In 1812 Polish biochemist Casimir Funk (to isolate) a complex of micronutrients and named them “vitamines”.

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In 1812 Polish biochemist Casimir Funk (to isolate) a complex of micronutrients and named them “vitamines”.


Exercise 13.Change the sentences as in the model (using Passive Voice instead of Active Voice):Model: Enzymes need copper for metabolizing. – Copper is needed by enzymes for metabolizing.

1. Iron delivers oxygen to the body’s cells.

2. Vitamins and minerals strengthen each other.

3. The skin creates vitamin D when it is exposed to sunlight.

4. The body absorbs iron through the help of vitamin C.

5. Polish scientist Casimir Funk made up a combination word "vitamine" from vital and amine.

6. Medical men used lipid from fish oil to cure rickets during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

7. In 1881, Russian surgeon Nikolai Lunin studied the effects of scurvy.

8. Japanese scientist Umetaro Suzuki isolated the first vitamin complex in 1910.

Exercise 14. Translate the sentences into English:

1. Шкіра сама виробляє вітамін D д впливом сонця.

2. Вітамін К виробляєтся кишковими бактеріями.

3. Кальцій та фосфор будують кістки та зуби.

4. Наша дієта не завжди містить усі необхідні вітаміни та мінерали.

5. Йод допомогає щитоподібній залозі працювати належним чином.

6. Калій допомогає підтримувати баланс рідини у клітинах.

7. Жиророзчинні вітаміни слід приймати перед їжею.

8. Харчові добавки не слід вживати як заміну здорової їжі.

Exercise 15. Put the sentences into the correct order to explain the term “mineral”:

__For example, the body absorbs iron through the help of vitamin C and vitamin D helps the body absorb phosphorus and calcium.

__Minerals are essential for the nutrition of humans, animals, and plants.

__A mineral is an inorganic element, such as calcium, iron, potassium, sodium, or zinc.

__Vitamins and minerals not only help the body function, but they work to strengthen each other.

__There are 20 minerals, which play significant roles in the body.


Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

I. Перекладіть словосполучення: зовнішні джерела приймати після їжі бути заміною здорової дієти допомагати скороченню м’язів у формі порошку якщо не вказано інакше вживати синтетичні вітаміни вироблятися кишковими бактеріями ізольовані вітаміни харчові добавки   II. Дайте відповіді на питання: Which minerals play a significant role in human beings? What is zinc responsible for? What does iron do in the body? What is the ideal source of vitamins and minerals? In which case do nutritional supplements work best?   III. Розкрийте поняття: Мінерал

Healthy Lifestyle


Exercise 1 Topic vocabulary:

avoid, v [ə´vɔid] уникати
buckle, v [´bΛkl] застібати
crop, n [krɔp] сільськогосподарська культура
deterioration, n [di´tiəriə´rei∫(ə)n] погіршення
efficient, adj [i´fi∫(ə)nt] ефективний
handle, v [hændl] справлятися
fatigue, n [fə´ti:g] втома
life-span, n [laif-spæn] тривалість життя
nourish, v [´nΛri∫] годувати
obey, v [ə´bei] слухатися
obtain, v [əb´tein] отримувати
premature, adj [premə´tjuə] передчасний
sagging, adj [´sægiŋ] обвислий
starch, n [sta:t∫] крохмаль
susceptibility, n [sə´septə´biliti] сприйнятливість

Exercise 2. Guess the meaning of the following words without using a dictionary:

Factor, style, risk, alcohol, cirrhosis, diabetes, material, nation, culture, rice, physical problem, texture, regular, regulation.


Exercise 3. a) Read the following word-combinations and translate them:

Mental:mental disease, mental hospital, mental problems, mental health, mental patient, mental effort

Skin:dry skin, sensitive skin, smooth skin, oily skin, scaly skin, sunburned skin

Disease:acute disease, severe disease, infectious diseases, genetic disease, fatal disease, incurable disease, rare disease

b) Make up short sentences using the above given word combinations:

Exercise 4. Give Ukrainian equivalents to the following word combinations:

Healthy life-style; main factor; smart saying; mental problems; to provide energy; body growth; various diets; sagging muscles; premature death; changes in behavior; regular exercising; drying of the skin; to handle stress; hair texture; average life-span; major building blocks; differences in diet, increased susceptibility to illness; traffic rules; energy sources.

Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:

Healthy Lifestyle

Health is better than wealth

(A proverb)

All of us want good health, and one of the main factors affecting health is the lifestyle. If you never smoke, for instance, you reduce the risk of getting heart disease or cancer. Drinking alcohol can lead to cirrhosis of the liver and car accidents. Overeating can affect your looks and can be a great risk for diabetes and high blood pressure. To avoid overweight, hold down sugar, cholesterol and salt in your diet. Eat more fresh fruit and vegetables «Apple a day keeps a doctor away» is a very smart saying. Follow the example and you will feel and look better.

Molecules from food are the materials from which our bodies build cells, blood and tissues, and provide energy needed for activities. Proteins and fats are the major building blocks for body growth. Carbohydrates (sugars and starches) are most efficient energy sources. Vitamins and minerals are also absolutely necessary. Despite the fact that different nations and cultures developed various diets, all of them supply the same basic materials. Mexicans, for example, get protein from beans and rice; Americans obtain it from beef, Italians — from pasta and cheese. Each culture has its own source of vitamins and minerals. Differences in diets of various cultures are due to kinds of crops cultivated in different parts of the world.

People who are malnourished or undernourished, i.e. those who lack some molecular building blocks of the body, may have such symptoms as fatigue, drying and yellowing of the skin, deterioration of hair texture, and increased susceptibility to illness. They may lack vitamins and minerals responsible for regulation of the tissue activity.

Healthy lifestyle means regular exercising. Usually, as little as 15—30 minutes three times a week will help you feel healthier, sleep better and tone up sagging muscles.

Learn to handle stress, otherwise it may cause a lot of physical and mental problems. Always think of safety at home, at school, at work, and on the road. Obey traffic rules, buckle seat belts, don't drive too fast, and take care. Scientists say that half of premature deaths can be prevented by changes in behavior and lifestyle. Changes in lifestyle can increase an average life-span and help you to stay healthy. Decisions you make every day influence your health now and will influence it in future.

Start with asking you some frank questions: What steps should I take to be healthy? Am I willing to begin now? Am I really doing all possible to stay healthy? If necessary, change your habits, don't stop, go ahead and be healthy.


Exercise 6.Answer the following questions:

1. What are basic materials for the body growth?

2. What can lead to serious diseases of hu­man organism?

3. What can help us look and feel better?

4. Regular exercising is a must of the healthy lifestyle, isn't it?

5. How do Europeans get proteins in their diet?

6. What culture developed healthier diet, Mexican or Japanese?

7. What factors affect our health?

8. Why is it necessary to handle stress reasonably?

9. What does it mean «to be safety-minded»?

Exercise 7.

I. Form new terms with the meaning „поганий" using the prefix MAL-. Translate them.

Model: mal+position →malposition (хибне положення)

nutrition, formation, practice, occlusion, function, treat

II. Form nouns indicating “процес, дію або результат дії” using the suffix ING:

Model: begin + ing →beginning (початок)

Drink, smoke, eat, ask, build, yellow, cool, dry, increase

Exercise 8. Translate into English:

Дорожньо-транспортна пригода, переїдання, ефективне джерело енергії, втома, сухість шкіри, сприйнятливість до хвороби, регулярні фізичні вправи, середня тривалість життя, передчасна смерть, дорожні правила, обвислі м’язи, змінити звички, погіршення текстури волосся, зміни в поведінці, справлятися зі стресом, брак молекулярних будівельних блоків, психічні розлади

Exercise 9.Divide the given words into the table:

Basic, culture, smart, prevent, habit, keep, average, sleep, cultivate, source, influence, premature, behavior, handle, frank, efficient, deterioration, increase, accident, healthy

Noun Adjective Verb

Exercise 10. Divide the given words into the table:

Muscles, sugar, cancer, heart, fat, cirrhosis, starch, liver, protein, diabetes, salt, hair, alcohol, mineral, thyroid, asthma, blood, urethra, oxygen, vertebra, bronchitis, hemoglobin, infarction

Diseases Organs Substances

Exercise 11. Match the words with their synonyms in the text:

Word Synonym
for example  
to get  

Exercise 12. Match the terms with their explanation:

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