Exercise3. Complete the sentences.

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Exercise3. Complete the sentences.

Example: I couldn't do the job on my own,so I ask |Simon | help me. / I couldn 't do the job on my own,so I asked Simon to help me.


1. I was surprised that my brother failed his driving test. I expect | him | pass | easily.

2. Annie wanted to stay up late,but her parents | tell |her | go to bed at 9 o'clock.

3. Simon phoned Sarah yesterday.He | invite | her | go to a party on Saturday.

4. I was going to buy the car,but a friend of mine | persuade | me | change my mind.

5. Don't tell Sue what I've done. I not | want | her | know.

6. One of the plane's engines caught fire,which | force | the pilot | land.

7. When I was a child,my mother | warn me | not | talk to strangers.

8. If you hadn't | remind | me | lock the door,I would have forgotten.


Exercise 4. What did they say?Complete the sentences using an object +to infinitive.

Examples: 'Remember to phone Chris,'Sue told Peter.Sue reminded Peter to phone Chris.

'Can you lend me some money?'I asked him.I asked him to lend me some money.


1. 'Close the door,'Ken told Andrew. Ken told…

2. 'Can you help me?'I asked her.I asked…

3. 'Would you like to go to a party?' they asked us. They invited…

4. 'Please don't be late home,' Kate said to Sally. Kate asked…

5. 'Get out of your car,'the policeman told the woman. The policeman ordered…

6. 'Don't be late for work again,'my boss told me.My boss warned…


Exercise 5. Put the verbs into the correct form:the -ing form or the to infinitive.

Example: She doesn't allow anyone to drive (drive) her car.

1. They don't allow ………. (talk) in the examination.

2. He's always encouraged me………… (have) confidence in myself.

3. I'd recommend you ……… (see)the film.It's very good.

4. I wouldn't recommend ………… (drive) through the city centre now.The traffic is terrible at this time of the day.

5. What would you advise me …………. (do)?

6. I wouldn't advise …………… (tell) anyone what's happened.


Exercise 6. Put the verbs into the correct form. Sometimes two answers are possible.

Examples: I quite enjoy driving (drive)at night.

Do you like getting up/ to get up (get up)early?

1. Would you like ……… (listen) to some music?

2. Simon and Sally have started ……...(cook) the dinner.

3. I prefer …..….(windsurf) to …..…. (sail).

4. I'd prefer ……... (walk) home rather than …..….(go) by taxi.

5. My sister loves …..…. (go) shopping.

6. I'd love …..…. (visit) Australia one day.

7. My brother hates ……… (have to) work at weekends.

8. Do you like ……… (play) chess?

9. I try to look after my car. I like ……… (take) it to the garage to be serviced regularly.

10. Shh! The orchestra is starting ……… (play).


Exercise 7. Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or to the to infinitive.

Example: 'I introduced you to Sue last month.' 'Really? I don't remember meeting (meet) her.'


1. 'You said Ken was stupid.' 'I don't remember ……… (say) that.'

2. I'll never forget ………. (visit) Istanbul in 1983.

3. When I go shopping I must remember ……… (buy) some bread.

4. Please remember ……… (turn off) the radio before you go out.


Exercise 8. Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or the to infinitive.

Example: I need to borrow some money.''Why don't you try asking (ask)your parents to lend you some?'


1. I'll try ……… (come) to the meeting,but I'm not sure if I'll be able to.

2. If you get hiccups,you should try ……… (drink) a glass of water. If that doesn't work, try (hold)your breath.

3. You can borrow my camera,but please try ……… (be) careful with it.

4. This soup doesn't taste very good. Try……… (put) in some more salt.




Criminal law deals with crimes – that is, actions considered harmful to society. Crimes range in seriousness from disorderly conduct to murder. Criminal law defines these offences and sets the rules for the arrest, possible trial, and the punishment of offenders. Some crimes are also classed as torts because the victim may sue for damages under private law. Because a crime is committed against all members of the community, not just the particular victim, the victim does not make the decision to prosecute the accused person. The state, acting as the people’s representative, prosecutes the crime.

Under common law (judge-made law) crimes are divided into two main categories: felonies and misdemeanours. The distinction between them is based on the crime’s seriousness and on the length of punishment.

Felonies are crimes generally punishable by more than one year imprisonment. A person has the right to a jury trial when charged with a felony crime. The common law felonies include: murder, rape, burglary, kidnapping, and treason.

Misdemeanours are crimes generally punishable by less than one year’s imprisonment. A person has the right to a jury trial when charged with a misdemeanour if the crime considered serious enough.

Under the new system, called Model Penal Code, crimes are classified by degree. There are four degrees of crimes: first, second, third and fourth degree. First degree crimes include the most serious crimes like murder, sexual assault, and kidnapping. Fourth degree crimes include the least serious crimes like mischief.

When comparing criminal law and civil law we can say that in relation to serious offences a criminal case will involve a judge and jury, whereas in civil action, the judge will normally sit alone.

There is a presumption in a criminal trial, that the accused person is innocent, and it is the task of his prosecutors to produce evidence that convinces the jury of his guilt. No such presumption exists in civil actions.

The Ukrainian Criminal Code is applicable to all persons who commit crimes on the territory of Ukraine as well as to Ukrainian citizens who commit crimes abroad.




crime n. offence for which there is a severe punishment by law; serious lawbreaking: to commit a serious crime; the crimes of which he has proved guilty. It is the business of the police to prevent and detect crime and of the law-courts to punish crime.

Syn. offence, fault, felony, misdeed, unlawful act, violation, wrong

criminal n. a person who commits a crime or crimes; a person who convicted of a crime.

Syn. law-breaker, offender, felon

criminal adj. 1. guilty of a crime; 2. dealing with crime and its punishment: the criminal code; a criminal offender.

Syn. unlawful, illegal, illicit, felonious Ant. innocent, lawful, legal,

Law-abiding, right

offence n. wrongdoing; crime; sin; breaking of a rule: an offence against God and man; an offence against the law; an offence against good manners.

Syn. crime, fault, misdeed, wrongdoing

offender n. a person who breaks a law: first offenders ( found guilty for the first time and not usually treated severely); an old offender (one who has often been guilty).

Syn. criminal, law-breaker, wrongdoer Ant. law-abiding person

to commit (a crime) v. perform ( a crime, foolish act, etc.): to commit an offence; to commit larceny.

Syn. break, violate, disobey (the law)

punish v. 1. cause to suffer pain or discomfort for wrong-doing; 2. to inflict a penalty for (an offence or fault): punish a man with a fine.

Syn. discipline, penalize, sentence, fine Ant. forgive, free, pardon

punishmentn. penalty inflicted for wrong-doing: to inflict severe punishments on criminals.

Syn. penalty, fine, correction

victim n. person, animal, etc. suffering injury, pain, loss, etc., because of circumstances, an event, the ill-will of smb., etc.: He is the victim of his brother’s anger 9 of his won foolishness). A fund was opened to help the victims of the earthquake. Thousands were victims of the plague in the Middle Ages.

Syn. injured party, sufferer, innocent Ant. assailant, attacker,

guilty party, offender




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