Exercise 1. Find the following phrases in the text. 





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Exercise 1. Find the following phrases in the text.



- иметь право на ________

- высшее образование ________

- подготовить к жизни и работе _________

- различные типы школ ________

- учебная программа ________

- срок обучения ________

- профессиональная школа ________

- в ближайшем будущем ________

- основные законы природы и общества ________

- внести новые технологии в образование ________

- набор стандартных тестов ________

- претерпевать большие изменения ________

 

Exercise 2. Read the statements and say whether they are true or false.

1. The public educational system in Russia incorporates only specialized secondary and higher education.

2. Pre-school education isn't compulsory in Russia.

3. The secondary school prepares the younger generation for life and work in modern production.

4. The term of study in a secondary school is 12 years and consists of primary, middle and upper stages.

5. After the 9th grade the students have a choice between entering the 10th grade of a secondary school and enrolling in a specialized secondary or vocational school.

6. The Unified State Examination is issued only for the big cities of the country.

7. After the graduation from the university young people get a diploma of higher education.

 

Exercise 3. Match the two halves of the sentences so that they correspond the text.

1. Children are accepted to the first grade at the age of 6 or 7,

2. Pre-school education isn't compulsory,

3. At the middle stage of a secondary school the students learn

4. Russia enacted a law

5. The term of study in a secondary school is 11 years and

6. In almost every school there are new models of computers and

7. The USE will empower talented graduates from remote locations to compete

 

a children can get it at home.

b and consists of primary, middle and upper stages.

c to compete for admissions at the universities of their choice.

d that replaces the traditional five-year model of education with a two-tiered approach.

e the basic laws of nature and society at the lessons of history, algebra, literature, physics.

g and almost every school has a direct connect to the Internet.

 

Exercise 4. Complete the sentences with the words and phrases in the box.

to be free of charge the main link high school crèches traditional education model to give an opportunity

1.The Internet _______ for remote education with the help of special programs.

2.________ in the system of education is the secondary school which prepares the younger generation for life.

3. Pre-school consists of kindergartens and _______ .

4. Tuition in most of the schools ________, but some new types of schools are fee-paying.

5. The USE will empower ________ graduates from remote locations to compete for admissions at the universities of their choice.

6. Russia is in the process of migrating from its ________ to a modernized degree structure.

 

Exercise 5. Make up short reports on the following topics.

Pre-school education in Russia.

Types of schools in Russia.

The term of study in secondary school.

Primary school education.

Middle stage of schooling.

New technologies in schools.

The USE.

Changes in the higher education in Russia.

 

 

Exercise 6. Answer the questions

1. What document guarantees the right of the citizens to education in Russia?

2. What is the very early stage of schooling in this country?

3. At what age are the children accepted to the first grade?

4. What is the compulsory school leaving age in Russia?

5. Can you name the types of schools in Russia? What are they?

6. What is the school year split into?

7. What are modern schools equipped with?

8. What opportunities does the Internet give for remote education?

9. What is the USE program?

10. When and where was Bologna Declaration signed?

 

Text B

Education in Great Britain

Education in Britain developed by steps. The first step was the introducing of two kinds of school: grammar schools and secondary modern schools. Grammar schools offered a predominantly academic education and in secondary modern schools education was more practical. The second step was the introducing of a new type of school, the comprehensive, a combination of grammar and secondary modern, so that all children could be continually assessed and given appropriate teaching. These school were co-educational and offered both academic and practical subjects. However, they lost the excellence of the old grammar schools. Then after 1979 were introduced the greatest reforms in schooling. They included the introduction of a National Curriculum making certain subjects, most notably science and one modern language, compulsory up to the age of 16. The National Curriculum aims to ensure that all children study essential subjects and have a better all-round education. Pupils' progress in subjects in National Curriculum is measured by written and practical tests. More ambitious pupils continue with very specialized studies in the sixth form. They remain at school for two years more. Pupils sit for exams leaving secondary school and sixth form. They sit for the General Certificate Secondary Education at the end of the 5th-years' course. A-level or AS-levels are taken after two years of study in the sixth form. They are the main standard for entrance to university or other higher education. Some parents prefer to pay for their children to be educated at independent schools. This private sector includes the so-called public schools, some of whose names are known all over the world, for example Eton. It provides exceptionally fine teaching facilities, for example in science, languages, computing and design. Its students are largely from aristocratic and upper-class families.

Vocabulary

secondary- средний (об образовании)

introduce- вводить

comprehensive - всесторонний, полный, всеобъемлющий

assess - оценивать, давать оценку

appropriate - подходящий, соответствующий; должный

co-educational - совместное обучение лиц обоего пола

academic subject - учебная дисциплина

compulsory - обязательный

aim - намерение, цель

ensure - гарантировать, обеспечивать

essential - важнейший; необходимый; основной

ambitious – честолюбивый, стремящийся к (чему-л.)

level – уровень, степень, ступень

entrance - вступление, поступление

independent - независимый, свободный

 

Exercise 1. Answer the questions to the text:

1. What are the main types of schools in Britain?

2. What do grammar schools offer?

3. What is the new type of schools?

4. Are boys and girls taught together?

5. What is the aim of the National Curriculum?

6. How is pupils’ progress in subjects measured?

7. When A-level or AS-levels taken?

8. What are the main standards for entrance to university?

9. What does the private sector include?

10. What kind of students study in public schools?

 

Exercise 2. Give the definitions of the following

- co-educational

- compulsory

- test

- academic subject

- public school

- teaching facilities

 

Exercise 3. Complete the sentences

1. These schools were co-educational ……..

2. ……. developed by steps.

3. Then after 1979 …………

4. The National Curriculum aims ………….

5. ……….. at the end of the 5-th year’s course.

6. They are the main standards ………………

7. …………. to be educated at independent schools.

8. Its students are largely from …………

 

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into English

1. Государственные школы в Британии обеспечивают своих учеников учебниками.

2. Если ты хочешь учиться в независимой школе, твоим родителям придется платить за обучение.

3. В шестом классе ученики сдают на уровни A и AS.

4. Школы, где учатся девочки и мальчики вместе, называются школами совместного обучения.

5. Письменные и практические тесты оценивают успех ученика по предметам.

 

Exercise 5. Are these statements true or false?

1. The greatest reforms in schooling were introduced in 1980s.

2. All pupils continue with specialized studies in the sixth form.

3. All parents have to pay for their children’s education.

4. Eton public school is known all over the world.

5. Public schools provide fine teaching facilities un different subjects.

 

Exercise 6. Make up as many word combinations as possible

Public education

Compulsory subject(s)

Written school

Excellent test

Modern

Independent

Text C.

Universities

Today there are 89 universities in Britain, compared with only seventeen in 1945. They fall into four broad categories: the ancient English foundations, the ancient Scottish ones, the ‘redbrick’ universities, and the 'plate-glass' ones.

13th — 14th c.c. — the ancient English universities (Oxford and Cambridge)

15th — 16th c.c. — the ancient Scottish universities (St Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Edinburgh)

19th c.— 'redbrick' universities in the industrial centres (Birmingham, Nottingham, Newcastle, Liverpool, Bristol)

20th c.: the 60s — 'plate-glass' universities (Sussex, Kent, East Anglia)

the 90s — former polytechnics adopted a university title

All British universities are private institutions. Each has its own governing council, including some local business people and local politicians as well as a few academics. The state began to give grants to them 60 years ago. Students have to pay fees and living costs, but every student may obtain a personal grant from local authorities of the place where he lives. This is enough to pay his full costs, including lodging and food but the amount depends on the parents’ income. If the parents do not earn much money, their children will receive a full grant which will roughly cover all the expenses.

Students studying for first degrees are known as "undergraduates". New undergraduates in some

universities are called "freshers". They learn a new way of studying which is different from that of school. They have lectures, there are regular seminars, at which one of the students reads a paper he or she has written. The paper is then discussed by the tutor and the rest of the group. The students also see a tutor alone to discuss their work and their progress. Such tutorials take place once a week.

The Bachelor's degree. After three or four years (depending on the type of the university) the students will take their finals. Those who pass examinations successfully are given the Bachelor's degree: Bachelor of Arts (BA) for History, Philosophy, Language and Literature and sometimes Social Studies or Theology; or Bachelor of Science (BSc) or Commerce or Music. About 15% of students who start at universities leave without obtaining a degree, some of them after only one year.

The Master's degree. The first postgraduate degree is normally that of Master: Master of Arts (MA); Master of Science (MSc). In most universities it is only in the science faculties that any large numbers of students stay to do postgraduate work.

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) is the highest degree. It is given for some original research work which is an important contribution to knowledge.

Vocabulary

Private – частный

Academics – ученые

Grants – субсидии; дотации; стипендия

Fees – зд. плата за учебу

Living cost – плата за проживание

Obtain – получать; добывать; приобретать

Local authorities – местные органы власти

Full cost – общие затраты

Lodging – проживание

Amount – сумма

Income – доход

Expenses – расходы

Degree – степень

Paper – письменная работа, исследование (курсовая работа, доклад, статья, диссертация)

Tutor – куратор

Tutorial – индивидуальные консультации с куратором

Progress – успех (в учебе)

Finals – выпускные экзамены

Postgraduate degree – ученая степень

Research work – научно-исследовательская работа

Contribution – вклад

 

Exercise 1. Answer the questions to the text:

1. What are the categories of British universities?

2. Who does the council consist of?

3. Can any student obtain a personal grant?

4. What are the provisions for getting a personal grant?

5. What students are called” freshers “?

6. What is a tutor?

7. How is the process of education organized?

8. Who can get a bachelor degree?

9. What is the first postgraduate degree?

10. Which is the highest degree in Britain?

11. Do all the students obtain a degree?

 

Exercise 2. Give the definition of the following:

- grants

- expenses

- undergraduates

- tutorial

- paper

- finals

- postgraduate degree

- contribution

- original research work

 

Exercise 3. Complete the sentences:

1. The governing council includes ………

2. ……….. 60 years ago.

3. The amount of the grants depends on ….

4. New undergraduates ……………………

5. There are regular seminars, at which ……

6. …………. take place once a week.

7. ………….. are given the Bachelor’s degree

8. About 15% of the students who start at universities …….

9. In most universities it is only in the science faculties ……

10. ……… is an important contribution to knowledge.

 





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