Development of embryo and fetus

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Development of embryo and fetus

The development ___ the mass of cells that will become the infant is called embryogenesis. During this time, cells begin to differentiate ____ the various body systems. The basic outlines of the organ, body, and nervous systems are established. ____ the end of the embryonic stage, the beginnings ___ features such ___ fingers, eyes, mouth, and ears become visible. Also ____ this time, there is development ____ structures important to the support of the embryo, including the placenta and umbilical cord.

After ____ 10 weeks of gestational age, the embryo becomes known ___ a fetus instead. At the beginning of the fetal stage, the risk ___ miscarriage decreases sharply. When the fetal stage commences, a fetus is typically ____ 30 mm in length, and the heart can be seen beating ____ ultrasound; the fetus can be seen making various involuntary motions ____ this stage.

Electrical brain activity is first detected between the 5th and 6th week of gestation.


Exercise 10. Open the brackets. Put the verb in the correct tense form. Pay attention to the conditional sentences 1st type. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian:

E.g.:If you treat this infection at once, you will avoid infertility.

Якщо ви вилікуєте цю інфекцію одразу, ви уникнете безпліддя.

1. The infant (to be fed) artificially, unless the mother’s health (to be restored).

2. As soon as it (to be) time of puberty, the endocrine system (to release) sexual hormones.

3. When the egg (to be fertilized), zygote (form).

4. If fresh semen (to be present) during ovulation, fertilization (to occur).

5. The operation (to be continued) as soon as the bleeding (to be stopped).

6. If she (not to take) these medicines she (to have) miscarriage.

7. When the operation (to be over), the doctor (to consult) this pregnant woman.

8. If you (to go) to the doctor right now, you (to recover) more quickly.


Exercise 11. Put questions to the underlined words:

1. The reproductive system is known as a collection of organs that work together for the purpose of producing a new life.

2. Substances such as fluids, hormones, and pheromones are also important to the effective functioning of the reproductive system.

3. The genes that parents pass along to their children are what make children similar to others in their family.

4. Many parts of the male and female reproductive systems that can be affected by cancer.

5. Pregnancy is the time a mother carries the baby from conception until birth.

6. When the baby is ready to be born baby’s head presses against the cervix.

7. This pregnant woman has been complaining of nausea for 2 months.

8. Human reproduction is guided at every step by powerful hormones.


Exercise 12. Open the brackets and put the verbs in the correct tense form and voice:

1. Like all complex organ systems the human reproductive system (to affect) by many diseases.

2. Endocrine hormones (to know) as critical controlling factor in the normal differentiation of the reproductive system.

3. The doctor on duty (to perform) the operation on the uterus right now.

4. Chromosome characteristics (to determine) the genetic sex of a fetus.

5. Genital infections such as chlamydia and gonorrhea can (to cause) infertility in men.

6. Some diets (to prove) to be significant for increasing fertility lately.

7. Studies (to show) that exercising too much may lead to the release of too many steroid hormones, which can affect fertility.

8. A very low or very high BMI (body mass index) (to disrupt) ovulation and may also affect production of hormones.

Exercise 13. Translate the sentences into English using active vocabulary:

1. Статеве дозрівання починається з розвитку вторинних статевих ознак.

2. Вагітність починається з моменту запліднення яйцеклітини.

3. Запліднена яйцеклітина переходить в порожнину матки.

4. Найвищий рівень прогестерону присутній у вагітних жінок.

5. Запліднення зазвичай відбувається в період овуляції.

6. Клітини сперми можуть залишатися життєздатними на деякий час в статевих органах жінки.

7. Гормони виділені гіпоталамусом стимулюють статеві залози чоловіків і жінок.

8. Здатність до розмноження в людей починається в період статевого дозрівання.

Exercise 14. Arrange the following sentences in a correct order to describe the following term “fertilization”:

1. During fertilization, the sperm enters the cell membrane of the ovum and the nuclei of the sperm and egg cells combine to form a zygote.

2. During ovulation, the ovum is released from the ovary and transported in the fallopian tube where it remains for about 24-48 hours.

3. The zygote will remain in the fallopian tube for three days before it travels to the uterus before implantation into the uterine lining.

4. Pregnancy is most likely to occur if there is fresh semen when ovulation occurs.

5. Semen is released into the vagina and transported through the uterus into the fallopian tube during sexual intercourse between a male and a female.

6. Fertilization can occur if intercourse takes place before the time of ovulation.


Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

I. Перекладіть словосполучення: виробляти тестостерон, естроген та прогестерон. циклічні гормональні зміни. стимулювати гонади. переноситися через матку в фаллопієві труби. сприяти заплідненню. розвиток вторинних статевих характеристик. період статевого дозрівання. запліднити яйцеклітину. з'єднуватися, щоб утворити зиготу. проходити крізь мембрану яйцеклітину.   II. Дайте відповіді на питання: When does male puberty occur? When does female puberty occur? How long do sperm cells remain viable in the reproductive system? What is zygote? When can fertilization be successful?   III. Розкрийте поняття: Запліднення



The Immune System

Exercise 1. Topical vocabulary:

antidote, n [ænti'dəut] антидот, протиотрута
capacity, n [kə'pesɪtɪ] здатність; місткість
entirely, adv [in'taɪəli] повністю
employ, v [im'plɔɪ] вживати, використовувати
indirect, adj [indi'rekt] непрямий
immunity, n [i'mјu:niti] імунітет
invasion, n [in'veiʒ(ə)n] вторгнення
lack, n ['læk] нестача, брак; відсутність
recurrence, n [ri’kʌrəns] рецидив
resistance, n [re'zistəns] опір, протидія
subcutaneous, adj [sʌbkјu:'teiniəs] підшкірний
subsequent, adj ['sʌbsikwənt] наступний


Exercise 2. Read and guess the meaning of the following words:

Microorganisms; infection; specific; absolute; attack; permanent; protection; pathogenic; virulent; toxin; characteristic; symptom; chemical; antidote; antitoxin; organs; bacterial; culture; formation; elements; protection; organism; leucocytosis; bacteria; phagocytes; reaction; vaccine; active; resistance; mechanism; isolate.

Exercise 3. Read and translate the following word combinations into the Ukrainian language:

Capacity: inborn capacity, inherited capacity, biological capacity

Immunity is the body’s capacity to fight infections.

Immunity: natural immunity, artificial immunity, relative immunity, absolute immunity

Immunity is classified into natural and artificial.

Recurrence: to prevent from recurrence, recurrence of a chronic disease, to recur periodically

Recurrence of the disease means return of symptoms after a temporary absence.

Subcutaneous: a subcutaneous injection, to spread subcutaneously, a subcutaneous inflammation

Virulent bacteria caused subcutaneous accumulation of pus in a big toe.


Exercise 4. Read and translate the following word combinations into Ukrainian language:

White blood cells; to neutralize a toxin; result from direct contact; effects of a poison; to resist disease; physiological function; to produce immunity; a response to an infection; pathogenic microorganisms; capacity of resistance; a previous attack; permanent protection; to prevent the recurrence; a chemical antidote; to suffer from diseases; bacterial cultures; to produce leucocytosis; to be surrounded by white cells; the spread of bacteria; to inject subcutaneously; to contribute to the treatment, to establish immunity.

Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:

The Immune System

Infectious diseases are caused by the invasion and growth of microorganisms in the human body. But the human organism has a specific capacity of resistance against infections which is called immunity. Immunity is classified into natural and artificial. Under various conditions it may be entirely lacking, it may be relative, rarely it may be absolute. Previous attacks of diseases produce a more or less permanent protection against their recurrence.

In the course of growth in the body many microorganisms produce virulent poisons or toxins which cause characteristic symptoms of a particular disease. To meet the infection the cells of the body produce a chemical antidote which is specific for this particular infection and is known as an antitoxin. If the patient can produce a sufficient amount of this antidote to the toxins before the vital organs are injured recovery occurs. If the toxin can be isolated from bacterial cultures and injected into men an artificial immunity can be produced.

The cellular elements of tissues also take an active part in the protection of the organism against various infections. The presence of any infection usually produces leucocytosis and bacteria in the tissues are surrounded by white cells or phagocytes which prevent the spread of bacteria destroying them.

If the reaction against invading bacteria is insufficient, vaccines may be injected subcutaneously to produce a more active resistance of the protective mechanisms of the body. Vaccines are employed not only to contribute to the treatment of a disease but to establish an active artificial immunity.

If the human body had not this capacity we would suffer from all infectious diseases.


Exercise 6. Answer the following questions:

1.What is the main cause of infectious diseases?

2.What specific capacity does the human organism have?

3.What are the two main types of immunity?

4.When do the microorganisms produce virulent poisons or toxins in the organism?

5.What specific substance do the cells of the body produce to meet the infection?

6.When can artificial immunity be produced?

7.What elements of the tissues also take an active part in the protection of the organism against the infection?

8.What is the main cause of leucocytosis?

9.Why are vaccines used?

Exercise 7. Find corresponding equivalents:

1. infectious diseases 2. growth of microorganisms 3. the human organism 4. direct contact 5. resistance against infection 6. permanent protection 7. the characteristic symptoms 8. a chemical antidote 9. a sufficient amount 10. artificial immunity 1. штучний імунітет 2. організм людини 3. інфекційні захворювання 4. постійний захист 5. хімічний антидот 6. достатня кількість 7. прямий контакт 8. опір проти інфекції 9. характерні симптоми 10. ріст мікроорганізмів


Exercise 8. Translate the following word combinations into English:

Вторгнення мікроорганізмів, виникати внаслідок прямого контакту, особлива здатність організму людини, природній імунітет, протидія інфекціям, постійний захист, перебіг хвороби, отруйні речовини, характерні симптоми, достатня кількість антидоту, страждати від інфекційних хвороб, викликати лейкоцитоз, перешкоджати розповсюдженню бактерій, вводити ліки підшкірно, опір захисного механізму, сприяти успішному лікуванню.

Exercise 9. Match the words with their definitions:

1. disease 2. microorganism 3. infection 4. immunity 5. antidote 6. antitoxin 7. vaccine a) an antibody that neutralizes a toxin; b) a drug or agent that counteracts or neutralizes the effects of a poison; c) any organism, such as a bacterium, protozoan, or virus, of microscopic size the ability of an organism to resist a disease; d) any impairment of normal physiological function affecting an organism a suspension of dead, attenuated (послаблений), or modified microorganisms for inoculation; e) invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms.


Exercise 10. Fill in the blanks with the right word from the list below. You may use each word only once:

administer, after, antibodies, diseases, fight, generally, harmless, including, injected, orally, prevent, prevention, serums, smallpox, substances, symptoms, vaccines


Doctors use two main types of drugs for the ……… of disease:

Vaccines contain dead or ………… germs. They cause the body to develop …………. called ……….. that act to ………. disease. Doctors ………… …………… before a person has been exposed to such ………… as poliomyelitis or …………... Vaccines are usually ………….. but sometimes are given ………...

Serums contain antibodies that …………. off the germs of certain diseases, ………… scarlet fever and lockjaw. These drugs are given ……… a person has been exposed to the disease, or after ……….. of the disease have appeared. ……….. are ………. administered by injection.


Exercise 11. Arrange the following statements in the correct order to explain the term “immunity”:

___ To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens.

___ Immunology is a science that studies the structure and function of the immune system.

___ Paul Ehrlich, Illya Metchnikoff, Robert Koch are considered to be the main contributors to the development of immunology.

___ Immune system can be classified into the innate immune system (вроджений імунітет) versus the adaptive immune system (адаптивний, набутий імунітет), or humoral immunity (гуморальний імунітет) versus cell-mediated immunity (клітинно-опосередкований імунітет).

___ The immune system is a system of many biological structures and processes in an organism that protects against diseases.


Exercise 12. Arrange the following statements in the correct order to explain the term “vaccine”:

___ Vaccines can be prophylactic or therapeutic.

___ A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active artificial immunity to a particular disease.

___ In order to provide best protection, children are recommended to receive vaccinations as soon as their immune systems are adequately developed to respond to certain vaccines. This has led to the development of vaccination schedules.

___ A vaccine agent stimulates the body’s immune system to recognize any pathological microorganisms, destroy them, and “remember”.

___ The administration of vaccines is called vaccination.


Exercise 13. Put the verb in brackets in the correct form (Conditional Sentences Type I):

1. If I see him, I (to give) him your report on the anatomy of the kidneys.

2. If he (to be) late for the anatomy lecture, he won’t know anything about the digestive system.

3. I’ll be angry if he (to lose) my book “Urinary System”.

4. If you (to come) late, the teacher (not to let) you in.

5. When I (to become) a gynecologist, I (to specialize) in the care, diagnosis, and treatment of the female reproductive system disorders.

6. Tell him to ring me up after pediatrics if you (to see) him.

7. I (to feel) really happy when I (to become) a successful doctor.

8. If the muscle (not to contract), the urine (not to be expelled) from the bladder.


Exercise 14. “If I were…”. Finish the dreams of medical students matching the lines in the first column with the line in the second column. Translate sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the Conditional Sentences Type II:

1. If I were a pediatrician, I would correct deformities of the skeletal system.
2. If I were an anesthesiologist, I would help deliver babies.
3. If I were a gastroenterologist, I would examine eyes and prescribe spectacles and contact lenses.
4. If I were a dentist, I would deal with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental and emotional disorders.
5. If I were an ENT doctor, I would diagnose and treat the diseases of the ear, nose, and throat.
6. If I were a psychiatrist, I would specialize in the care of babies and children.
7. If I were an optician, I would practise the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases, injuries, and malformations of teeth, jaws, and mouth.
8. If I were an obstetrician, I would specialize in diseases of the stomach, intestines and associated organs.
9. If I were an orthopedist, I would administer an anesthetic to a patient.


Exercise 15. Make up interrogative sentences to the underlined words:

1. All food consists of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.

2. Nervous tissue consists of nerve cells and nerve fibers.

3. The patient has lost 3 kilograms of weight this month.

4. Various specialists give medical consultations to patients at the polyclinic.

5. Brain coordinates the activity of the whole body.

6. The surgeon is making the limb immobile at the point of fracture at the moment.

7. The treatment has just been prolonged as the patient is still complaining of a general weakness.

8. Biologists discovered new kinds of microorganisms last month.

9. Students were dissecting a corpse for 1 hour yesterday.

10. If the infection is serious the patient will have to take strict preventive measures.

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

I. Перекладіть та вивчіть наступні словосполучення вторгнення мікроорганізмів особлива здатність організму людини природній імунітет отруйні речовини страждати від інфекційних хвороб викликати лейкоцитоз перешкоджати розповсюдженню бактерій вводити ліки підшкірно сприяти успішному лікуванню рецидив захворювання   II. Дайте відповіді на наступні питання What specific capacity does the human organism have? What are the two main types of immunity? What specific substance do the cells of the body produce to meet the infection? When can artificial immunity be produced? Why are vaccines used? III. Роскрийте поняття: Імунітет Вакцина
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov and his Discovery of Phagocytosis

Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary:

aging, n [ˈeɪdʒɪŋ] старіння
attribute, v [ˈæ trəˌbjut] приписувати; відносити (до чогось - to)
causal relationship [ˈkɔːzəl rɪˈleɪʃənʃɪp] причинно-наслідковий зв’язок
comparative anatomy [kəmˈpærətɪv əˈnætəmɪ] порівняльна анатомія
consumption, n [kənˈsʌmpʃən] споживання
engulf, v [ɪnˈɡʌlf] поглинати
fermented, adj [fəˈmentid] той, що бродить
inspire, v [ɪnˈspaɪə] надихати
lactic acid [ˈlæk tɪk ˈæsɪd] молочна кислота
longevity, n [lɒnˈdʒɛvɪtɪ] довголіття
prolongation, n [ˌproʊ lɔŋˈgeɪ ʃən] продовження, пролонгація
recognition, n [ˌrɛkəɡˈnɪʃən] визнання
sour milk [ˈsaʊə milk] кисле молоко
thorn, n [θɔːn] колючка


Exercise 2. Read the word combinations and sentences with the new words and translate them into Ukrainian:

Attribute: attribute one’s success to their hard work; attribute good health to proper diet; attribute a failure to one’s lack of experience;

Consumption: yogurt consumption; meat consumption; consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables; consumption of organic food;

Inspire: inspire somebody to do something; inspire to write a book; inspire to continue work; inspire to change way of life; inspire to help somebody;

Prolongation: prolongation of life; prolongation of treatment; prolongation of hospitalization; prolongation of a heart attack; prolongation of pain;

Recognition: receive world-wide recognition; receive no recognition; in recognition of one’s services; public recognition; win recognition.


Exercise 3. Complete the table with the words from the text derived from the following words:

zoology   find  
passion   recognize  
nature   age  
phagocyte   intestine  
inflame   consume  

Exercise 4. Read and translate the following word combinations:

Pioneering research; complete a course; newly established university; larvae of starfish; site of inflammation; engulf and destroy harmful bodies; be met with skepticism; spread through the body; toxic bacteria in the gut; attributed longevity to yogurt consumption; inspire to begin investigation; causal relationship; worldwide marketing; fermented milk drinks; heart failure.

Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:

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