Blood. Blood Groups and Blood Transfusions



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Blood. Blood Groups and Blood Transfusions



Blood is a reddish bodily fluid that is pumped by the heart through the arteries and veins. It delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the body cells and transports metabolic waste products away from the cells. It is composed of blood cells floating in blood plasma. The blood cells are mainly red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. The average person has about 5 liters of blood; it makes up 7 to 8 percent of a person's body weight.

Red blood cells or erythrocytes are the most numerous cells in the blood. Red blood cells have no nuclei. The primary function of red blood cells is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the cells of the body. Red blood cells have an iron-containing protein called hemoglobin. It is hemoglobin that actually carries the oxygen and gives blood its red color.

White blood cells or leukocytes are a part of the immune system and help human bodies fight infection. It is leucocytes that can be transported to an area where an infection has developed. When the number of white blood cells in the human blood increases, this is a sign of an infection somewhere in the body.

Thrombocytes or platelets are responsible for blood clotting (coagulation). Platelets are formed in the bone marrow. They do not have a nucleus and do not reproduce.

Plasma is the blood's liquid medium. It is straw-yellow in color. It is plasma that makes 55% of blood. It is an aqueous solution containing 92% water, 8% blood plasma proteins, and a certain amount of other materials. Plasma circulates dissolved nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids, and removes waste products such as carbon dioxide, urea, and lactic acid.

Experiments with blood transfusions have been carried out for hundreds of years. In 1901 the Austrian scientist Karl Landsteiner discovered human blood groups and since then blood transfusions became safer. For this discovery he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology.

The two main ways to classify blood groups are the ABO (A, B, AB, O) system and the Rh (Rhesus positive +, Rhesus negative -) system.

The differences in human blood are due to the presence or absence of certain protein molecules called antigens and antibodies. Antigens are located on the surface of red blood cells and antibodies are located in blood plasma.

Mixing blood from two individuals can lead to blood clumping or agglutination. The clumped red cells can crack and cause toxic reactions. This can have fatal consequences. Karl Landsteiner discovered that blood clumping was an immunological reaction which occurs when the receiver of a blood transfusion has antibodies against the donor’s blood cells.

For a blood transfusion to be successful, ABO and Rh blood groups must be compatible between the donated blood and the recipient. If they are not, the red blood cells from the donated blood will clump or agglutinate. The accumulated red cells can obstruct blood vessels and stop the circulation of blood to various parts of the body.

You can give A blood to persons with blood group A, B blood to a person with blood group B and so on. But in some cases you can receive blood with another type of blood group, or donate blood to a person with another kind of blood group.

People with blood group O Rh - are called "universal donors" and people with blood group AB Rh+ are called "universal receivers."

Transfusions can spread disease from donor to recipient that is why donors should be periodically tested for infectious diseases.

 

Exercise 7. Answer the following questions:

1.What is blood?

2.What is blood composed of?

3.What kinds of blood cells are there?

4.What are the functions of red blood cells?

5.What is the function of white blood cells?

6.What is the function of platelets?

7.What is blood plasma?

8.When did the Austrian scientist Karl Landsteiner discover human blood groups?

9.What can mixing of blood from two individuals lead to?

10.What are the two main ways to classify blood groups?

11.What are the differences in human blood due to?

12.What people are called "universal donors" and "universal receivers"?

Exercise 8. Match English word-combinations with their equivalents in Ukrainian:

1. blood stream 2. iron-containing protein 3. clumping or agglutination 4. to circulate dissolved nutrients 5. fatal consequences 6. blood's liquid medium 7. to be awarded the Nobel Prize 8. to remove waste products 9. presence or absence of molecules 10. to be compatible with 11. to fight infections 12. to obstruct blood vessels 13. donated blood 14. the primary function of leucocytes 15. universal receiver 16. coagulation of blood 1. бути сумісним з 2. боротися з інфекцією 3. смертельні наслідки 4. первинна функція лейкоцитів 5. донорська кров 6. згортання крові 7. кров’яний потік 8. переносити розчинені поживні речовини через кров 9. бути нагородженим Нобелівською премією 10. виводити відходи з клітин 11. універсальний приймач 12. залізовмісний білок 13. склеювання та тромбування 14. присутність або відсутність молекул 15. закупорювати судини 16. рідке середовище крові

Exercise 9. Match the terms with their definitions:

1. blood   2. erythrocyte   3. leukocyte   4. platelet   5. blood plasma   6. hemoglobin a) a blood cell that fights bacteria and fungi; an important part of the body's immune system; b) numerous round small blood cells that clot blood; c) pale yellow protein-containing fluid portion of blood in which the blood cells and platelets are normally suspended; d) the bodily fluid consisting of plasma, blood cells, and platelets that is circulated by the heart through the vertebrate vascular system, carrying oxygen and nutrients to and waste materials away from all body tissues; e) an iron-containing protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues of the body; f) a blood cell that transports oxygen and carbon dioxide, combined with the red pigment hemoglobin, to and from the tissues.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
             

 

Exercise 10. Fill in the gaps with the missing words/word combinations given below:

1. During childhood, almost every human bone produces ….

2. … is the principal determinant of the color of blood.

3. … contains glucose and other dissolved nutrients.

4. Without …, you would bleed to death.

5. A hormone called … regulates the production of erythrocytes.

6. … enters the blood in the capillaries and is brought back to the lungs.

7. When plasma is allowed to clot, the fluid left behind is called ….

8. Erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets … in plasma.

blood platelets; serum; hemoglobin; float; red blood cells; blood plasma; erythropoietin*; carbon dioxide

* erythropoietin (эритропоэтин) - a hormone causing an increased production of erythrocytes

Exercise 11. Translate the word-combinations in bold type into English:

1. Експерименти з переливання крові have been carried out for hundreds of years.

2. Змішування крові from two individuals can lead to склеювання та утворення тромбів.

3. Karl Landsteiner discovered that blood clumping was імунологічною реакцією which occurs when the recipient of a blood transfusion має антитіла проти клітин крові донора.

4. The differences in human blood are due to the наявності чи відсутності певних білкових молекул called antigens and antibodies.

5. Not all blood groups are сумісні with each other that is why переливання крові may sometimes be dangerous for people.

6. Transfusions can розповсюджувати захворювання from donor to recipient that is why donors should be periodically здавати аналізи на наявність інфекційних захворювань.

Exercise 12. Fill in appropriate prepositions from the box below:

On; from; to; as; against; with

 

Red blood cell compatibility

Blood group AB individuals have both A and B antigens ……….. the surface of their RBCs, and their blood plasma does not contain any antibodies against either A or B antigen. Therefore, an individual with type AB blood can receive blood ……… any group (with AB being preferable), but cannot donate blood ……….. any group other than AB. They are known ……… universal recipients.

Blood group A individuals have the A antigen ………. the surface of their RBCs, and blood serum containing IgM (иммуноглобулин класса М) antibodies ………… the B antigen. Therefore, a group A individual can receive blood only ……….. individuals of groups A or O (with A being preferable), and can donate blood …….. individuals ……… type A or AB.

Blood group B individuals have the B antigen ……….. the surface of their RBCs, and blood serum containing IgM antibodies …………. the A antigen. Therefore, a group B individual can receive blood only ……… individuals of groups B or O (with B being preferable), and can donate blood to individuals ……… type B or AB.

Blood group O (or blood group zero) individuals do not have either A or B antigens ………. the surface of their RBCs, and their blood serum contains IgM anti-A and anti-B antibodies ………. the A and B blood group antigens. Therefore, a group O individual can receive blood only ………… a group O individual, but can donate blood ………. individuals of any ABO blood group.

If a patient in a hospital situation needs blood transfusion as an emergency O negative blood can be issued. They are known ……… universal donors.

 

Exercise 13. Arrange the following sentences in the correct order to explain the term “blood”:

___ It delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the body cells and transports metabolic waste products away from the cells.

___ The average person has about 5 liters of blood; it makes up 7 to 8 percent of a person's body weight.

___ Blood is a reddish bodily fluid that is pumped by the heart through the arteries and veins.

___ The blood cells are mainly red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.

___ It is composed of blood cells floating in blood plasma.

Exercise 14. Arrange the following sentences in the correct order to explain the term “blood groups”:

___ Mixing blood from two individuals can lead to blood clumping or agglutination.

___ The differences in human blood are due to the presence or absence of certain protein molecules called antigens and antibodies.

___ In 1901 the Austrian scientist Karl Landsteiner discovered human blood groups

___ Karl Landsteiner discovered that blood clumping was an immunological reaction which occurs when the receiver of a blood transfusion has antibodies against the donor’s blood cells.

___ The two main ways to classify blood groups are the ABO (A, B, AB, O) system and the Rh (Rhesus positive +, Rhesus negative -) system.

Exercise 15. Arrange the following sentences in the correct order to explain the term “blood transfusions”:

___ Transfusions can spread disease from donor to recipient that is why donors should be periodically tested for infectious diseases.

___ The accumulated red cells can obstruct blood vessels and stop the circulation of blood to various parts of the body.

___ For a blood transfusion to be successful, ABO and Rh blood groups must be compatible between the donated blood and the recipient.

___ People with blood group O Rh - are called "universal donors" and people with blood group AB Rh+ are called "universal receivers."

___ Mixing blood from two individuals can lead to blood clumping or agglutination.

Exercise 16. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian, paying attention to the emphatic construction:

1. It is the skeleton that protects inner organs from injuries.

2. It was A. Fleming who discovered penicillin.

3. It was not until 2010 that Odessa State Medical University got the status of a National University.

4. It is the liver which is the largest gland in the human body.

5. It was M.I. Pirogov who first suggested formation of Odessa Medical University.

6. It was not A.Fleming but two other scientists, Howard Florey and Ernst Chain, who developed penicillin further so that it could be produced as a drug.

7. It is complications that make flu a dangerous disease.

8. It was an ambulance that brought the patient to the ward.

9. It is heavy smokers who suffer from attacks of chronic bronchitis and asthma.

10. It is the head surgeon who insisted on removing the tumor as soon as possible.

Exercise 17. Emphasize the underlined parts of sentences using the emphatic construction:

Model: M. Sechenov investigatedblood gases in 1858.

It was M. Sechenov who investigated blood gases in 1858.

1. The eyes serve as the organ of sight.

2. The neck connects the head and the trunk.

3. Pirogov originated the intravenous administration of ether as an anesthetic.

4. From his work in the Crimea Pirogov is considered to be the father of field surgery.

5. By the 1940s penicillin was mass-produced by the American drugs industry.

6. Femur is the biggest bone in the body.

7. The smallest bone in the human body is located in the middle ear.

8. Blood cells are suspended in blood plasma.

9. Thanks to the efforts of N. I. Pirogov surgery was placed on a scientific basis.

10. The respiratory metabolism takes place in the alveoli.

Exercise 18. Translate the sentences into English paying attention to the emphatic construction:

1. Саме кров постачає поживні речовини до усіх клітин тіла.

2. Саме еритроцити є найчисленнішими кров’яними клітинами.

3. Саме гемоглобін дає крові її червоний колір.

4. Саме лейкоцити є частиною імунної системи.

5. Саме тромбоцити відповідають за згортання крові.

6. Саме Сєченов досліджував гази крові у 1858 році.

7. Тільки у 1628 році кровообіг було описано Віл’ямом Харві.

8. Тільки у 1538 році А. Везалій надрукував свої перші наукові труди.

9. Саме за відкриття пеніциліну О.Флемінг отримав Нобелівську премію.

10. Саме Пірогов був першим, хто використав ефір під час операції.

 

Exercise 19. Put questions to the underlined words:

1. Blood transports metabolic waste products away from the cells.

2. The average person has about 5 liters of blood.

3. White blood cells fight infection.

4. In a normal adult body there are 4,000 to 10,000 leucocytes per microliter of blood.

5. Thrombocytes are responsible for blood clotting.

6. Platelets are formed in the bone marrow.

7. Plasma circulates dissolved nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids.

8. Medical terms related to blood often begin with hemo- or hemato-.

 

Exercise 20. Open the brackets using the verb in the appropriate form:

Blood pressure (to be) the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels. It (to be) one of the principal vital signs. Blood pressure usually (to refer) to the arterial pressure of the systemic circulation. During each heartbeat, blood pressure (to vary) between a maximum (systolic) and a minimum (diastolic) pressure. The blood pressure in the circulation (to be) due to the pumping action of the heart. A person’s blood pressure usually (to express) in terms of the systolic pressure over diastolic pressure. It (to measure) in millimeters of mercury (mmHg), for example 120/80.

 

Exercise 21. Read an abstract and open the brackets in the correct tense and voice. Translate them into your native language:

Transfusion of blood (to be) a process of blood transfer from donor to the receptor. Blood can (to give) to the receptor only when they have same blood group. But as we say there (to be) always some exceptions, O Rh- blood group holders can give blood to any of the blood group people, hence they (to know) as universal donor. Whereas AB Rh+ blood group can receive blood from any donor, hence they (to call) universal acceptors. Apart from these two, if there is a transfer of unmatched blood to any person, then his antibodies (to attack) antigens and (to result) in agglutination. This can stop the blood flow and a person can die. Hence it is very important to test blood before the blood transfusion so as to avoid serious consequences.

 

* Read the passages and answer the following questions:

· This substance is composed of plasma, red corpuscles, white corpuscles and platelets. What substance is it?

· These cellular elements are the most numerous in the blood. They range from 4 to 5 million per cu mm in healthy adults. Their color is red. What cellular elements are they?

· This blood is brought to the heart from the systemic and portal circulations. It enters the right atrium of the heart. Then this blood passes into the right ventricle. From the right ventricle this blood passes into the pulmonary artery. What blood is it?

 

*Do you know that:

1. each erythrocyte lives 120-130 days?

2. each leukocyte lives 4-7 days?

3. every day 200.000.000 erythrocytes are born and the same number dies?

 

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

I. Перекладіть та вивчіть наступні словосполучення: призвести до склеювання та утворення тромбів наявність та відсутність білкових молекул крові спричиняти смертельні наслідки залізовмісний білок закупорювати кровоносні судини та зупиняти кровообіг донорська кров проводити експерименти з переливання крові бути сумісним з кров’ю одержувача потік крові людини розповсюджувати інфекційні захворювання   II. Дайте відповіді на наступні питання: What is blood composed of? What are the functions of blood cells? What is blood plasma? What are the two main ways to classify blood groups? What people are called "universal donors" and "universal receivers"? III. Розкрийте поняття: Кров Групи крові Переливання крові
Anatomy of Respiratory System

Exercise 1. Learn the following new words:

alveolus, n [‘ælviəuləs] альвеола
bronchus, n [‘broŋkəs] бронх
bronchiole, n [‘broŋkiəul] бронхіола
breathe, v [‘bri:ð] дихати
carbon dioxide, n [‘ka:bən ‘daiəksaid] вуглекислий газ
diaphragm, n [‘daiə’fræm] діафрагма
division, n [di’viz(ə)n] відділ, розподіл
ex-, inhalation, n [ˌekshəˈleɪʃən] видих, вдих
pleura, n [‘plu(ə)rə] плевра
oxygen, n [ˈɒksɪdʒən] кисень
supplement, v [‘sʌplimənt] додавати
take place, v [teɪk] [ˈpleɪs] відбуватися
trachea, n [trə’kiə] трахея

Exercise 2. Read the following paying attention to the rules of reading. Give examples of your own:

ch

[tʃ] – each, chill, chest

[k] – chemistry, ache, character, stomach– Greek origin

ture [tʃə] – suture, mixture, temperature, fracture

wh

o [h] – who, whom, whose, whole

[w] – when, why, whale, white

kn [n] – knee, knuckle, knowledge, knight

 

Exercise 3. Remember the rules of word-building in the English language. Translate them into Ukrainian:

a) form the Nounswith the help of suffix– ance (- ence)from the verbs: to disturb,to assist, to differ, to persist, to inherit, to resist, to perform

b) form the Nounswith the help of suffix– ance (- ence)from the adjectives: patient, tolerant, distant, important, incident, dependent, excellent, constant

c) form the Adjectiveswith the help of suffix–ive, - itive, -ativefrom the verbs: todigest,to reproduce, to cure, to compete, to cooperate

 

Exercise 4. Read and translate the word combinations into your native language:

A constant stream of oxygen; to remove carbon dioxide; to be lined with hairs and mucus membrane; to supplement or replace the nasal cavity’s functions; fine alveolar ducts; to be enclosed in a membranous sac; the total surface of capillaries; the vital capacity of the lungs; to increase the depth of respiration; mild and life-threatening forms of diseases.

 

Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:



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