисню кров, дво- та тристулковий клапан.

 

Exercise 13. Translate the words in brackets:

The human heart provides a (тривалий) blood circulation through the cardiac cycle and is one of the most vital organs in the human body. It (містить) four (камери): the two (верхні камери) are called the left and right (передсердя) and two (нижні камери) are called the right and left (шлуночки). Normally the right ventricle (качає) the same blood amount into the lungs with each bit that the left ventricle pumps out. Physicians commonly refer to the right atrium and right ventricle together as the right heart and to the left atrium and ventricle as the left heart.

The electric energy that stimulates the heart occurs in the (синусно-передсердний) node, which produces a definite potential and then (відправляє), sending an impulse across the atria. The Purkinje fibers transmit the electric charge to the myocardium while the (клітини) of the atrial walls (передають) it from cell to cell, making the atrial syncytium. Syntytium is a mass of cytoplasm which contains many nuclei and is enclosed in a cell membrane.

 

Exercise 14. Open the brakets and translate the following sentences:

1. The blood also (to carry) nutrients from the liver and gastrointestinal tract to various organs of the body.

2. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) (to be) the most common cause of death globally in 2008.

3. Diagnosis of CVD often (to do) by listening to the heart-sounds with a stethoscope, ECG or by ultrasound.

4. The valves of the heart (to discover) by a physician of the Hippocratean school around the 4th century BC.

5. Diseases of the heart primarily (to treat) by cardiologists.

6. In humans birds the heart (to divide) into four chambers.

7. The heart (to contract) at a rate of around 72 beats per minute, at rest.

8. On dissection, arteries (to be) typically empty of blood.

9. The earliest descriptions of the coronary and pulmonary circulation systems can (to find) in Avicenna's Canon, published in 1242.

10. Heart murmurs (to be) common in young children and the elderly.

 

Exercise 15. Speak about THE HEART, ATRIUM, VENTRICLE according to the scheme:

· definition

· location

· structure

· general characteristics

· function

Exercise 16. Translate into Engish using Active Vocabulary:

1. Серце людини – це порожнистий фіброзно-м'язовий орган, що запезпечує безперервний кровообіг.

2. Маса серця дорослої людини становить 250-350 г.

3. Серце розташоване у центрі грудної клітини, у нижній частині переднього середостіння, у перикарді.

4. Зовнішня стінка серця складається з трьох шарів: епікарду, міокарду та ендокарду.

5. Серце людини є чотирикамерним: дві верхні камери називаються правим та лівим передсердями, дві нижні- правим та лівим шлуночками.

6. Передсердя сполучається з відповідним шлуночком за допомогою отвору, в якому знаходиться клапан.

7. У серцевому циклі кожне з передсердь скорочується, через отвір кров потрапляє у відповідний шлуночок; після чого скорочуються шлуночки, виштовхуючи кров у мале та велике коли кровообігу.

8. Зоб запезпечити рух крові до шлуночків в одному напрямку, між ними та артеріями знаходяться аортальний і легеневий клапани.

 

Exercise 17. Arrange the sentences in the correct order to explain the term “heart”:

1. It is located on the diaphragm between the lower borders of the lungs, occupying the middle of the mediastinum.

2. The human heart provides the blood circulation through the cardiac cycle and is one of the most vital organs in the human body

3. The organ is about 12 cm long, 8 cm wide at its broadest part, and 6 cm thick, and weights from 230 to 340 g.

4. The heart is the muscular pump in the centre of the chest that beats continuously and rhythmically to send blood to the lungs and the rest of the body.

5. A thick central muscular wall, the septum, divides the heart cavity into right and left halves; each half consists of an upper chamber, called an atrium, and a larger lower chamber, called a ventricle.

 

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

I. Перекладіть словосполучення: м’язовий насос внутрішня оболонкa серця складатися з передсердь та шлуночків велике та мале коло кровообігу скорочуватись безперервно та ритмічно вивільняти вуглекислий газ синусно-передсердний вузол позбавлена кисню кров середня вага серця качати кров через вени та судини   II. Дайте відповіді на питання: Where is the heart located? What does each half of the heart consist of? What do one-way valves at the exits from each chamber ensure? What is the function of the atria? What is the function of the ventricles?   III. Розкрийте поняття: Серце Передсердя Шлуночок

 

 

 

Physiology of the Heart

Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary:

beat, n ['bi:t] биття
chamber, n [´t∫eimbə] камера
considerable, adj [kən´sidərəbl] значний
depend on, v [di´pend] залежити від
discharge, v [dis´t∫a:dƷ] виділяти
estimate, v [´estimeit] оцінювати
exertion, n [ig´zə:∫(ə)n] напруження, зусилля
prolong, v [prə´lɔŋ] продовжувати
pump, n, v [pΛmp] насос, накачувати
rate, n [reit] частота, швидкість
wave, n [weiv] хвиля

Exercise 2. Guess the meaning of the following words without using a dictionary:

Moment, pump, period, artery, nerve, to regulate, emotion, cycle, person, phase, aorta, circulation, role, portion, systole, diastole

Exercise 3. a) Read the following word-combinations and translate them:

Exertion:physical exertion, mental exertion, considerable exertion, extreme exertion, on exertion.

Rate: heartbeat rate, pulse rate, death rate, birth rate, respiration rate, recovery rate.

Considerable:considerable attention, considerable danger, considerable discomfort, considerable weight, considerable pressure, considerable effort.

Total:total area, total immunity, total loss, total size, total duration, total increase.

b) Make up short sentences using the above given word combinations:

Exercise 4. Translate the following word combinations:

Total weight of blood, the rate of contractions, research work, a wave of contraction, on physical exertion, pulmonary arteries, to discharge out blood, final portion, systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, to estimate the number of cells.

 

Exercise 5. Translate into your native language. Pay attention to the use of the Perfect Tense:

I have never been to Great Britain.

The scientist has already finished the experiment.

The doctor has not discharged the patient from the clinic yet.

My sister’s health hasn’t changed since she was discharged from the hospital.

Have you ever performed any operation?

The nurse has just determined the patient’s blood group.

The doctor has performed a lot of operations lately.

The patient has lost 3 kilograms of weight this month.

Exercise 6. Read and translate the text:

Work of the Human Heart

The human heart contracts from the first moment of life until the last one. The contractions of the heart pump the blood through the arteries to all the parts of the body. Scientists have determined that the total weight of the blood pumped by the heart daily is about ten tons.

The rate of heart contractions is regulated by two groups of nerve fibers. It varies in different persons and at different age.

Physiologists have determined that in the adult the heart makes from 60 to 72 beats per minute. In children the rate of heartbeat is much higher. Research work of many scientists has helped to determine that the rate of heartbeat increases depending on different emotions.

Each beat of the heart is followed by a period of rest for the cardiac muscle. Each wave of contraction and a period of rest following it compose a cardiac cycle.

Research work has given physiologists the possibility to find out that the heart muscle works or contracts about one third of the time of the person's life. The period of rest is shorter during greater physical exertion and longer when the body is at rest.

Each cardiac cycle consists of three phases: physiologists have called the first phase of short contraction of both atria —the atrial systole. They have called the second phase of a more prolonged contraction of both ventricles — the ventricular systole. The period of rest of the cardiac muscle is called the diastole.

The left ventricle discharges out the blood received by the left atrium from the pulmonary circulation through the aorta to the systemic circulation.

The blood received from the systemic circulation by the right atrium is discharged out of the right ventricle to the lungs through the pulmonary arteries.

Prolonged research work of many physiologists has given the possibility to estimate the role of the ventricles which serve as the main pump. The atria act as receiving chambers. The contraction of the atria which sends the final portion of the blood into the ventricle is considerably less.

 

Exercise 7. Answer the questions to the text:

1. How many beats per min does the heart make?

2. What is the total weight of the blood pumped by the heart daily?

3. What is systole?

4. What is diastole?

5. How many phases does each cardiac cycle consist of?

6. What is the role of ventricles?

7. How long does the heart muscle contract?

8. What does the rate of heartbeat depend on?

 

Exercise 8. Give English equivalents of the following word combinations:

Загальна вага крові; малий круг кровообігу; серцевий м’яз; нервові волокна; загальна маса крові; хвиля скорочення: частота серцебиття; фізичне навантаження; серцевий цикл; дослідницька робота; тривале скорочення шлуночків; велике коло кровообігу; виділяти кров.

 

Exercise 9. Find in the text 7 words that are formed by conversion:

Model: act → to act

Exercise 10. Make adjectives using the suffix-ant (-ent). Translate them:

Model: difference →different (різний)

Significance, dependence independence, frequency, distance, permanence, assistance, absence, presence, depression.

Exercise 11. Divide the given words into the table. Remember that that there are words which can be used both as a noun and verb:

Contraction, short, determine, blood, systemic, final, rest, follow, physical, compose, pulmonary, contract, research, regulate, weight, depend, cardiac, cycle, chamber, send, possibility, pump, right, act, different, wave, consist, aorta, considerable.

Noun Adjective Verb
     

Exercise 12. Match the terms with their definitions:

1. systole 2. atrium 3. diastole 4. ventricle 5. blood 6. heart a) either of the upper chambers of the heart, their muscular walls are thinner than those of the ventricles; b) a fluid that circulates throughout the body via the arteries and veins; c) the period between two contractions of the heart when the muscles of the heart relax; d) a hollow muscular cone-shaped organ lying between the lungs; e) the period of the cardiac cycle during which the heart contracts; f) either of the two lower chambers of the heart, which have thick walls.
           
             

 

Exercise 13. Complete the sentences using the information from the text:

1. The atria act as … .

2. Each cardiac cycle consists of … phases.

3. In the adult the heart makes … beats per min.

4. The total weight of the blood pumped by the heart daily is about … tons.

5. The rate of heart contractions is regulated by … .

6. Each beat of the heart is followed by … .

7. The period of rest of the cardiac muscle is called … .

8. The ventricles serve as … .

Exercise 14. Form Participle II of the following verbs. Translate them:

Model: develop (розробляти) →developed (розробленний)

To increase, to pump, to regulate, to compose, to estimate, to discharge, to call, to determine, to receive, to contract

Exercise 15. Open the brackets using the Perfect Tense. Translate the sentences:

1. You ever (be) to Germany?

2. The young scientist (publish) many article since 2000.

3. Today the surgeon (complete) the operation.

4. You (be) to the dissecting room?

5. Recently his respiratory rate (increase) considerably.

6. The patient's sleep (become) sound since he began to take this medicine.

7. The teacher (finish) to examine students this week.

8. After the patient (to take) this medicine, he feels better.

 

Exercise 16. Translate the sentences using the Perfect Tense:

1. Він тільки що прийшов.

2. Ми ніколи не бачили його.

3. Лікар ще не використовував цей метод лікування. лечения.

4. Він вже прийняв ліки.

5. Я ніколи не зустрічав його тут.

6. Медична сестра вже поміряла температуру хворого.

7. Мій однокурсник тільки що виконав операцію.

8. Ви коли-небудь оглядали хворих.?

 

Exercise 17. Open the brackets using correct tense form and voice. Translate the sentences:

1. The heartbeat (to produce) the pulsation.

2. On admission to the clinic the physician (to examine) the patient’s heart.

3. The patient’s blood and urine test (to make) the following day.

4. The pain in the heart (to relieve) by a tablet of nitroglycerin.

5. The pain in his heart (to subside) lately.

6. The nurse (to remove) the dressing carefully.

7. The heart sounds (to determine) by the physician by percussion.

8. The nurse already (to give) an injection of the nicotine acid.

Exercise 18. Put questions to the underlined words:

1. The rate of heart contractions are regulated by two groups of nerve fibers.

2. Each beat of the heart is followed by a period of rest for the cardiac muscle.

3. Each cardiac cycle consists of three phases.

4. The period of rest is shorter during greater physical exertion.

5. Physiologists have called the first phase of short contraction of both atria the atrial systole.

6. The rate of the heartbeat depends on different emotions.

7. Scientists have determined that the total weight of the blood is about 10 tons.

8. Research work of many physiologists has given the possibility to estimate the role of the ventricles.

 

Exercise 19. Arrange in sequence the following sentences. Use them in the story of the cardiac cycle:

1. The total weight of blood pumped by the heart daily is about ten tons.

2. The human heart contracts from the first moment of life until the last one.

3. Each wave of contraction and a period of rest following it compose a cardiac cycle.

4. The heart muscle works or contracts about one third of the time of the person's life.

5. Each beat of the heart is followed by a period of rest for the cardiac muscle.

6. Each cardiac cycle consists of three phases: physiologists have called the first phase of short contraction of both atria —the atrial systole.

7. The period of rest is shorter during greater physical exertion and longer when the body is at rest.

8. The period of rest of the cardiac muscle is called the diastole.

9. The second phase of a more prolonged contraction of both ventricles is called the ventricular systole.

10. The atria act as receiving chambers.

11. The role of the ventricles is to serve as the main pump.

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

I. Перекладіть та вивчіть наступні словосполучення: при напруженні загальна вага скорочення м’язів мале коло кровообігу велике коло кровообігу дослідницька робота серцевий цикл камера серця визначати виділяти кров II. Дайте відповіді на наступні питання: What is systole? What is diastole? What is the cardiac cycle composed of? What is the rate of heart contractions regulated by? How many beats per min does the heart make? III. Розкрийте поняття: Серцевий цикл

 

 

Blood. Blood Groups and Blood Transfusions

Exercise 1. Learn the new words:

accumulate, v [ə’kju:mjuleit] накопичувати
agglutinate, v [ə’glu:tineit] склеюватися
amino acid, n [ə'minəu 'æsid] амінокислота
aqueous, adj ['eikwiəs] водний
clump, v [‘klΛmp] утворювати тромби
crack, v [‘kr æk] зруйнуватися, тріснути
compatible (with), adj [kəm’pætibl] сумісний (з)
consequences, n [kən’si:kwənsiz] наслідки
determine, v [di’tε:min] визначити
erythrocyte, n [i’riθrəusait] еритроцит
fatal, adj [‘feitl] фатальний
inherit, v [in’herit] успадкувати
lactic acid, n ['læktik 'æsid] молочна кислота
leukocyte, n ['lju:kəusait] лейкоцит
obstruct, v [əbs’trΛkt] закупорювати
platelet, n ['pleitlit] кров'яна пластина, тромбоцит
recipient, n [ri’si:piənt] одержувач
rhesus, n [ri:zəs] резус-фактор
reproduce, v [‘riprə'dju:s] відтворюватися
solution, n [sə'luς(ə)n] розчин
thrombocyte, n ['θrombə(u)sait] тромбоцит
transfuse, v [trəns’fju:z] переливати
urea, n [juə'ri:ə] сечовина
vice versa, adv [‘vaisə ‘vε:sə] навпаки

Exercise 2. Read the following paying attention to the rules of reading. Give examples of your own:

th[θ] – thalamus, therapy, thermal, thyroid, thumb, erythrocyte

 

[ð] – they, this, that, then, them

 

sh [ʃ] – flesh, shelf life, shoulder, rash, shape

 

i + gh [ai] – night, right, high, sight, light

 

a + ss, st, sk, ff, ft [a:] – glass, mask, last, staff, after, class, cast

 



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