Exercise 18. Describe the notion “polyclinic” using the following table.



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Exercise 18. Describe the notion “polyclinic” using the following table.



1. The type of establishment.  
2. The services provided.  
3. Its structural units.  
4. The specialists working at it.  
5. When we need it.  

 

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

I. Перекладіть наступні словосполучення: стан пацієнта оглянути пацієнта викликати лікаря міряти кров’яний тиск призначити лікування отримати лікарняний лист слухати серце та легені пацієнта поставити правильний діагноз зробити назначений укол дотримуватися постільного режиму   II. Дайте відповідь на наступні питання: What will a person do in case of illness? What specialists work at the polyclinic? What examinations help the physician to make a correct diagnosis? Where is the information about the patient’s condition written down? What procedures does a doctor carry out during the medical examination?   III. Розкрийте поняття: поліклініка районний лікар

 

Examination of the Patient

 

Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary:

breathlessness, n ['breθlisnis] задуха
cough, n ['kɔ:f] кашель
dizziness, n [ˈdizinis] запаморочення
edema, n [iˈdi:mə] набряк
estimate, v [ˈestimеit] оцінювати
fissure, n [ˈfi∫ә] тріщина
fracture, n [ˈfrækt∫ә] перелом
haemorrhage, n ['hemәriʤ] кровотеча
headache, n ['hedeik] головний біль
height, n [hait] ріст
mental, adj [ˈmentl] розумовий, психічний
murmur, n [ˈmɜ:mə] шум
palpation, n [pælˈpeiʃn] пальпація (прощупування)
pathogenesis, n [ˏpæθəˈʤenisis] патогенез (шлях та механізм розвитку хвороби)
percussion, n [pəˈkʌʃn] перкусія (простукування)
rales, n, pl. [ra:lz] хрипи
reveal, v [riˈvi:l] виявляти
swelling, n [ˈsweliƞ] припухлість

 

Exercise 2. Read correctly:

ture[ʧə]: picture, fracture, nature, mixture, lecture, culture, fixture, creature, temperature;

sure[ʒə]: pleasure, measure, treasure, exposure, seizure, BUT ssure[ʃə]: pressure;

(t)ch[ʧ]: chill, chest, chin, cheek, each, much, rich, cheese, torch, touch, match, kitchen;

ch[k]: mechanism, headache, chemistry, stomach, character, technique, scheme, school;

g[g]: gain, gossip, gullet, flag, groin, gold, good, beg, glad, gall-bladder, gut;

g[ʤ]: gem, gin, gym, stage, age, gel, luggage, damage, image, genesis, cage;

BUT g[g]: gift, girl, get, give.

 

Exercise 3. a) Form the nouns with the term-elements. Explain the meaning of term-elements. Translate the pair of words into Ukrainian:

a) form the nouns with the term-element -ache: head, ear, stomach, back, tooth, arm;

b) form the nouns with the term-element patho-: genesis, biology, biochemistry, anatomy, metabolism, occlusion, physiology;

c) form the nouns with the term-element haemo-: capillary, diagnosis, dynamics, globin, dialysis, angioma.

 

Exercise 4. Read and translate the following word-combinations:

diagnosis:correct diagnosis, incorrect diagnosis, exact diagnosis, the diagnosis of nephritis, to make a diagnosis;

disease:a pulmonary disease, a renal disease, a mental disease, to reveal a disease, to cure a disease;

examination:examination of the patient, proper examination, physical examination, visual examination, instrumental examination;

procedure: an easy procedure, a difficult procedure, a necessary procedure, to administer a procedure, to carry out a procedure on an empty stomach;

symptom:an objective symptom, a subjective symptom, a severe symptom, a mild symptom, the symptoms of pneumonia.

 

Exercise 5. Read the words and translate them without dictionary:

aetiology, auscultation, accumulation, conjunctiva, cystoscopy, dysfunction, electrocardiogram, leukocytosis, palpation, tuberculosis, pathogenesis, percussion.

 

Exercise 6. Read and translate the following word-combinations:

before treating; to establish a diagnosis; to determine the aetiology of the disease; to know well the pathogenesis of the disease; a number of different procedures; history-taking; to include palpation, percussion, auscultation; to consist of urinalysis and blood analysis; to take electrocardiogram; to estimate the physical and mental state; to carry out an examination; to determine the borders of internal organs; fractures and fissures.

 

Exercise 7. Read and translate the text:

Examination of the Patient

Before treating the patient it is necessary to make a correct diagnosis of the disease and to determine its aetiology, i.e. the causes of the disease. The examining doctor must know well the pathogenesis of any disease, i.e. the way and mechanism of its development, as well as the symptoms revealing it.

A number of different procedures is used to establish a diagnosis: history-taking; physical examination, which includes visual examination, palpation, percussion, auscultation; laboratory studies, consisting of urinalysis, blood, sputum and other analyses; instrumental studies, for example, taking electrocardiograms or cystoscopy, X-ray examination and others.

For determining a disease it is very important to know its symptoms, i.e. the signs of a disease. They are breathlessness, edema, cough, chill, vomiting, fever, haemorrhage, headache, rash, swelling and others. Some of these symptoms are objective, for example, haemorrhage or vomiting, because they are determined by objective study, while others, such as headache or dizziness are subjective, since they are evident only to the patient.

Physical examination is the first objective stage in examination of a patient. It must be carried on in a large and warm consulting room with day light. The light is very important: it allows to estimate the colour of the patient’s skin, conjunctiva, oral cavity.

The scheme of the physical examination includes three stages:

- general examination;

- local examination;

- examination of body systems.

On general examination the patient is properly examined from head to toes: this helps the doctor to estimate the physical and mental state of his patient. The examiner also determines the patient’s weight and height, observes his facial expression, movements, speech, state of lymphatic nodes, muscles, bones, joints.

On local examination the doctor examines the patient’s head, eyes, nose, ears, oral cavity, neck, thyroid gland, etc. to estimate the functional state of particular parts of the body.

Examination of body systems includes the study of the respiratory, endocrine, nervous and other systems. On this stage the doctor applies the technique of palpation and percussion to determine whether the borders of internal organs are normal or abnormal. By means of auscultation the examiner can reveal rales in the lungs in case of pneumonia or bronchitis, or heart murmurs if a patient suffers from cardio-vascular diseases.

Laboratory analyses are important as well. Blood analysis revealing leukocytosis immediately indicates the presence of inflammation in the body. Urinalyses help to reveal the presence of urinary tract infections such as cystitis, nephritis or pyelonephritis. Analysis of sputum is performed to confirm the diagnosis of tuberculosis.

Instrumental procedures also help to determine health problems. Electrocardiograms are necessary to monitor the heart work. X-ray usually shows the borders and structure of the internal organs, fractures and fissures, accumulation of liquid in the lungs, etc.

So, examination of the patient is a complex procedure helping to timely reveal diseases or dysfunctions of any organs and start their treatment.

 

Exercise 8. Answer the questions:

1. What is it necessary to know to make a correct diagnosis?

2. What kind of procedures are used to establish a diagnosis?

3. What groups can symptoms be divided into?

4. What is the difference between the objective and subjective symptoms?

5. What does the scheme of the physical examination include?

6. What is examined during each stage of physical examination?

7. Why are laboratory analyses important?

8. What does X-ray help to reveal?

 

Exercise 9. Match the symptoms with their explanations:

1. haemorrhage 2. cough 3. headache 4. rash 5. fever 6. vomiting 7. chill 8. edema a) small red spots on the skin b) removal of the contents of the stomach c) feeling of coldness during high fever d) pain in the head e) profuse bleeding from injured blood vessels f) accumulation of fluid under the skin or in the body cavities g) high body temperature h) reflex which helps to remove foreign substances and microbes from the airways

 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
               

 

Exercise 10. Guess what disease is described:

Model:inflammation of the lungs is pneumonia.

1. inflammation of the kidneys

2. inflammation of the lungs

3. inflammation of the urinary bladder

4. inflammation of bronchi

5. inflammation of the eye conjunctiva

6. pus accumulation around the kidneys

7. lesion in the stomach

8.infection caused by Mycobacteria

 

Exercise 11. Translate the following word-combinations into English:

Комплексна процедура, поставити правильний діагноз (2 синоніми), причина захворювання, походження хвороби, збирання анамнезу, проводити аналіз сечі та мокротиння, задуха та припухлість, перший етап в огляді хворого, оглядати з голови до п’ят, оцінити фізичний та психічний стан хворого, дихальна та ендокринна системи, техніка прощупування та простукування, за допомогою прослуховування, виявити хрипи у легенях, спостерігати за роботою серця.

 

Exercise 12. Translate the words in italics:

1. Хрипи в легенях usually appear in case of пневмонії чи бронхіту.

2. Increased leukocytosis indicates наявність запалення в організмі.

3. If a patient suffers from серцево-судинних захворювань, he may have шуми у серці.

4. Аналіз сечі helps виявити the presence of urinary tract infections such as цистит та нефрит.

5. On general examination the doctor observes the patient’s вираз обличчя, рухи, мовлення, стан лімфатичних вузлів, м’язів, суглобів.

6. The local examination includes the examination of the patient’s голови, очей, вух, носу, ротової порожнини, шиї, щитовидної залози.

7. Огляд систем організму is carried out by means of прощупування, простукування, прослуховування.

8. Examination of the patient is a комплексна процедура that helps вчасно виявити diseases.

 

Exercise 13. Translate the word combinations with Participle I:

Model: examining doctor – оглядаючий лікар (який? – дієприкметник)

the doctor examining the patient – лікар, що/який оглядає хворого (підрядне речення)

лікар, оглядаючи хворого… (що роблячи? – дієприслівник)

boiling water, the girl standing at the door, a running man, a picture hanging on the wall, a physician examining patients, a child waiting for his parents, a crying baby, a smiling boy, a dying person, a working person, students waiting for the professor, symptoms determining a disease.

 

Exercise 14. Translate the word combinations with Participle I into English:

Діти, які граються; ліки, які приносять полегшення; людина, яка спить; спостерігаючи феномен; вживаючи знеболююче; виконуючи вказівки лікаря; охолоджуючий ефект; спостерігаючи стан хворого; рана , яка кровоточить; прилад, який контролює серцеву діяльність; стомлююча робота; люди, які відвідують хворого у лікарні.

 

Exercise 15. Give Participle II of the following verbs:

To make, to give, to get, to tell, to know, to take, to keep, to feel, to find, to cut, to have, to be, to sleep, to put, to come, to become, to choose, to draw, to fall, to feed, to fight, to go, to leave, to meet, to rise, to say, to see, to spread, to teach, to undergo, to write.

 

Exercise 16. Translate the following word combinations with Participle II into Ukrainian:

Increased blood pressure, repeated analysis, received results, broken arm, prescribed medicine, dislocated shoulder, confirmed diagnosis, marked improvement, subsided fever, extracted tooth, examined patient, injured man, transfused blood.

 

Exercise 17. Choose the proper variant of Participle I or Participle II. Translate sentences into Ukrainian:

1. The prescribed/prescribing drug was ineffective.

2. The surgeon observed marked/marking improvement in patient’s condition.

3. Children sleeping/slept in their beds are recovering.

4. Symptoms, accompanying/accompanied flue are fever, muscular pain, vomiting.

5. The wounded/wounding arm was bandaged.

6. These drugs left/leaving in a dry, dark place are best to be used during 1 year.

7. The blood come/coming through the lungs is rich in oxygen.

8. Scarlet fever is characterized by rash covering/covered the whole trunk.

 

Exercise 18. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense form. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian:

1. The cause of the disease (to call) aetiology.

2. Yesterday the students (to learn) the pathogenesis of pneumonia.

3. Tomorrow I (to take) the ECG to monitor my heart work.

4. If blood analysis (to reveal) leukocytosis, the patient (to administer) antibiotics.

5. The medical examination (to carry) out twice a year, as a rule.

6. The stomach troubles of the patient (to determine) by vomiting.

7. In a week, students (to observe) the professor examine his patients.

8. Good day light (to allow) to estimate the colour of the patient’s skin, conjunctiva, oral cavity.

 

Exercise 19. Put questions to the underlined words:

1. To make a diagnosis the doctor needs the findings of blood analysis.

2. Any disease is usually revealed by its symptoms.

3. The patient was administered uninalysis to confirm cystitis.

4. Objective symptoms include haemorhage, vomiting, cough, etc.

5. She felt dizziness and nausea after taking these pills.

6. Physical examination is the first objective stage in examination of a patient.

7. By means of auscultation the examiner can reveal rales in the lungs heart murmurs.

8. The diagnosis of TB will be confirmed after analysis of sputum.

 

Exercise 20. Translate the sentences into English:

1. Електрокардіограма показує роботу серця.

2. Перед лікуванням лікар має ретельно обстежити хворого.

3. Шлях та механізм розвитку хвороби називається патогенез.

4. Хірург, що оглядає цього хворого, є найкращим в нашому місті.

5. Йому поставили діагноз бронхіту на основі результатів аналізу та аускультації.

6. Симптоми – це ознаки хвороби, які допомагають встановити правильний діагноз.

7. Межі внутрішніх органів можна встановити за допомогою пальпації та перкусії.

8. Фізичний огляд хворого включає три етапи: загальний та місцевий огляд, а також огляд систем організму.

 

Exercise 21. Arrange the following sentences in order to describe the term “symptom”:

1. They include cough, haemorrhage, vomiting, swelling, etc.

2. Subjective symptoms are the symptoms evident to the patient only.

3. Symptom is a sign of a disease.

4. They are headache, dizziness, so on. It is very important to know symptoms as they allow to determine the disease.

5. Objective symptoms are the symptoms which can be revealed by the physician during the physical examination of the patient.

6. The symptoms can be divided into two groups: objective and subjective.

 

Exercise 22. Discuss the physical examination of the patient following the plan:

1. Conditions.  
2. General stage.  
3. Local stage.  
4.Examination of body systems.  
5. Techniques applied.  

 

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

І. Перекладіть словосполучення: сип та набряк аналіз крові та сечі ряд різних процедур виявляти захворювання проводити фізичний огляд визначити причину захворювання механізм розвитку захворювання прощупування та прослуховування спостерігати за роботою серця показувати переломи та тріщини   ІІ. Дайте відповіді на питання: What is it necessary to know to make a correct diagnosis? What kind of procedures are used to establish a diagnosis? What is the difference between the objective and subjective symptoms? Why are laboratory analyses important? What does X-ray help to reveal?   ІІІ. Розкрийте поняття: Фізичний огляд Симптом
Hospital

 

Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary:

death, n [deƟ] смерть
department, n [di'pa:tmənt] відділення
dose, n [dous] доза
dosage, n ['dousiʤ] дозування
hospitalize, v ['hᴐspitəlaiz] госпіталізувати
indicate, v ['indikeit] вказувати, позначати
initial, adj. [i'niʃəl] початковий, первісний
intramuscular, adj. [ˏintrə 'mʌskjʋlə] внутрішньомʼязовий
intravenous, adj. [intrə'vi:nəs] внутрішньовенний
keep (kept, kept), v [ki:p] тримати, зберігати
prescribe, v [pri'skraib] прописувати, призначати
poisonous, adj. ['poizənəs] отруйний, токсичний
prevent, v [pri'vent] попереджувати
result from, v [ri'zʌlt] відбуватися внаслідок
reception ward, n [ri'sepʃən 'wᴐ:d] приймальне відділення
recovery, n [ri'kʌvəri] одужання
round, n [raund] обхід (хворих лікарем)
relieve, v [ri'li:v] полегшувати, знімати (біль)

 

Exercise 2. Read correctly:

u [ˈʝu:]: due, use, excuse, duty, usually, unit, attitude, future, computer;

u [u:]: blue, fluid, include, rule, true, fruit, cruise, juice, June;

u [ʌ]: insult, ulcer, lung, gut, gullet, buttock, cuspid, muscle, intramuscular, ultrasound;

ow [au] in mid position: down, town, gown, crowd, brown, shower + allow, now, how;

ow [ou] in end position: below, flow, grow, know, low, show, snow, throw, blow

 

Exercise 3. a) Form different parts of speech. Explain the meaning of affixes. Translate the pair of words into Ukrainian:

1. form nouns and verbs with the help of the prefix over-: production, heat, dosage, weight, to eat, to sleep, to react, to estimate;

2. form adjectives with the help of the prefix un-: favourable, clear, likely, conditioned, controllable, duly, safe, comfortable;

3. form adjectives with the help of the prefix intra-: muscular, venous, abdominal, hepatic, intestinal, nasal, oral;

4. form verbs with the help of the prefix re-: to write, to make, to play, to produce, to generate, to bandage, to form, to gain.

b) Make up your own sentences with them.

Exercise 4. Read the following word-combinations and translate them:

To be admitted to the hospital, in-patient and outpatient department, to fill in a case history, to make an initial diagnosis, to estimate the initial findings, different procedures, overdosage of a drug, to cause death, to make the daily rounds of wards, to take the patient's temperature, to give intravenous and intramuscular injections, to take an electrocardiogram.

 

Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:

Hospital

Hospital is a special medical institution that is aimed at treatment and prevention of various diseases and protection of people’s health.

When patients are admitted to the hospital first of all they are received by a nurse on duty at the reception ward.

Those patients who are to be hospitalized have already received the direction from the polyclinic. The nurse on duty fills in patients' case histories in which she writes down their names, age, place of work, occupation, address and the initial diagnosis made by a doctor at the polyclinic.

Then a doctor on duty examines the hospitalized patients and gives his instructions what department and wards the patients are to be admitted to.

At the in-patient departments of a hospital life begins early in the morning. The nurse on duty takes the patients' temperature, gives them intramuscular and intravenous injections or sets a dropper if administered before, takes stomach juice for analysis. Besides, she leads the patients to different procedures such as gastroscopy or ultrasound of the abdominal cavity organs that are usually carried out on an empty stomach. The nurse also gives all the prescribed remedies in the doses indicated by the ward doctors.

The nurses keep all the drugs in special drug cabinets. All the drugs have special labels. The names of drugs are indicated on them. Patients are not allowed to take the medicines themselves because some drugs are poisonous, the overdosage of some other drugs may cause unfavourable reactions and even death.

At about nine o'clock in the morning the doctors begin the daily rounds of the wards during which they examine all the patients. After the medical examination the doctors administer the patients different procedures: electrocardiograms are taken, laboratory analyses of blood, urine and gastric juice are made, gastroscopy and ultrasound are carried out. Some patients are administered a bed regimen, others are allowed to walk; some are to follow a diet to relieve stomachache or prevent unfavourable results in case of stomach troubles. All the doctors always treat the patients with great attention and care. There is no doubt that such a hearty attitude of the doctors to the patients helps much in their recovery.

 

Exercise 6. Answer the questions:

1. Who and where are the patients received by when admitted to the hospital?

2. What do patients receive from the polyclinic when it’s necessary to hospitalize them?

3. What is usually written in a patient’s case history?

4. What does a doctor decide concerning the patient?

5. What are the duties of a nurse?

6. Where are the drugs usually kept at hospital?

7. Why aren’t patients allowed to take the medicines themselves?

8 What procedures can be administered to a patient?

 

Exercise 7. Find the English equivalents to the word-combinations given below:

Потрапити до лікарні, ставити крапельницю, оглядати госпіталізованих хворих, в стаціонарі, амбулаторне відділення, отримати направлення з поліклініки, заповнювати історії хвороб, натщесерце, брати шлунковий сік на аналіз, палатний лікар, ультразвукове дослідження органів черевної порожнини, приймати прописані ліки, спеціалізовані шафи для ліків, викликати несприятливі реакції, назначати різні процедури, знімати біль у шлунку, щире ставлення до хворих.

 

Exercise 8. Match the term with its definition:

1. analysis 2. daily round 3. electrocardiogram 4. gastroscopy 5. injection 6. medical examination 7. treatment 8. ultrasound a) the graphic record of the heart work and its possible disorders; b) the intramuscular or intravenous procedure when the skin is punctured; c) the procedure of making a patient recover with the help of medicines; d) the general checkup of a patient by a doctor; e) the usual every-morning activity of a doctor on duty; f) external examination of the human body with the help of special sounds; g) the procedure when a patient passes his blood or urine for a detailed laboratory study; h) an unpleasant procedure which is carried out on an empty stomach so as to reveal its disorders.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
               
                 

Exercise 9. Fill in the gaps paying attention to the prepositions. Translate sentences into Ukrainian:

1. When admitted … the hospital, a patient needs the direction … the polyclinic.

2. The life … the in-patient department begins … nine o’clock … the morning.

3. There is always a nurse … duty … the reception ward.

4. … case of stomach troubles you should follow … a strict diet.

5. Doctors fill … their patients’ case-histories every day.

6. The initial diagnosis made … the doctor was flu.

7. The gastroscopy is the procedure carried out … an empty stomach.

8. In the future I’d like to work … the surgical department.

Exercise 10. Put general and alternative questions to the following sentences:

Model:This doctor is the best specialist at our hospital.

Is this doctor the best specialist at our hospital? (General question)

Is this doctor the best or the worst specialist at our hospital? (Alternative question)

 

He treats all his patients with great care.

Does he treat all his patients with great care? (General question)

Does he or she treat all his patients with great care? (Alternative question)

1. The vessels carry blood.

2. She had a cold two weeks ago.

3. The head consists of two parts.

4. Hippocrates described epilepsy in children.

5. Minerals are subdivided into several classes.

6. Pirogov used anaesthesia during his operations.

7. The lecture will be delivered to students on Monday.

8. There are usually two departments in a large chemist’s.

 



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