Exercise 11. Put questions to the subjects. Then put special questions to the underlined words.



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Exercise 11. Put questions to the subjects. Then put special questions to the underlined words.



Model:The nurse gave him an injection 2 minutes ago.

Who gave him an injection 2 minutes ago? (Question to the Subject)

When did the nurse give him an injection? (Special Question)

1. ONMedU enrolls 1500 students every year.

2. People often catch cold in winter.

3. The examination has been just finished.

4. Our bodies have 9 main systems.

5. A person rings up his local polyclinic in case of a disease.

6. Symptoms helped to reveal the disease.

7. These remedies will relieve my chest pain.

8. He insists on immediate operation.

 

Exercise 12. Make up disjunctives questions and answer them:

Model:A new hospital will be built in this district next year, won’t it? – Yes, it will.

1. Pain killers relieve pain, …?

2. Eyes are the part of the face, …?

3. Eyebrows are under the eyes, …?

4. The body is covered with the skin, …?

5. Pediatrician helps to deliver a baby, …?

6. The patient complained of the chest pain, …?

7. Penicillin was discovered by Robert Koch, …?

8. Medical students will study Histology at the 5th year, …?

 

Exercise 13. Re-write sentences opening the brackets:

1. She (to go) to the library after classes.

2. They (to study) heart diseases last Friday.

3. The body (to consist) of organs and systems.

4. Histology (to deal) with the study of tissues.

5. The patient’s sleep (to affect) by nightmare last week.

6. The 1st-year students always (to learn) a lot of Latin terms.

7. The nurses (to take) good care of him after the last operation.

8. If my district doctor (to be) in the morning, he (to come) to visit me.

 

*Exercise 14. Put the words into the correct order and write down the sentences. Name the type of each question:

1. to / dangerous / Is / life / disease / this?

2. the / What / drug / of / the / effect / was?

3. of / Mr. / did / What / complain / White?

4. the / attack / system / will / What / infection?

5. remember / doctor’s / your / district / you / Do / name?

6. the / helps / out / administrations / Who / doctor / carry / to / his?

7. they / keep / The / in / nurses / cabinets / drugs / do / special / not?

8. at / of / begin / a.m. / the / daily / doctor / 8 / wards / his / rounds / Does / 9?

 

Exercise 15. Translate sentences into English:

1. Деякі процедури проводять натщесерце.

2. Де медичні сестри зберігають ліки в лікарні?

3. Мені будуть ставити крапельниці протягом наступного тижня.

4. Погані звички у харчуванні можуть спричиняти біль у шлунку.

5. О котрій годині черговий лікар починає щоденний обхід хворих?

6. Гарне ставлення лікаря до хворого сприяє його швидкому одужанню.

7. Чи медична сестра записала ваші персональні дані в історію хвороби? – Так, звичайно.

8. Йому необхідно зробити гастроскопію, щоб підтвердити діагноз виразки шлунку.

Exercise 16. Dwell upon the following topics:

1) the duties of a nurse on duty;

2) the procedures that can be administered to a patient.

 

Exercise 17. Describe the notion “hospital” using the following table:

1. The type of establishment.  
2. The procedure of admission to hospital.  
3. The nurses’ duties.  
4. The rules of taking medicines.  
5. The daily round.  

 

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

І. Перекладіть словосполучення: оглядати госпіталізованих хворих заповнювати історію хвороби приймати прописані ліки викликати несприятливі реакції назначати різні процедури ставити крапельницю сприяти швидкому одужанню робити уколи попередити шлункові проблеми проводити дослідження шлунку натщесерце   ІІ. Дайте відповіді на питання: What are the duties of a nurse? Where are the drugs usually kept at hospital? What is usually written in a patient’s case history? What procedures can a ward doctor administer to a patient? Why aren’t patients allowed to take the medicines themselves?   ІІІ. Розкрийте поняття: Лікарня

 

Emergency Medical Service

 

Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary:

adhesive plaster, n [əd'hi:siv 'pla:stə] лейкопластир
ampoule, n ['æmpu:l] ампула
antibiotics, n, pl. [æntibai'ɔtiks] антибіотики
artificial, adj. [ˏa:tiˈfiʃəl] штучний
antipyretics, n, pl. [ˏæntipai'retik] жарознижувальні засоби
disposable syringe, n [disˈpəuzəbl si’rinʤ] одноразовий шприц
emetics, n, pl. [iˈmetiks] засоби, які викликають блювоту
enema, n [ˈenimə] клізма
first-aid kit, n [ˈfɜ:st ˈeid ˈkit] медична аптечка
injury, n ['inʤәri] пошкодження, травма
iodine, n [ˈaiədain] йод
non-registered nurse, n [ˏnɔnˈreʤistəd ˈnɜ:s] молодша медична сестра
paramedic, n [ˏpærəˈmedik] фельдшер
severe, adj. [siˈviə] серйозний
suppository, n [səˈpɔzitəri] свічка
team, n [ti:m] бригада (швидкої допомоги)
tourniquet, n [ˈtuənikei] джгут
vial, n [ˈvaiəl] флакон

 

Exercise 2. Read correctly:

qu [kw]: quick, equip, equipment, liquid, frequent, queen, question, request;

qu [k]: cheque, tuque, toque, unique, technique, plaque, physique, picturesque;

qua [kwɔ:]: quantity, quality, quarter, quarrel, quadrant, squad, qualification;

et [kei]: tourniquet, bouquet, sachet, ballet, carnet, cabaret.

 

Exercise 3. a) Form different parts of speech. Explain the meaning of affixes:

1) form nouns from the verbs with the suffix ion: to dictate, to state, to inject, to protect, to consult, to obstruct, to erupt, to complete;

2) form nouns from the verbs with the suffix –er: to teach, to lecture, to write, to read, to work, to help, to examine, to drive;

3) form nouns from adjectives with the suffix –ness: ill, weak, dark, great, kind, happy, lazy, tough;

4) form adjectives from verbs with the suffix –able: to consider, to change, to eat, to absorb, to drink, to rely, to reason, to question.

 

Exercise 4. Read the following word-combinations and translate them into Ukrainian. Make up your own sentences:

to provide:to provide population with medicines, to provide body with oxygen, to provide the injured people with first aid, to provide hospitals with things for medical care, to provide the patient with pills;

to contain: to contain first-aid things, to contain narcotic drugs, to contain harmful substances, to contain iodine and brilliant green, to contain masks for personal protection;

to relieve: to relieve pain, to relieve toothache, to relieve anxiety, to relieve fear, to relieve seizures;

to receive: to receive the call, to receive the findings of analyses, to receive the doctor’s instructions, to receive symptomatic treatment, to receive antibiotic therapy.

 

Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:

Emergency Medical Service

Emergency medical service (EMS) is a special medical service that provides out-of-hospital medical care and transportation of patients with illnesses and injuries to hospitals. It is carried out by the specialized facility called the First Aid Station. It is on duty all day long. Calls are made to the First Aid Station in case of an accident or a sudden severe illness. There are a lot of ambulances at the First Aid Station. They all are well-equipped with first-aid kits. First-aid kit is a special case which contains all the necessary things for rendering the first aid and making a diagnosis: ampoules, boxes, vials with different drugs and tubes with liniment; alcohol, cotton wadding, disposable syringes for IV and IM injections; antiseptics, brilliant green, iodine, adhesive plasters to clean and close wounds; bandage and tourniquet to stop bleeding; inhalers for people suffering from respiratory diseases; enema, probe, hot water bottle for those who have troubles with the gastrointestinal tract; masks and gloves for the first-aid doctors for their personal protection. Among medicines, there are pain-killers, tonics, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory remedies, emetics and anti-emetics, antipyretics, sedatives and hypnotics, laxatives and suppositories in the first-aid kit. It may contain even narcotic medicines to relieve pain in severe cases. The ambulances also carry artificial respiration apparatus, sets of splints and stretchers, thermometers to take the temperature, tonometers to measure blood pressure, portable electrocardiograph to monitor a patient’s heart work.

There are several kinds of ambulance teams that are trained to deliver specialized medical aid: cardiac intensive care teams, psychiatric care teams, children’s emergency, etc. Each ambulance is equipped with appropriate instruments according to their qualification.

All ambulances are radio equipped. To call in an ambulance it is necessary to dial up 103. The dispatcher is responsible for the “pre-arrival” instructions: he receives the call, asks for all the important details (for example, the address of an accident, types of injuries) and then directs the corresponding ambulance.

The ambulance team usually consists of an ambulance doctor, medical assistant (or paramedic), and non-registered nurse. The main thing in the work of the ambulance doctor is to make a correct diagnosis quickly. That’s why the doctor must have deep knowledge of emergency surgery, toxicology, emergency therapy, obstetrics and gynecology. The paramedic helps the doctor and usually prepares the necessary instruments for a certain procedure. The duty of the non-registered nurse is to keep the first-aid kit in order. There is also an ambulance driver who is trained to transport people carefully.

In Ukraine there are government-financed and private ambulance services. The main function of the latter is mainly to transport a patient to the hospital.

Exercise 6. Answer the questions:

1. What is Emergency medical service?

2. What does the emergency medical service provide?

3. How many hours a day do the First Aid Stations work?

4. What are the ambulances equipped with?

5. What medical things does the first-aid kit contain?

6. What drugs are there in the first-aid kit?

7. What are the members of the ambulance team? What are their duties?

8. What types of ambulance services are in Ukraine?

 

Exercise 7. Guess the word:

1. anti-inflammatory drugs 2. antipyretics 3. analgesics 4. emetics 5. hypnotics 6. laxatives 7. sedatives 8. suppositories a) medicines that decrease fever; b) medicines that are used to calm down and relax the patient; c) medicines for relieving constipation; d) solid medicines that are inserted into the rectum where they melt and affect the body; e) medicines that relieve pain, they are also called pain-killers; f) medicines that produce vomiting; g) medicines that help to reduce inflammation; h) medicines that produce sleep.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
               

Exercise 8. Join the words so as to make up word-combinations. Translate them into Ukrainian:

1. out-of-hospital 2. disposable 3. non-registered 4. pre-arrival 5. government-financed 6. anti-inflammatory 7. first-aid 8. respiratory a) nurse b) remedies c) services d) kits e) syringes f) diseases g) medical care h) instructions

 

Exercise 9. Find the appropriate object to each verb. Make up your own sentence with one of the expression:

List A – Verbs: to measure, to render, to monitor, to close, to relieve, to suffer from, to make, to stop;

List B – Nouns: bleeding, a diagnosis, first aid, pain, wounds, blood pressure, a disease, the heart work.

 

Exercise 10. True or false?

1. Masks and gloves in the first-aid kit are necessary for the doctor’s personal protection.

2. The patient’s blood pressure is measured with the help of the portable electrocardiograph.

3. To take the temperature, nurses use thermometers.

4. Bleeding can be easily stopped with brilliant green or iodine or some other antiseptic.

5. Stretchers are used when a person has broken his leg.

6. Gastrointestinal disorders can be relieved with the help of enema, probe, hot water bottle.

7. The ambulance doctor monitors the patient’s heart work with portable artificial respiration apparatus.

8. A person suffering from asthma needs to use a set of splints.

 

Exercise 11. Translate the words in italics:

1. Out-of-hospital medical care is provided by станцією швидкої допомоги.

2. Each ambulance has медичні аптечки with антисептиками, знеболюючими, заспокійливими, жарознижувальними засобами, etc.

3. The First Aid Stations are чергуванні all day long, and they are always ready надати першу медичну допомогу.

4. There are several kinds of ambulance teams: кардіо-реанімаційні, психіатричні, дитячі, so on.

5. It is the dispatcher who відповідає за the “pre-arrival” instructions.

6. An ambulance doctor, фельдшер and молодша медична сестра are the members of an ambulance team.

7. The main thing in the work of the ambulance doctor is поставити правильний діагноз quickly.

8. In Ukraine there are державні та приватні ambulance services.

Exercise 12. Fill in the table:

Model:early – earlier – earliest

patiently – more patiently – most patiently

Positive Comparative Superlative
cold    
late    
usefully    
carelessly    
badly    
little    
many    
easy    

 

Exercise 13. Insert the appropriate form of the adverb. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian:

1. He runs … than me. (fast)

2. She came … of all. (early)

3. You should eat … spicy food. (little)

4. He wrote his exam … than any of us. (well)

5. It rained … last night than last week. (heavily)

6. It took me … than usual to make a correct diagnosis. (long)

7. He worked … and … each time to achieve the best results. (hard)

8. Everyone treated him … than other patients at hospital. (kindly)

Exercise 14. Insert the adverb in the right place:

Model:The students watched the operation quietly in the surgery yesterday.

(How?) (Where?) (When?)

They go to the dissecting-room on foot after classes.

(verb of (Where?) (How?) (When?)

movement)

1. She is late. (often)

2. He died. (at home, last night, quietly)

3. Mary answers her phone calls. (always)

4. The injured will be taken to hospitals. (immediately)

5. The student answered all the examiner’s questions. (easily)

6. I will forget my first operation on appendicitis. (very, never)

7. Ambulance Services have been renewed. (in Ukraine, already)

8. The students went after they’d heard who was the lecturer. (quickly, to the lecture hall)

Exercise 15. Re-write sentences putting the verbs in brackets into the correct tense form. Translate sentences into Ukrainian:

1. Emergency medical service always (to provide) out-of-hospital medical care.

2. Yesterday, the ambulance (to transport) him to the trauma unit.

3. I (to call) in an ambulance, if the temperature (to keep) rising.

4. The nurse (to close) the wound with adhesive plaster after she’s cleaned it.

5. Emetics are the drugs that (to make) you vomit.

6. The dispatcher (to be) responsible for the “pre-arrival” instructions.

7. All the ambulances (to have) first-aid kits.

8. The ambulance driver (to transport) patients carefully.

 

Exercise 16. Put questions to the underlined words:

1. Ampoules, boxes and vials contain different drugs.

2. Disposable syringes are used for IV and IM injections.

3. The doctor gave his patient some sedative to calm him down.

4. She was administered procedure with probe because of gastric troubles.

5. He will take laxatives to relieve constipation.

6. It is necessary to dial up 103 to call in an ambulance.

7. During the examination the physician measured his blood pressure.

8. The role of the non-registered nurse is to keep the first-aid kit in order.

 

Exercise 17. Translate sentences into English:

1. Як правило, швидка допомога приїздить негайно.

2. Його миттю госпіталізували з такими ушкодженнями.

3. Її обережно транспортували до реанімаційного відділення.

4. Зеленка є одним з найкращих коли-небудь відомих антисептиків.

5. Щоб заспокоїти пацієнтів, лікарі іноді дають їм заспокійливе.

6. В машинах швидкої допомоги завжди є тонометр, термометр, набір шин, носилки.

7. Молодша медична сестра зобов’язана зберігати медичну аптечку у бездоганному порядку.

8. Фельдшер негайно дістав ампулу з антибіотиком з аптечки, щоб зробити хворому ін’єкцію.

 

Exercise 18. Arrange the following sentences in order to describe the first-aid kit:

1. The first-aid kit may also contain narcotic medicines to relieve severe pain.

2. For example, there is alcohol, cotton wadding, disposable syringes for IV and IM injections.

3. Bandage and tourniquet are applied to stop bleeding.

4. Besides, there are antiseptics, brilliant green, iodine, adhesive plasters used to clean and close wounds.

5. Among medicines, there are pain-killers, antibiotics, emetics and anti-emetics, antipyretics, sedatives, laxatives, etc.

6. First-aid kit is a special case that contains all the necessary things for rendering the first aid.

 

Exercise 19. Describe the “first-aid station” according to the plan in the table:

1. The type of establishment.  
2. The services provided.  
3. The equipment.  
4. The ambulance team.  
5. Kinds of EMS.  

 

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

І. Перекладіть наступні словосполучення: надавати першу медичну допомогу станція швидкої допомоги чергувати весь день добре забезпечена медична аптечка зупинити кровотечу штучний дихальний апарат знімати біль спостерігати за роботою серця кардіо-реанімаційна бригада швидкої жарознижувальні та блювотні засоби   ІІ. Дайте відповідь на наступні питання: What does the emergency medical service provide? How many hours a day do the First Aid Stations work? What are the ambulances equipped with? What medical things does the first-aid kit contain? What drugs are there in the first-aid kit?   ІІІ. Розкрийте поняття: швидка медична допомога аптечка
At the Chemist's

 

Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary:

ambiguity, n [ˏæmbɪ'gjuːɪtɪ] двозначність, неясність
chemist's, n ['kemists] аптека
consequence, n [ˈkɔnsikwəns] наслідок, результат
contraindication, n [ˏkɔntrəɪndɪ'keɪʃ(ə)n] протипоказання
dangerous, adj [ˈdeinʤərəs] небезпечний
dispense, v [di'spens] виготовляти (ліки)
drastic, adj [ˈdræstik] сильнодіючий
expiry date, n [ik'spaiəri 'deit] термін дії
label, v ['leibl] маркерувати, позначати
prescription, n [priˈskripʃən] рецепт
private, adj. ['praivit] приватний
promote, v [prəˈmout] сприяти
psychotropic, adj. [saikouˈtroupik] психотропний
side effect, n ['said i'fekt] побічна дія
storage, n ['stɔːrɪʤ] зберігання
supply with, v [sə'plai] постачати, забезпечувати
warnings, n, pl. ['wɔːnɪŋz] попередження

 

Exercise 2. Read correctly:

ps [s]: psychotropic, psychiatry, psychology, psychosis, psychiatrist, psychologist, psychic;

ph [f]: pharmacy, philosophy, pharmacology, physician, pharmaceutist, physics, photo;

y [ai]: supply, apply, rely, July, good-bye, type, rye;

au [ɔ:]: cause, trauma, autopsy, auscultation, autonomy, nausea, August.

 

Exercise 3. Put the words into the appropriate column:

Muscles, hepatitis, antipyretics, thyroid gland, nausea, analgesics, headache, joints, pneumonia, emetics, pyelonephritis, skin, cough, hypnotics, gastric ulcer, edema, heart, breathlessness, appendicitis, laxatives, rales, sedatives, tuberculosis, suppositories, rash, antibiotics, bones, pain-killers, cystitis, lungs

 

Human body Diseases Symptoms Medicines
       

 

Exercise 4. Read and translate the following word-combinations into Ukrainian:

An institution of health service, to supply with medicines, a wide variety of articles, municipal and private types of chemist’s, a chemist's department, a prescription department, things for medical care and medical herbs, narcotic and psychotropic drugs, to sell by prescription only, date of dispensing, expiry date, proper storage of the drug, directions to the patient, to write out a prescription, to avoid ambiguity and misunderstanding.

 

Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:

At the Chemist’s

Chemist's shop (a pharmacy in Great Britain, a drug store in the USA) is an institution of health service. It supplies the population with medicines and medical things. It is a place where a wide variety of articles is sold and prescription can be made; drugs are dispensed, stored and sold. There are different types of chemist’s: municipal, public, private. Each chemist's shop has a chemist's department and a prescription one. All medicines are kept in drug cabinets, open shelves and refrigerators at a chemist’s.

At the chemist's department a person buys drugs ready to use, different things for medical care and medi­cal herbs.

Poisonous, drastic, narcotic and psychotropic drugs are sold by prescription only at the prescription department. These drugs are potent and can be dangerous if taken in an overdose. Therefore, their use is strictly controlled.

Every small bottle, a tube or a box of medicine has a label on it. White labels indicate drugs for internal use, yellow ones indicate drugs for external use and blue ones indicate drugs used for injections. The dose to be taken and the directions for the administration are also indicated on a label. Besides, all containers of dispensed medicines have the following particulars: name of the patient, name of the medicine, correct dosage instructions, date of dispensing, expiry date, warnings or contraindications, name and address of the pharmacy. It prevents confusing different remedies, some of which are poisonous. Their overdosage may cause unfavourable reactions and sometimes even death.

The structure of a complete prescription includes six essential parts: the patient's name, the superscription (i.e. the traditional symbol Rx at the beginning of the prescription), the inscription (i.e. the body of the prescription containing the ingredients and their quantities), the subscription (i.e. prescriber’s instructions to the pharmacist), the signature (i.e. directions to the patient) and the prescriber's name.

In continental Europe, prescriptions are written out in Latin abbreviations. The only exception is the signature. That is why European medical schools require two years of Latin as part of the curriculum for medical doctors and pharmacists. In Great Britain, all prescriptions are written out in English to avoid ambiguity and misunderstanding that might lead to serious consequences.

 

Exercise 6. Answer the questions:

1. What is a chemist's shop?

2. What departments are there at every chemist’s?

3. What can a person buy at the chemist’s department?

4. What can a person buy at the prescription department?

5. Where are all the drugs kept at the chemist's?

6. Why are some drugs sold by prescription only?

7. What are the necessary particulars on the label?

8. What does the complete prescription consist of?

 

Exercise 7. Match the terms with their explanations:

1. a chemist’s 2. a pharmacist 3. a medicine 4. a prescription 5. an overdosage 6. a label 7. a drug cabinet 8. an expiry date a) a case of taking drugs in excessive amount; b) a special time when a medicine can no longer be used; c) a small piece of paper which contains the information about the drug; d) pills or tablets used for treatment of diseases; e) a person who is qualified to compose and dispense drugs; f) a storage place for drugs and remedies inside a chemist’s; g) a medical facility where one can buy drugs and things for medical care; h) a doctor's written instruction for the composition and use of a drug.

 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
               

 

Exercise 8. Find the English equivalents to the following word-combinations in the text:

Забезпечувати населення ліками; виготовляти, зберігати та продавати ліки; відділ продажу готових ліків; рецептурний відділ; зберігати у шафах для ліків та відкритих полицях; отруйні та сильнодіючі ліки; суворо контролювати; викликати несприятливі реакції; дата виготовлення та термін зберігання; протипоказання та побічні дії; виникати внаслідок передозування; призводити до серйозних наслідків.

 

Exercise 9. Replace the words in bold type with their equivalents from the texts above:

1. Any medicine should be taken according to the prescription.

2. A chemist’s provides people with medicines.

3. The body of the prescription includes the ingredients of a drug.

4. The drugs are kept in drug cabinets.

5. An excessive intake of drugs leads to bad results.

6. Toxic drugs are sold by prescription only.

7. Some additional effects appear when taking these pills.

8. To escape double meaning the British don’t use Latin abbreviations.

 

Exercise 10. Insert the preposition where necessary:

1. You can find this drug … the chemist’s over there.

2. The prescription is written … in Latin.

3. Overdosage causes … serious consequences.

4. I was … a sick-leave twice last year.

5. I keep all the medicines … a small drug cabinet.

6. This procedure consists … listening … the patient’s heart and lungs.

7. Depending … the weather, we’ll either go … the polyclinic or call … a doctor.

8. World Health Organisation supplies … people … the information about epidemics.

 

Exercise 11. Read and translate the sentences. Define the tense and voice of the predicate. Make the sentences negative and interrogative:

Model:

A chemist’s provides us with medicines and things for care. (provides – Present Simple Active)

A chemist’s doesn’t provide us with medicines and things for care.

Does a chemist’s provide us with medicines and things for care?

 

1. I completed this project a week ago.

2. His diagnosis is confirmed by X-ray.

3. The course of the disease seems mild.

4. Every human needs vitamins and minerals.

5. Drastic drugs are sold by prescription only.

6. They will use the new method in their research.

7. The findings of blood analysis will be made in an hour.

8. The structure of the human body was described by A.Vesalius.

 

Exercise 12. Find and translate the sentences in Passive Voice only:

1. A nurse fills in the patient’s cards.

2. Some drugs are made from plants.

3. A nurse looks after the patients.

4. We were examined at the clinic yesterday.

5. The patients’ tests are taken every morning.

6. The electrocardiograms were taken yesterday.

7. The infection diseases can pass through the mouth and nose.

8. The patients are not allowed to take the medicines themselves.

 

Exercise 13. Change sentences from Active into Passive:

Model:

The doctor will examine you in a minute. – You will be examined by the doctor in a minute.

 

1. A. Fleming discovered penicillin by chance.

2. The surgeon operated on the patient successfully.

3. Students study basic theoretical subjects in the first term.

4. Scientists introduced new methods of treatment of cancer.

5. The district doctor will prescribe you the proper treatment.

6. The doctor made a correct diagnosis after the physical examination.

7. The doctor will discharge the patient from the hospital in two days.

8. The nurse on duty usually takes the patients to different procedures.

 

Exercise 14. Re-write sentences opening brackets:

1. These drugs (to sell) yesterday.

2. A complete prescription (to consist) of six essential parts.

3. The daily dosage (to indicate) always on the label of the medicine.

4. In the future, sale of potent drugs (to control) much more strictly.

5. The prescriber's name (to guarantee) the authenticity of the drug.

6. Yesterday, before taking the pills she (to read) the package insert.

7. Drastic medicines (to cause) such side effects as nauseas and dizziness.

8. If expiry date of a remedy is over, a pharmacist immediately (to write) it off.

 

Exercise 15. Put questions to the underlined words:

1. Latin is the language of prescriptions.

2. There are two departments at any chemist’s.

3. The use of potent drugs is strictly controlled.

4. The physician prescribed him mild laxatives.

5. A chemist’s supplies population with medicines.

6. In Britain prescriptions are written out in English only.

7. They will take into consideration all the doctor’s administration.

8. The pharmacist instructed the patient about the medication’s side effects.

 

Exercise 16. Translate sentences into English:

1.Всі рецепти виписують латинською.

2. Rx – латинський символ, який означає «рецепт».

3. В цій аптеці ліки виготовляються за рецептом.

4. Повна структура рецепту включає шість складових частин.

5. Саме аптеки забезпечують населення ліками та іншими медичними речами.

6. Фармацевти зберігають ліки в аптечних шафах, на відкритих полицях чи в холодильниках.

7. Виготовляючи ліки, фармацевти мають бути особливо уважними, що уникнути помилок.

8.Цей препарат – сильнодіючий; у надмірній дозі він може призвести до несприятливих наслідків.

 

Exercise 17. Describe the notion “chemist’s” using the following table:

1. The type of establishment.  
2. What it supplies people with.  
3. Structural units.  
4. Peculiarities of prescription in different European countries.  

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

I. Перекладіть словосполучення: призводити до смерті виписати рецепт рецептурний відділ термін зберігання виготовляти ліки відділ продажу готових ліків забезпечувати населення ліками протипоказання та побічні дії викликати несприятливі реакції сильнодіючі та психотропні препарати   II. Дайте відповіді на питання: What kinds of chemist's shops are there? What can a person buy at the chemist’s department? What drugs are sold by prescription only? Where are all the drugs kept at the chemist's? What does the complete prescription consist of?   III. Розкрийте поняття: Аптека

 

 

Vitamins

 

Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary:

carbohydrate, n [ˌkɑːbəʊˈhaɪdreɪt] вуглевод
compound, n [ˈkɒmpaʊnd] суміш, сполука
deficiency, n [dɪˈfɪʃənsɪ] нестача, дефіцит
diverse, adj [daiˈvəːs] різноманітний
exception, n [ɪkˈsɛpʃən] виняток
expose (to), v [ɪkˈspəʊz] піддавати (чомусь)
heal, v [hi:l] виліковувати, загоювати, заживати
ingest, v [ɪnˈdʒɛst] ковтати
nutrient, n [ˈnjuːtrɪənt] поживна речовина
outer, adj [ˈaʊtə] зовнішній
performance, n [pəˈfɔːməns] продуктивність

Exercise 2. Read the word combinations with the new words and translate them into Ukrainian:

Nutrient: nutrient medium; nutrient absorption; nutrient excess; intravenous nutrient; nutrient-enriched food.

Exception: without exception; an exception to the rule; as an exception; make an exception; be no exception.

Compound: acid compound; iodine compound; oxygenated compound; low molecular weight compound.

Carbohydrate: carbohydrate balance; carbohydrate diet; carbohydrate metabolism; complex carbohydrates; organic chemical compound.

 

Exercise 3. Form nouns with the help of the following suffixes, translate them into Ukrainian:

-ance(-ence):perform, assist, differ, maintain, appear, occur, disturb, resist

-ion:except, reflect, direct, ingest, suggest, collect, infect, solute, combine

Exercise 4. Read and translate the following word combinations:

Organic compound, sufficient quantity, single exception, essential nutrients, fatty acid, amino acid, water-soluble vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins, be stored in the fatty tissue, ingest frequently, excreted through the urine, diverse biochemical functions, maintain body tissues, immune system’s performance, outer cell membrane, deficiency disease, vitamin poisoning.

 

Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:

Vitamins

A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism. In other words, an organic chemical compound is called a vitamin when it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by an organism, and must be obtained from the diet. If a molecule can be synthesized in the body, it is not a vitamin. The single exception to this rule is vitamin D which can be synthesized in the skin, but only when exposed to sunlight and Niacin (B3) which itself can be synthesized in the liver in small amounts. The term vitamin does not also include other essential nutrients such as minerals, fatty acids, or amino acids (which are needed in larger amounts than vitamins).

Vitamins are classified as either water-soluble or fat-soluble. There are 13 universally recognized vitamins: 4 fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K) and 9 water-soluble (8 B vitamins and vitamin C). Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body's fatty tissue, so they do not need to be ingested every day. Water soluble vitamins cannot be stored, with the exceptions of В12 and Folic Acid and must be ingested frequently for optimal health. They are easily excreted through the urine.

Vitamins have diverse biochemical functions. For example, vitamin A helps to develop and maintain body tissues such as bone and skin; it also helps the body’s vision, nervous system functioning, reproduction, and growth. The B vitamins are responsible for increasing the production of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates as well as assisting with metabolism, building red blood cells, and maintaining the protection of the nervous system. Vitamin C helps form tissues, cells, bones and teeth; heals wounds; and improves the immune system’s performance. Vitamin E protects the outer cell membranes from harm, thus assisting the immune system in fighting off diseases.

A diet naturally high in vitamins and minerals can be the best defense against many diseases. You can develop health problems (deficiency disease) if you do not get enough of a particular vitamin. But it is also important to remember that high doses of certain vitamins can cause vitamin poisoning.

 

Exercise 6. Answer the questions:

1. What vitamins can be synthesized in the body?

2. How are vitamins classified?

3. How many vitamins are universally recognized?

4. Why is it unnecessary to ingest fat-soluble vitamins daily?

5. How are water-soluble vitamins excreted out of the body?

6. What functions do vitamins have?

7. What are B vitamins responsible for?

8. What can high doses of certain vitamins cause?

Exercise 7. Find words or word combinations in the text denoting the following:

1. a condition, produced by a lack of vitamins or other essential substances;

2. a condition of high storage levels of vitamins, which can lead to toxic symptoms;

3. an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism, which cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities within the body;

4. a chemical compound, whose molecules contain carbon;

5. a group of vitamins stored in the body's fatty tissue;

6. a group of vitamins which cannot be stored in the body.

Exercise 8. Find corresponding equivalents in the text:

Різноманітні біохімічні функції, викликати отруєння вітамінами, захищати зовнішню клітинну оболонку від пошкодження, органічна сполука, покращувати продуктивність імунної системи, розвивати авітаміноз, виділяти з сечею, допомагати підтримувати тканини тіла, у достатній кількості, єдиний виняток з цього правила, жирні кислоти та амінокислоти, потрібно споживати щоденно, необхідні поживні речовини, накопичуватися у жировій тканині, водорозчинні вітаміни, жиророзчинні вітаміни.

 

Exercise 9. Match the words with their definitions:

1. vitamin 2. fat-soluble vitamin 3. water-soluble vitamin 4. nutrient 5. carbohydrate 6. wound a) any vitamin that is soluble in water b) any of a large group of organic compounds, including sugars, such as sucrose, and polysaccharides, such as cellulose, glycogen, and starch, that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; an important source of food and energy for animals c) any substance that nourishes an organism d) any of various organic compounds that are needed in small amounts for normal growth and activity of the body e) an injury, especially one in which the skin or another external surface is torn, pierced, cut, or otherwise broken f) any vitamin that is soluble in fats

Exercise 10. Put the words in the correct order to make questions:

1. can / be / How / vitamins / classified?

2. Where / produced / vitamins / are / synthetic?

3. helps / change / into energy / What / the body cells / carbohydrates?

4. folate / does / form / help / What?

5. for / What / essential /is / biotin?

6. the body / leave / vitamins / do / How / water-soluble?

7. What / the body’s fatty tissue / vitamins / stored / are / in?

8. the first / isolated / Who / vitamin complex?

 

Exercise 11. Put questions to the underlined words:

1. Vitamin D can be synthesized in the body.

2. Water-soluble vitamins must be ingested frequently.

3. Vitamins have diverse biochemical functions.

4. High doses of certain vitamins can cause vitamin poisoning.

5. Vitamin C helps form tissues, cells, bones and teeth.

6. Vitamin E protects the outer cell membranes from harm.

7. Deficiencies of vitamins are classified as either primary or secondary.

8. Many types of water-soluble vitamins are synthesized by bacteria.

 

Exercise 12. Ask questions beginning with the question word given in brackets:

1. Cashmir Funk was the first scientist who used the term “vitamine”. (Who?)

2. In the 1930s a scientific discovery demonstrated the biochemical functions of the vitamins. (When?)

3. Vitamins have been commercially produced since 1930. (Since what time?)

4. Niacin can lower blood cholesterol levels. (What?)

5. Vitamins were given letters to go with their chemical names to simplify discussion about them. (Why?)

6. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal tract. (How?)

7. Water-soluble vitamins dissolve easily in water. (Where?)

8. Vitamin C promotes wound healing. (What?)

 

Exercise 13. Translate the questions into English:

1. Який орган накопичує вітамін B12?

2. Хто був нагороджений Нобелівською премією за відкриття деяких вітамінів?

3. Що слід включати до раціону?

4. Скільки є водорозчинних вітамінів?

5. Які вітаміни не слід вживати щоденно?

6. Чому жиророзчинні вітаміни не вживають щоденно?

7. З яких джерел можна отримати вітаміни групи В?

8. За яких умов тіло може виробляти вітамін D?

Exercise 14. Put the sentences into the correct order to explain the term “vitamin”:

__Water soluble vitamins cannot be stored, with the exceptions of В12 and Folic Acid and must be ingested frequently for optimal health.

__Vitamins are classified as either water-soluble or fat-soluble.

__There are 13 universally recognized vitamins: 4 fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K) and 9 water-soluble (8 B vitamins and vitamin C).

__A vitamin is an organic compound that is needed in a small amount for normal growth and activity of the body.

__Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body's fatty tissue, so they do not need to be ingested every day.

 

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

I. Перекладіть словосполучення: різноманітні біохімічні функції викликати отруєння вітамінами органічна сполука розвивати авітаміноз виділяти з сечею підтримувати тканини тіла у достатній кількості споживати щоденно накопичуватися у жировій тканині необхідні поживні речовини   II. Дайте відповіді на питання: What vitamins can be synthesized in the body? How are vitamins classified? How many vitamins are universally recognized? What functions do vitamins have? What can high doses of certain vitamins cause?   III. Розкрийте поняття: Вітамін

 

 

Minerals

Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary:

counterpart, n [ˈkaʊntəˌpɑːt] подоба; дублікат
lozenge, n [ˈlozindʒ] таблетка для смоктання, льодяник
mirror, v [ˈmɪrə] відображати, віддзеркалювати
significant, adj [sɪɡˈnɪfɪkənt] значний
source, n [sɔːs] джерело
specify, v [ˈspɛsɪˌfaɪ] точно визначати (встановлювати)
strengthen, v [ˈstrɛŋθən] зміцнювати
sublingual, adj [sʌbˈlɪŋgwəl] під’язичний
substitution, n [ˌsʌbstɪˈtjuːʃən] заміна
supplement, n [ˈsʌp lə mənt] доповнення; додаток

Exercise 2. Read the word combinations and sentences with the new words and translate them into Ukrainian:

Source: source data; source of anxiety; source of bleeding; source of infection; source of radiation.



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