Exercise 9. Pick up pairs of synonyms.

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


Exercise 9. Pick up pairs of synonyms.


Crime; criminal (adj.); to violate law; assault; punishment; to deal with; trial; to consider; to set the rules; decision; to sue smb. for smth.; felony; mischief; civil action; to prosecute; seriousness; evidence; case; degree; misdemeanour; distinction; the accused; arrest; to range; to define; action; victim; to accuse; to punish; to commit a crime; criminal (n).


Importance; proof; to bring to trial; matter; lawsuit; level; harm; fault; serious offence; difference; to have the law on smb.; defendant; judgement; apprehension; to establish the rules; to classify; to think; to determine; court ruling; deed; to concern; to suffer; penalty; to charge; attack; to penalize; to obey law; to break law; unlawful; offender; offence.


Exercise 10. Pick up pairs of antonyms.


Offender; criminal (adj.); lawful; innocent; to obey; to punish; legal; licit; to accuse; harmful; to arrest; to include; guilt.


To exclude; useful; illicit; to forgive; not guilty; law-abiding; victim; unlawful; to disobey; illegal; to defend; to set free; innocence.


Exercise 11. State if the following statements are True or False. Correct them if necessary.


1. Criminal law deals with crimes. (T; F)

2. Felonies are crimes generally punishable by more than five years imprisonment. (T; F)

3. In torts the victim may sue for damages under public law. (T; F)

4. Misdemeanours are crimes generally punishable by less than one year imprisonment. (T; F)

5. There is a presumption in a criminal trial that the accused person is guilty until proven innocent. (T; F)


Exercise 12. Read the text. Choose the best answer.


1. Criminal law defines …

a) the person’s rights and obligations and sets the penalties for offenders.

b) the offences and sets the rules for the arrest.

c) the legal powers of administrative agencies.


2. Under common law crimes are divided into …

a) two main categories: felonies and offences against the state.

b) two main categories: felonies and offences against the person.

c) two main categories: felonies and misdemeanours.


3. The common law felonies include: …

a) murder, rape, robbery, burglary, kidnapping, and treason.

b) murder, rape, assault, theft, and housebreaking.

c) murder, rape, mugging, drugtrafficking, and blackmailing.


4. In relation to serious offences a criminal case will involve …

a) a judge who sits alone.

b) a judge and jury.

c) three judges.

5. The Ukrainian criminal code is applicable …

a) to all persons who commit crimes only on the territory of Ukraine.

b) to all persons who commit crimes abroad.

c) to all persons who commit crimes in Ukraine and to Ukrainian citizens

who commit crimes abroad.


Exercise 13. Answer the following questions on the text.

1. What does criminal law deal with?

2. What are crimes?

3. What does criminal law define?

4. Under what law the victim may sue for damages?

5. Who make the decision to prosecute the accused person?

6. What main categories are crimes divided into under common law?

7. What is the distinction between two main categories of crimes?

8. What are felonies?

9. What types of crimes do felonies include?

10. What are misdemeanours?

11. What right does a person have when charged with a misdemeanour?

12. How are crimes classified under Model Penal Code?

13. What can you say when comparing a criminal case and a civil case?

14. What is a presumption?

15. What is the task of a prosecutor?

16. Whom the Ukrainian criminal code is applicable to?



Exercise 14. Match the beginning and the end of the proverbs and sayings. Find the appropriate translation given below. Comment on their meaning.

1. Act proves … 1. minister, physician, and lawyer.

2. A fault confessed … 2. the intention.

3. Hide nothing from … 3. is half redressed.


1. Хто кається, від вини відмивається.

2. Нічого не приховуй від священника, лікаря і адвоката.

3. Дія підтверджує намір.


Legal terms to be memorized


crime, criminal злочин; злочинець; злочинний

to commit a crime / to break law вчинити злочин

to break law / to violate law / to disobey law порушити закон

offence; offender правопорушення; правопорушник

offence / crime правопорушення; злочин

to punish; punishment карати; покарання

punishment / penalty / fine покарання; кара; штраф

punishment of offenders покарання злочинців

victim потерпілий; жертва

innocent // guilty невинний // винний

disorderly conduct протиправна поведінка

possible trial можливий судовий розгляд

to set the rules for the arrest встановлювати правила для арешту

to sue for damages подавати позов за завдані збитки

to make a decision приймати рішення

to prosecute; prosecutor обвинувачувати; прокурор

to prosecute the accused person порушувати судову справу проти

обвинуваченої особи

felony фелонія; кримінальний злочин;

тяжкий злочин

misdemeanour місдемінор; дрібний злочин;


imprisonment ув’язнення

to be charged with бути обвинуваченим у (чомусь)

murder вбивство (умисне)

rape зґвалтування

robbery крадіжка; грабіж

burglary крадіжка зі зломом

kidnapping викрадення дитини (людей) з

метою шантажу

treason зрада

sexual assault напад з насильницьким наміром

jury trial розгляд справи судом присяжних

mischief шкода

civil action цивільна справа; цивільний позов

presumption презумпція

to produce evidence представити докази

to convince the jury переконати суд присяжних


Additional Reading


TASK 1. Read the following text and write down Ukrainian equivalents for the words and expressions in bold type:

The first step in the selection of the trial jury is the selection of a 'jury panel'. When you are selected for a jury panel you will be directed to report, along with other panel members, to a courtroom in which a case is to be heard once a jury is selected. The judge assigned to that case will tell you about the case and will introduce the lawyers and the people involved in the case. You will also take an oath, by which you promise to answer all questions truthfully. Following this explanation of the case and the taking of the oath, the judge and the lawyers will question you and the other members of the panel to find out if you have any personal interest in it, or any feelings that might make it hard for you to be impartial. This process of questioning is called Voir Dire, a phrase meaning "to speak the truth".

Many of the questions the judge and lawyers ask you during Voir Dire may seem very personal to you, but you should answer them completely and honestly. Remember that the lawyers are not trying to embarrass you, but are trying to make sure that members of the jury do not have opinions or past experiences which might prevent them from making an impartial decision.

During Voir Dire the lawyers may ask the judge to excuse you or another member of the panel from sitting on the jury for this particular case. This is called challenging a juror. There are two types of challenges. The first is called a challenge for cause, which means that the lawyer has a specific reason for thinking that the juror would not be able to be impartial. For example, the case may involve the theft of a car. If one of the jurors has had a car stolen and still feels angry or upset about it, the lawyer for the person accused of the theft could ask that the juror be excused for that reason There is no limit on the number of the panel members that the lawyers may have excused for cause.

The second type of challenge is called a peremptory challenge, which means that the lawyer does not have to state a reason for asking that the juror be excused. Like challenges for cause, peremptory challenges are designed to allow lawyers to do their best to assure that their clients will have a fair trial. Unlike challenges for cause, however, the number of peremptory challenges is limited.

Please try not to take offence if you are excused from serving on a particular jury. The lawyer who challenges you is not suggesting that you lack ability or honesty, merely that there is some doubt about your impartiality because of the circumstances of the particular case and your past experiences. If you are excused, you will either return to the juror waiting area and wait to be called for another panel or will be excused from service, depending on the local procedures in the county in which you live.

Those jurors who have not been challenged become the jury for the case. Depending on the kind of case, there will be either six or twelve jurors. The judge may also allow selection of one or more alternate jurors, who will serve if one of the jurors is unable to do so because of illness or some other reason.


TASK 2. Find in the texts above the following words and expressions and match them on the left with the appropriate definition on the right.:

Assure a sworn declaration that one will tell the truth, esp. in a court of law
Challenge a list of available jurors or a jury
Assign a light examination of evidence by a judge, typically before a jury, in order to decide guilt in a case of criminal or civil proceedings
Oath to have (nurse) a grievance (against)
Panel an objection regarding the eligibility or suitability of a jury member
Burglary entry into a building illegally with intent to commit a crime
Fair trial secure the future payment of (an amount) with insurance
Take offence a person who gives a verdict on (someone) in court
Felony a person to whom a right or liability is legally transferred
Judge the crime of betraying one's country
Treason the most serious crime, and it usually punishable by imprisonment for more than one year or by death


TASK 3. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the aim of Voir Dire?

2. What does the procedure of Voir Dire consist of?

3. What is challenging a juror?

4. What are the types of challenge?

5. Why is the number of peremptory challenges limited?

6. What aims do lawyers pursue while challenging jurors?

7. What is the number of jurors sitting on a case?

8. Who are alternate jurors?

Unit 7

Warming Up


Controversial Statements


Here are some great controversial statements to get the conversation going. Use them in various ways. Give one or a few to students for pair/group discussion. Or casually toss one of these statements yourself into the conversation at an appropriate moment. Or organize a debate.

A woman's place is in the home.

Fare-dodging on a train or bus is ok if you can get away with it.

Boys and girls should not have equal education.

A foreign language cannot be taught. It must be learned.

A country gets the government it deserves.

A man should have a wife for the family and a mistress for pleasure.

All property should be owned by the state.

Murderers should be executed.

Soft drugs like marijuana should be legalized.

Beauty is only a matter of taste.

Riches are for spending.

We are all basically selfish.

Punishment never has any good effect.

Those who can do, those who can't teach.

You will be happier if you stay unmarried.

People work better if they are paid more.

Committing suicide should be made legal.

Royalty and democracy are incompatible.


Grammar section


Complete the sentences using can or could where possible.If can or could is not

possible,use a form of be able to.


He has been living in France for 6 months.He can speak French very well now.

I'll be able to go shopping later today.

1 When Robert was younger he run quite fast.

2 Look!You see the mountains from this window.

3 Kate dance really well when she was a young girl.

4 How long have you play the guitar?

5 Look!I lift this chair with one hand!

6 I'm sorry,but I won't come to the party on Saturday.


Complete the sentences using could or was/were able to.

Sometimes either form is possible.


Simon could/was able to read music when he was 7.

1 We put out the fire before much damage was done.

2 My daughter walk when she was only 11 months old.

3 I finish all the work you wanted me to do yesterday.

4 '(you)speak French before you went to live in Paris?'

'I (not)spec very well.'

3 They were talking quite loudly.I hear everything they said.


Robert Wells is 52 years old.Sometimes he feels that he has wasted his life.

Read about Robert.Replace the words in italics with could have...,as in the example.


When Robert was 26 he had the chance to get married,but he decided not to.

When Robert was 26 he could have got married,but he decided not to.

1 Robert had the ability to go to university,but he didn't want to go.

2 He had the intelligence to pass his final exams at school,but he didn't take them.

3 A lot of people thought he had the ability to be a professional footballer when he

was younger,but he didn't try.

4 He had the opportunity to start his own business once,but he didn't want to.

5 He had the chance to emigrate to Australia a few years ago,but he decided not to.


Complete the sentences using could or was/were allowed to.

Sometimes either form is possible.


I was allowed to see him for a few moments yesterday.

1 Andrew leave school early yesterday because he wasn't feeling well.

2 Until the 19th century,people travel freely between most countries without

a passport.

3 Sue's children watch the film on TV last night.

4 Her son has to wear a uniform in his new school,but in his old school he

wear whatever he liked.


(i)Mrs Woods isn't very well.The doctor is speaking to her.

Complete what the doctor says using must и глаголы drink,take,stay и continue.Use each verb

only once.

Doctor:Well,Mrs Woods,your temperature is a little high,so you 1 in bed for the next

few days.You can eat whatever you like,but you 2 plenty of liquids.And I'll give you

some medicine.You 3 it three times a day after meals.And you 4 to take it for

the next ten days.

(ii)Now Mrs Woods is explaining the doctor's instructions to Mr Woods.

Complete what Mrs Woods says using have to и глаголы drink,take,stay и continue.

.1.it three times a day after meals.And Mrs Woods:The doctor gave me some medicine.I.

I 2 to take it for the next ten days.I'm not allowed to get up at the moment.I,

in bed for the next few days.Oh,and I'm allowed to eat whatever I like,but I 4.plenty of liquids.


Choose the correct form.


You've been late for work twice this week.You mustn't/needn't be late again tomorrow.

1 You mustn 't/don 't have to open the door before the train stops.You could fall out.

2 We mustn 't/don't have to hurry.We've got plenty of time.

3 We mustn't/haven't got to make any noise going into the house.It's very late and

everybody is asleep.

4 You mustn't/needn't tell Nicki about the party.I've already told her.

5 You mustn 't/don't need to phone the station about the time of the trains.I've got

a timetable.

6 I mustn 't/haven 't got to go now.I can stay a bit longer if you want me to.


Complete these sentences using the modal verbs in the box.Sometimes two

answers are possible.

must mustn't can can't needn't


You needn't wait any longer,You can go now.

We mustn't make a noise.We must be quiet.

You must move your car.You can't/mustn't park here.

1 You mustn't leave the door unlocked.You.

2 You can only smoke in the canteen.You

3 We needn't do the washing up now.We

4 We can stay a bit longer.We go now.

.lock it.

_smoke in this room.

.do it tomorrow.

5 You can't keep on using my tennis shoes.You.

6 You can keep those magazines.You give them back to me.

.buy your own.


Complete the sentences using needn't have where possible.If needn't have is not

possible,use didn't need to.


Did you water the garden?''Yes,but I needn't have done (do)it.Just after I'd

finished it started to rain!'

I didn't need to wake (wake)her up because she was awake before me.

1 She (get up)early last Saturday,so she stayed in bed until 10 o'clock.

2 I didn't wear my coat when I went out.I wear)it.It wasn't cold.

3 He was very anxious before the exam,but he (worry).It wasn't as difficult

as he'd expected.

4 She (pay)the man,but she gave him some money anyway.

5 She (pay)the man,so she didn't give him any money.

6 Thank you very much for the flowers,but you really .(buy)them for me.


Complete the advice using should or ought to;find the advice for the problems.

Example:1 'I've lost my credit card.'

'You should report it to the credit card company immediately.7

'You ought to report it to the credit card company immediately.'


1 'I've lost my credit card.''I think you |sell it.'

2 'I can't wake up in the mornings.''Perhaps you |look for another job.'

3 'I'm bored with my job.''Don't you think you |apologize to them?'

4 'I've got a terrible headache.''Perhaps you |buy a new alarm clock!'

5 'I was very rude to my parents.''You |report it to the credit card company immediately.

6 'My car keeps on breaking down.''Perhaps you |take some aspirin.'


Make sentences using should (n 't)...,ought (n 't)to....should (n 't)have...or ought (n 't)to have...

and the words in brackets.

Example:My car is always dirty.(I |clean |it more often.)

/should clean it more often./I ought to clean it more often.

1 You think your friend works too hard.You tell him/her:

(You |not work |so hard.)(You |relax |more.)

2 Your friend overslept this morning and was late for work.His boss said to him.

(You |buy |an alarm clock!)

3 Kate didn't feel well yesterday,but she went to work and now she feels really

terrible.(She |not go |to work yesterday.)(She |stay |in bed.)

4 Mr Woods walked straight out into the road without looking.He was nearly

killed by a bus.(He |not walk |into the road without looking.)(He |look |first.)





Administrative law is the law regulating the powers, procedures, and acts of public administration. It applies to the organization, powers, duties, and functions of public officials and public agencies of all kinds. Administrative law centers on the operations of government agencies. Administrative law ranks as one of the fastest-growing and most complicated branches of law. Administrative law concerns such spheres as communications and telecommunications, consumer protection, currency, environmental protection, interstate commerce, public safety, social welfare, taxation, worker’s wages and hours. The aim of administrative law is to attain a synthesis of public and private interests in terms of the social and economic circumstances and ideals of the age.

Of the powers delegated to administrative authorities by modern regulatory statutes, four types may be mentioned: 1) the rulemaking power, or the power to issue general rules and regulations having the force of law; 2) the licensing power, or the power to grant or refuse, to renew and to revoke licenses or permits; 3) the investigatory power, or the power to require witnesses to testify and produce books, papers, and records for the purpose of acquiring the information needed for effective regulation; 4) the directing power, or the power to issue administrative orders.

National, state or provincial and local governments set up many administrative agencies to do the work of government. Some of these agencies regulate such activities as banking, communication, trade, and transportation. Others deal with such matters as education, public health and taxation. Still other agencies administer social-welfare programs, such as old-age and unemployment insurance. In most cases, the agencies are established in the executive branch of government under powers granted by the legislature.

Administrative law consists chiefly of 1) the legal powers that are granted to administrative agencies by the legislature and 2) the rules that the agencies make to carry out their powers. Administrative law also includes court rulings in cases between the agencies and private citizens.




administer, v. 1.control, manage, look after (a household, business affairs, etc.): to administer a country (to govern it); 2. apply, put into operation: to administer the law; to administer punishment to smb.; to administer justice.

Syn. control, govern, direct, manage


administrative, adj. of the management of affairs; concerned with administration: an administrative post; lacking in administrative ability.

Syn. executive, governmental, organizational, regulatory, supervisory


power, n. right possessed by, or granted to a person or group of persons: Are the powers of the Prime Minister defined by law? The President has exceeded his powers.

Syn. authority, right, warrant, privilege, license


legislature, n. lawmaking body (e. g. Parliament in Great Britain)

Syn. parliament, congress, lawmaking body, assembly, senate


insure, v. make a contract that promises to pay, secures payment of, a some of money in case of accident, damage, loss, injury, death, etc.: to insure one’s house against fire; to insure oneself (one’s life) for $ 5,000.

Syn. protect, guarantee, provide


insurance, n. 1. (undertaking, by a company, society, or the state, to provide) safeguard against loss, provision against sickness, death, etc. in return for regular payments; 2.payment made to or by such a company, etc.: When her husband died, she received $ 20 000 insurance. He pays out $ 110 in insurance every year. 3. insurance policy, contract made about insurance.

Syn. protection, guarantee, security, safeguard




Exercise 1. Consult a dictionary and transcribe the following words.


administrative legislature safety

insurance procedure welfare

unemployment currency taxation

commerce private social

executive sphere environmental


Exercise 2. Find in the text international words and translate them.


Exercise 3. Study the Vocabulary Notes and translate them into Ukrainian.


Exercise 4. Select the word or word combination best suited to the context. Use the Reference List.


Reference List


legislature power insurance policy

administer insured court rulings

powers branch of law administrative

welfare insurance powers


1. The High Court and the county courts have the … to order the pre-trial exchange of witness statements.

2. The courts have … to trace, freeze, and confiscate the proceeds of drugtrafficking.

3. The … gives the police wider powers to deal with suspected terrorists, including international terrorists.

4. Various government departments are responsible to … the criminal and law systems.

5. All public authorities must act within the … that the law allows them.

6. The Lord Chancellor is the head of the judiciary and is responsible for a number of … tribunals .

7. Mr. Black has … his house against fire.

8. He pays out $ 50 in … every year.

9. Going through the customs he had to produce his … .


Exercise 5. Find the sentences in the text containing the word combinations and phrases given below. Translate them into Ukrainian. Make up sentences with these word combinations.


to center on the operations old-age insurance

complicated branch of law granted by legislature

to set up administrative agencies legal powers

to regulate activities court rulings

to deal with such matters to carry out powers


Exercise 6. Match the words and their definitions.


banking - money, that is actually in use in a country


communication - any means of guaranteeing against loss or



consumer protection - organized efforts to improve the living

conditions needy persons


currency - carrying of goods, persons from one place

to another


interstate commerce - system of raising money by taxes

safety - means of sending messages, orders, etc., as

telephone or telegraph, roads, railways


social welfare - freedom from harm or danger


taxation - the act of protecting a person who uses a

commodity or service


transportation - business carried on by or with a bank


insurance - trade between countries; the exchange and

distribution of goods


Exercise 7. Find the Ukrainian equivalents to the following words and word combinations.


1. government agency 1. пенсійне забезпечення

2. branch of law 2. обкладання податком

3. banking 3. торгівля між державами

4. transportation 4. діяльність уряду

5. unemployment insurance 5. засоби зв’язку

6. legal powers 6. галузь права

7. taxation 7. законодавча влада

8. legislature 8. освіта

9. old-age insurance 9. банківська справа

10. interstate commerce 11. соціальний захист

12. страхування по безробіттю

13. урядова установа

14. громадська безпека

15. перевезення


Exercise 8. Translate the following words and word combinations into English or Ukrainian.


Interstate commerce; sphere; судовий розгляд; юридичні повноваження; executive branch; приватна особа; законодавча влада; social welfare; зарплата робітника і години зайнятості; захист навколишнього середовища; taxation; the rulemaking power; грошовий обіг; communications and telecommunications; the investigatory power; громадська безпека; управляти; old-age insurance; to require witnesses to testify; адміністративне право; справа; охорона здоров’я; banking; to regulate activities; to issue administrative orders; транспортні засоби; страхування по безробіттю; complicated branch of law; the licensing power.


Exercise 9. Pick up pairs of synonyms.


Commerce; to administer; administrative; power; legislature; to insure; insurance; to centre; operation; complicated; national; government; agency; to regulate; activity; to deal with; education; to establish; to testify; chiefly; court ruling; wage; sphere; welfare; currency.


Wellbeing; field; mainly; teaching; work; organization; public; action; protection; authority; to govern; trade; governmental; lawmaking body; to protect; to concentrate; difficult; administration; to control; to concern; to form; trial; payment; money; to witness.


Exercise 10. Pick up pairs of antonyms.


Complicated; employment; private; to include; fast; welfare; to regulate; safety; protection; legal.


Unemployment; to exclude; trouble; danger; illegal; insecurity; to disorganize; slow; public; easy.


Exercise 11. State if the following statements are True or False. Correct them if necessary.


1. Administrative law is the law regulating the powers, procedures, and acts of public administration. (T; F)

2. Administrative law concerns such spheres as communications, commerce, social welfare and transfers of ownership. (T; F)

3. Four types of powers delegated to administrative authorities by modern regulatory statutes may be mentioned: the rulemaking power, the licensing power, the legislative power, the directing power. (T; F)

4. The aim of administrative law is to regulate activities of private citizens. (T; F)

5. Administrative law consists of the legal powers that are granted to administrative agencies by the legislature. (T; F)


Exercise 12. Read the text. Choose the best answers.


1. Administrative law centers on …

a) the operations of trade unions.

b) the operations of government agencies.

c) the operations of public organizations.


2. Administrative agencies regulate such activities as …

a) education, taxation, torts, and child support.

b) old-age insurance, unemployment insurance and adoption.

c) banking, communications, trade and transportation.


3. The directing power is …

a) to issue administrative orders.

b) to produce books, papers and records.

c) to issue general rules and regulations having the force of law.


4. Administrative law also includes court rulings in cases between …

a) business corporations.

b) the agencies and private citizens.

c) husbands and wives.


5. Administrative agencies are established …

a) in the judicial branch of power.

b) in the legislative branch of power.

c) in the executive branch of government.


Exercise 13. Answer the following questions on the text.


1. What does administrative law regulate?

2. What does administrative law apply to?

3. What does administrative law center on?

4. Why does administrative law rank as one of the most complicated branches of law?

5. What spheres does administrative law concern?

6. With what purpose do national and local governments set up many administrative agencies?

7. What activities do administrative agencies regulate?

8. What programs do the agencies administer?

9. Where are administrative agencies established?

10. What powers are delegated to administrative authorities by modern regulatory statutes?

11. What is the aim of the rulemaking power?

12. What is the purpose of the licensing power?

13. What is the aim of the investigatory power?

14. What is the purpose of the directing power?

15. What does administrative law consist chiefly of?

16. What does administrative law include?


Exercise 14. Match the beginning an the end of the proverbs and sayings. Find the appropriate translation given below. Comment on their meaning.


1. A clear conscience is … 1. excuses no man.

2. Don’t put … 2. a coat of mail.

3. Ignorance of law … 3. a patch upon it.


1. Не пробуй шукати виправдань, це тільки погіршує справу.

2. У кого чиста совість, тому нічого не страшно; Хто чисте сумління має, спокійно спати лягає.

3. Незнання закону не може служити виправданням.


Exercise 15. Topics for discussion.


1. Speak about spheres of administrative law.

2. Speak about the aim of administrative law.

3. Speak about the powers delegated to administrative authorities.

4. Speak about the activities of administrative agencies.

5. Speak about administrative law in general.


Legal Terms to Be Memorized


to administer; administrative; administration керувати, управляти

адміністративний; адміністрація, керівництво

administrative law адміністративне право

administrative agency адміністративна установа

administrative orders адміністративний наказ


public administration державна адміністрація

power | authority | license повноваження /влада / ліцензія

legal powers юридичні повноваження

rulemaking power законотворче повноваження

licensing power ліцензійне повноваження

investigatory power слідче повноваження

directing power директивне повноваження

legislature / lawmaking body законодавча влада

to insure; insurance страхувати; забезпечувати;


insurance policy страховий поліс

old-age insurance пенсійне страхування

unemployment insurance страхування по безробіттю

branch of law галузь права

court ruling / trial судовий розгляд; судовий процес

social welfare program програма соціального захисту

public official державний службовець

witness; to witness / to testify свідок; свідчити

to issue general rules and regulations видавати загальні правила і

обов’язкові постанови

consumer protection захист споживача

environmental protection захист навколишнього середовища

public safety громадська безпека

taxation мито, державний податок

trade / commerce торгівля

communications засоби зв’язку

worker’s wages and hours зарплата робітника

і години зайнятості



Additional Reading


TASK 1. Read the following text and write down Russian equivalents for the words and expressions in bold type:

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