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Изменения в неживой природе осенью
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Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov and his Discovery of Phagocytosis
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov was a Russian zoologist best known for his pioneering research of the immune system. He was born on May 16, 1845, in a village near near Kharkov (now Kharkiv in Ukraine), Russian Empire. He was the youngest of five children of Ilya Ivanovich Mechnikov, an officer of the Imperial Guard. Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov went to school in Kharkov and even being a little boy, he was passionately interested in natural history, botany and geology. When he left school he went to the University of Kharkov to study natural sciences, and worked there so hard that he was able to complete the four year course in two years. Then, he continued his education in Germany. Later, he returned back to Russia. When he was twenty-two Mechnikov was appointed a docent at the newly established Imperial Novorossiya University (now Odessa University). Only twenty-two years of age, he was younger than his students. In 1870 he was appointed a Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy.
Mechnikov became interested in the study of microbes, and especially the immune system. He discovered phagacytosis after experimenting on the larvae of starfish. In 1882 he first demonstrated the process when he pinned small thorns into starfish larvae, and he found unusual cells surrounding the thorns. The thorns were from a tangerine tree. He realized that in animals which have blood, the white blood cells gather at the site of inflammation, and he hypothesised that this could be the process by which bacteria were attacked and killed by the white blood cells. He discussed his hypothesis with Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Claus, Professor of Zoology at the University of Vienna, who suggested him the term "phagocyte" for a cell which can surround and kill pathogens. He delivered his findings at Odessa University in 1883.
His theory, that certain white blood cells could engulf and destroy harmful bodies such as bacteria, were met with scepticism from leading specialists including Louis Pasteur, Behring and others. At the time most bacteriologists believed that white blood cells ingested pathogens and then spread them further through the body.
He and Paul Ehrlich were awarded the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "in recognition of their work on immunity".
Mechnikov also developed a theory that aging is caused by toxic bacteria in the gut and that lacic acid could prolong life. Based on this theory, he drank sour milk every day. He wrote The Prolongation of Life: Optimistic Studies, in which he espoused the potential life-lengthening properties of lactic acid bacteria. He attributed the longevity of Bulgarian peasants to their yogurt consumption. This later inspired Japanese scientist Minoru Shirota to begin investigating a causal relationship between bacteria and good intestinal health, which eventually led to the worldwide marketing of different fermented milk drinks, or probiotics.
Mechnikov died in 1916 in Paris of heart failure.
Exercise 6. Answer the questions:
1. What is Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov best known for?
2. What was he interested in when he was a little boy?
3. Where did Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov study?
4. How did Mechnikov discover phagocytosis?
5. What were I.I. Mechnicov and Paul Ehrlich awarded a Nobel Prize for?
6. What theory about aging did Mechnikov develop?
7. What led to the worldwide marketing of different ferented milk drinks, or probiotics?
8. What did Mechnikov die of?
Exercise 7. Find corresponding equivalents in the text:
Вивчати природні науки; закінчити чотирьохрічний курс; продовжити освіту; бути призначеним доцентом; зацікавитися вивченням мікробів; личинки морської зірки; місце запалення; поглинати і знищувати; нападати на бактерії; запропонувати термін; бути нагородженим Нобелевською премією; викликати старіння; молочна кислота; продовжувати життя; споживання йогурту; здоров’я кишечнику; кисломолочні напої; серцева недостатність.
Exercise 8. Match the words with their definitions:
Exercise 9. Fill in the gaps with prepositions from the table below:
1. He is best known … his research of the immune system.
2. He was able to complete the four year course… two years.
3. He discovered phagocytosis … experimenting on the larvae of starfish.
4. White blood cells gather … the site of inflammation
5. The bacteria were attacked and killed … the white blood cells.
6. Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Claus suggested him the term "phagocyte" …a cell which can surround and kill pathogens.
7. I.I. Mechnikov and Paul Ehrlich were awarded the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "… recognition of their work on immunity".
8. Mechnikov died … heart failure.
Exercise 10. Make the following active sentences passive, pay attention to the tense forms:
For example: White blood cells ingest harmful microorganisms. – Harmful microorganisms are ingested by white blood cells.
1. He completed the course in two years.
2. They appointed him a docent at the newly established Imperial Novorossiya University.
3. We call this process phagocytosis.
4. We will discuss it next time.
5. They have just translated the text.
6. White blood cells attack and kill bacteria.
7. They met the theory with skepticism.
8. Toxic bacteria in the gut cause aging.
Exercise 11. Put questions to the underlined words:
1.He was born on May 16, 1845.
2. He went to the University of Kharkov to study natural sciences.
3.In 1870 he was appointed a Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy.
4. He discovered phagocytosis after experimenting on the larvae of starfish.
5. The white blood cells gather at the site of inflammation.
6. He and Paul Ehrlich were awarded the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
7. He attributed the longevity of Bulgarian peasants to their yogurt consumption.
8. Mechnikov died in 1916 in Paris of heart failure.
Exercise 12. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form:
At St. Petersburg he (to meet) his first wife, Ludmilla Feodorovitch, who (to suffer) from tuberculosis so severe that she had to be carried to church in a chair for the wedding. For five years Mechnikov (to do) all he could to save her life, but she (to die) on April 20, 1873. Broken by this loss, troubled by weak eyesight and heart troubles and by difficulties in the University, Mechnikov (to become) at this time, so pessimistic that he (to try) to take his own life by swallowing a large dose of opium; but, fortunately for himself and for the world, he (not to die). It was in Odessa, in fact, that he (to meet) his second wife, Olga, whom he (to marry) in 1875. In 1880 his second wife (to have) a severe attack of typhoid fever (черевний тиф), but, fortunately, she (to recover).
Exercise 13. Use the plan to tell about I.I. Mechnikov:
1. Date and place of birth.
2. Early childhood interests.
5. Discovery of phagocytosis.
6. End of life.
Exercise 14. Put the sentences into the correct order to tell about phagocytosis:
__It happened when he was experimenting on the larvae of starfish.
__Phagocytosis was discovered by I.I. Mechnikov.
__He realized then that in animals which have blood, the white blood cells gather at the site of inflammation.
__Phagocytosis isa process, by which a cell, such as a white blood cell, ingests and absorbs waste material, harmful microorganisms, or other foreign bodies in the bloodstream and tissues.
__So, he hypothesised that this could be the process by which bacteria were attacked and killed by the white blood cells.
Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)
Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary:
Exercise 2. Read correctly. Translate the words without dictionary:
-ea- [i:]:disease,reason,sick-leave, treatment, weak, speak, heat, seasonal;
-ea- [e]:head, bread, dead, already, death, health, measure, pleasure;
-cian [ʃ(ə)n]: physician, obstetrician, pediatrician, phthisiatrician, musician;
-tion [ʃ(ə)n]:examination, administration, medication, combination, injection,condition, instruction;
-sis (sing.) [sis] ––˃ -ses (pl.) [siz]:analysis – analyses, diagnosis – diagnoses, crisis – crises, synthesis – syntheses, thesis – theses.
Exercise 3. Form different parts of speech. Translate the pairs of words. Make up your own sentences with them:
a)form adjectives from nouns with the help of the suffix –y: word, sleep, health, air, ease, heart, blood;
b) form adverbs from adjectives with the help of the suffix –ly: wide, high, clear, deep, serious, intensive, necessary, direct, surgical, usual;
c) form the names of specialists (nouns) with the help of the suffix –ist: neurology, gynaecology, physiology, anatomy, dermatology, endocrinology, traumatology, therapy, urology, oncology, ophthalmology.
Exercise 4. Read the following word-combinations and translate them. Make up sentences of your own:
to consult:to consult a neurologist, to consult an ENT-doctor, to consult the patients, a consulting doctor, consulting hours;
to make: to make a correct diagnosis, to make a procedure, to make a blood test, to make an experiment, to make an exception;
to complain: to complain of poor health, to complain of headache, to complain of problems, to complain of heart discomfort, to complain of bad care;
to administer: to administer treatment, to administer certain drugs, to administer pain-killers, to administer intramuscular injections, to administer some procedures;
analysis: blood analysis, urinalysis, feces analysis, laboratory analyses, biochemical analyses.
Exercise 5. Join the words from two columns so as to make up word-combinations. Translate them:
Exercise 6. Read and translate the text:
There is a wide network of medical institutions in Ukraine which protect the health of our people. One of such medical institutions is a polyclinic.
If a person falls ill, but his condition isn't very poor and he has no high temperature, he will go directly to the district polyclinic and a physician will examine him there.
There are a lot of specialists working at the polyclinic: therapeutists, neurologists, dermatologists, urologists, ophthalmologists, ENT-doctors, traumatologists, endocrinologists, surgeons, etc. Besides, polyclinics have their own laboratories, X-ray, physiotherapeutic, surgical and other departments. There are specialized polyclinics for the adults and children.
During the medical examination, a physician usually asks the patient what he complains of and according to the complaints carries out the medical examination. The physician listens to the patient's heart and lungs and measures his blood pressure and if it is necessary, he will ask the patient to take the temperature. The laboratory findings which include blood analysis, the analysis of urine (urinalysis) and other tests help the physician to make a correct diagnosis and administer a proper treatment.
If the condition of a person is very poor, he will ring up his district polyclinic and call in a district doctor.
The work of district doctors is very intensive. In addition to their consulting hours at the polyclinic they go out to the calls daily to examine those patients who are seriously ill and whose condition is bad. Such sick persons receive a sick-leave. They usually follow a bed regimen. District doctors are especially busy during seasonal epidemies such as flu.
Any physician of the polyclinic knows his patients very well because he treats only a definite number of patients. There is a personal patient’s card of every patient at the district polyclinic which is filled in by his physician. There are all the details about the patient in his card: the diagnosis of the disease, the administrations made by the doctor, the course of the disease, the changes in the patient's condition after the treatment.
If it is necessary a nurse will come to the patient's house to give him the administered injections or carry out any of the doctor's administrations.
Exercise 7. Answer the questions:
1. What medical institution is aimed at the protection of people’s health?
2. What will a person do in case of illness?
3. What specialists work at the polyclinic?
4. What departments are there at a polyclinic?
5. What does a doctor base his examination on?
6. What procedures does a doctor carry out during medical examination?
7. What helps the physician to make a correct diagnosis?
8. Where is information about the patient’s condition written down?
Exercise 8. Find the equivalents of the following word-combinations in the text:
Pахищати здоров’я людей, не мати високої температури, оглядати пацієнта, міряти кров’яний тиск, міряти температуру, поставити правильний діагноз, призначити відповідне лікування, отримати лікарняний лист, дотримуватися постільного режиму, робити призначений укол, широка мережа медичних закладів, під час огляду, за необхідністю, лабораторні дослідження, перебіг захворювання.
Exercise 9. Join the word with its definition:
Exercise 10. a) Learn the given expressions. Pay attention to the use of prepositions:
b) Supply the necessary prepositions:
1. Listening … classical music helps to relax.
2. … night patient Davis complained … chest pain.
3. He is … a sick-leave now, because he is ill … pneumonia.
4. The nurse usually fills ... the patient's cards … the morning.
5. Medical students study ethics and philosophy in addition … basic science.
6. Patients with high temperature ring … the polyclinic and call … a doctor.
7. Pavlov carried ... many experiments to determine the nature of conditioned reflexes.
8. You should take these pills twice … a day according … the doctor’s administrations.
Exercise 11. Guess when it happened and read the dates correctly:
1. Pirogov became a student of the Moscow University in …, even though he was only 14.
2. In … Pirogov wrote his doctor’s thesis dedicated to the ligation of ventral aorta.
3. From … to … Pirogov created his famous anatomical atlas, Topographical anatomy of the human body.
4. In … A. Fleming discovered penicillin.
5. The first hospitals in Kyiv Rus appeared in … .
6. Our Medical university was created as the medical faculty of Novorossiysk University in … .
7. Odessa medical university became national on … .
8. A few years later after the World War II the United Nations held an International Health Conference during which it was decided to found World Health Organization in … .
Exercise 12. Join the parts from two columns so as to make sentences. Then translate them into Ukrainian:
Model:If he falls ill, he will go to the doctor.
Якщо він захворіє, він піде до лікаря.
Exercise 13. Make up your own continuation of sentences using Present instead of Future Tense where necessary:
1. He will be operated on, if … .
2. After she has taken these pills, she … .
3. When …, they will buy new equipment for the hospital.
4. Unless his condition improves, … .
5. You will not have any problems as long as … .
6. As soon as the doctor starts consultations, … .
7. Could you give this patient an injection while … ?
8. …, rub in that ointment.
Exercise 14. Re-write the given text below opening the brackets. Pay attention to the pronunciation of numerals:
The working day of any specialist at the polyclinic (to begin) at 9 o’clock in the morning. But, as a rule, they all (to come) to work at 8:45 a.m. so as to get ready for the reception of their patients. The work of a district doctor at the polyclinic (to last) for 3 hours during which he (to examine) about 10 and sometimes even 15 patients. In the afternoon he (to make) his daily round of visits to the district: if a patient (to be) seriously ill, his district doctor (to examine) him at home. As for other specialists working at the polyclinic their working day (to differ) from the one of a district doctor. They (to work) for 5 hours a day, i.e. from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. As a rule, it (to take) them 15 to 20 minutes to examine one patient. Thus, a specialist (to receive) about 20 patients a day. So, the working day of any specialist at the polyclinic (to be) quite intense.
Exercise 15. Put questions to the underlined words:
1. Polyclinics serve to protect people’s health.
2. Such sick persons receive a sick-leave.
3. There is a wide network of medical institutions in Ukraine.
4. If he has a lot of of time, he will finish his experiment in time.
5. If the patient is relaxed, it’s easy to carry on this procedure.
6. Nurses carry out any of the doctor's administrations.
7. District doctors are especially busy during seasonal epidemies such as flu.
8. Polyclinics have their own laboratories, X-ray, surgical and other departments.
Exercise 16. Translate the sentences into English:
1. Минулої зими ми двічі хворіли на грип.
2. В нашому місті є поліклініки для дітей та для дорослих.
3. Якщо у дитини буде висока температура, то я викличу районного лікаря з поліклініки.
4. Завтра він отримає результати аналізу крові, і тоді лікар поставить йому діагноз.
5. Коли ти отримуєш лікарняний лист, ти маєш дотримуватися постільного режиму.
6. Згідно призначенням лікаря медична сестра буде робити тобі уколи три рази на тиждень.
7. Робота районного лікаря у поліклініці триває три години, потім він йде на виклики.
8. Вчора лікар повністю обстежив мене: він послухав серце та легені, поміряв тиск та температуру.
Exercise 17. Arrange the following sentences in order to describe the profession of a district doctor:
1. A district doctor is a specialist working at the polyclinic with a definite number of patients.
2. Then he leaves for the seriously ill patients who cannot come to the polyclinic and gives them sick-leaves.
3. The work of district doctors is very intensive, especially during seasonal epidemies such as flu.
4. The work of a district doctor at the polyclinic lasts for 3 hours during which he receives about 10-15 patients.
5. His work consists of two parts: examinations at the polyclinic and visits to patients at home.
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