Exercise 2. Complete the following sentences with there is or there are



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Exercise 2. Complete the following sentences with there is or there are



1.…no Australians in this class. 2…someone at the door. 3.… a mailbox in the corner 4.… a lot of students in class today.

5.… three lamps in the room. 6.… two large windows in the room.

7.… only one door. 8. … a lot of desks in our office.

9.… nobody in the room now. 10.… a letter on the table for you.

11.… several beautiful parks in this city. 12.… twelve months in a year.

13.… only one cloud in the sky. 14.… no one at home.

15.… dishes but no silverware on the table. 16.… no stores in this section

of town

 

Exercise 3. Change the following sentences from affirmative to negative. Use the contractive form.

 

Model: There is a flag at the top of the building.

There isn’t a flag at the top of the building.

 

1. There are two lamps in the room. 2. There is a pillow on each bed.

3. There are two police officers on each corner. 4. There is a big holiday today. 5. There are several doctors in this area. 6. There are ten new words in this lesson. 7. There is a message for you on the hall table. 8. There are enough chairs for everyone. 9. There is plenty of good seats available in this room. 10. There is a comfortable chair in each room. 11. There is a good restaurant near here. 12. There are telephones in every room. 13. There are four dogs in the street.

 

Exercise 4. Answer the following questions:

 

A.1. How many floors are there in your block of flats? 2. How many flats are there in your block? 3. Is there an office in your block of flats? 4. Are there any shops in your street? 5. Is there central heating in your flat? 6. What is there in the corner of your living room? 7. Is there a good library in your flat? 8. Are there interesting books in it? 9. Is there much or little light and air in the rooms? 10. What things are there on the desk? 11. Is there much or little furniture in your room? 12. Are there any shelves on the walls of your room?

 

B. 1. How many Universities are there in Zaporizhia?

2. How many students (teachers, faculties) are there at your University?

3. How many students are there in your group?

4. How many terms are there in an academic year?

C.

years a century

seasons a year

months a year

How many weeks are there in a month

days a week (month, February)

hours a day

minutes an hour


Займенники.

Особові

Називний відмінок Об’єктний відмінок
I я me мене
we ми us нас
you ти you тебе
you ви you вас
they вони them їх
he він hіm його
she вона her її
it він, вона, воно (про неживі предмети і тварини) it його, її (про неживі предмети і тварини)

Особовий займенник it вживається також як вказівка слова. В цьому випадку itвиступає у функції підмета і перекладається українськім вказівним займенником це.

It is my pen. Це моя ручка.

2. Присвійні.

a) прилягаюча форма, тобто форма, яка стоїть («прилягає») перед означуваним словом. Відповідає на запитання whose? Чий?

 

my - мій, моя, моє, мої; their - їхній, їхня, - їхнє;
our - наш, наша, наше, наші; his - його;
your - твій, твоя, твоє, твої; her - її;
your - ваш, ваша, ваше, ваші; its - його, її;

Вживання особових та присвійних займенників (прилягаючої форми)

 

I give him my book
Я даю йому мою книгу
We give them our book
Ми даємо їм нашу книгу
You give us your book
Ви (ти) даєте (даєш) нам вашу (твою) книгу
They give her their book
Вони дають їй їхню книгу
He gives me his book
Він дає мені свою книгу
She gives you her book
Вона дає вам (тобі) свою книгу

 

Якщо присвійний займенник відноситься до підмета, то він перекладається на українську мову займенником свій:

a) I read my book. Я читаю свою книгу.

He reads his book. Він читає свою книгу.

They read their book. Вони читають свою книгу.

b)абсолютна форма присвійних займенників.

This book is mine. Ця книга - моя.

This book is ours. Ця книга - наша.

This book is yours. Ця книга - ваша.

This book is theirs. Ця книга - їх.

This book is his. Ця книга - його.

This book is hers. Ця книга - її.

Вказівні.

Ці займенники мають однину і множину .

 

 

Однина Множина
this - цей, ця, це these - ці
that - той, та, те those - ті
the same - той (та, те) же самий the same - ті ж самі
such - такий such - такі

This is a book - Це книга (підмет)

That is a book - То книга (підмет)

This book is mine - Ця книга моя (означення)

These books are mine - Ці книги мої (означення)

These are books - Це книги (підмет)

 

Зворотні та підсилювальні

 

I myself себе, сам
you yourself тебе, тобі
he himself себе, сам
she herself себе, сама
it itself cебе, сам, сама, само
we ourselves себе, самi
you yourselves себе, самі
they themselves се6е, самі

Зворотні займенники завжди пов’язані з дієсловами. У реченні вони стоять після дієслова і виконують функцію додатка.

Підсилювальні займенники належать до іменників або займенників. У перекладі укрaїнською мовою вони відповідають займеннику сам. Наприклад:

John washes himself with cold water. Джон умивається холодною водою.

I did this homework myself. Я сам виконав домашнє завдання.

5. відносні (з’єднувальні) займенники:

Who? (хто?), Whom?(кого?), Whose? (чий?), What? (що, який?), Which? (котрий, який,), That?(котрий?).

I know who wrote this novel. Я знаю, хто написав цю повість.

I know the man who wrote this novel.Я знаю людину, яка написала цю повість.

I know whom you spoke to. Знаю з ким ти розмовляв.

I know whose book that is. Я знаю чия ця книга.

I know what you mean. Я знаю, що ти маєш на увазі.

I know which book you are talking about. Я знаю, про яку книгу ти говориш.

I know the book which you show. Я знаю книгу, яку ти показуєш.

I know that this book is on sale. Я знаю, що ця книга є у продажу.

 

Exercise 1. Change the following sentences, substituting pronouns for the proper names and nouns.

Model: Tom likes the Browns. — He likes them.

1. Come with Kitty and me. 2. Please read this letter. 3. The letter is from Nelly. 4.1 don't know her husband. 5. I'm glad to meet both you and Ann. 6. We often see our friends. 7. I don't like Ann's brother. 8. Freddy likes to play with his dog.

 

Exercise 2. Extend the statement showing possession. Follow the given model.

Model: This dress belongs to my sister. It's hers.

1. These things belong to my husband. 2. This coat belongs to me. 3. These shoes belong to my wife. 4. These pens belong to Tom and Betty. 5 .This suit-case belongs to me. 6. These books and magazines belong to us. 7. These toys belong to those children. 8. This basket belongs to my sister.

 

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions according to the patterns.

Use the absolute form of possessive pronouns in your answers.

Model: My sister is at home. — Where is your sister? (at the office). — Mine is at the office.

 

1. Our house is in that street. Where is your house? (round the corner).

2 .Her handbag is on the chair. Where is my handbag? (on the sofa). 3. Our teacher is in the classroom. Where is their teacher? (at the Dean's office). 4. His mother is in the country now. Where is her mother? (in town). 5. My son is in the library. Where is your son? (at school). 6. Your photo is here. Where is his photo? (in the album).

Exercise 4. Re-word the following sentences. Pay attention to the indefinite

article before nouns in the singular.

Model: a) He is my cousin. He is a cousin of mine.

b) They are our friends. They are friends of ours.

 

1. She is their relative. 2. He's her friend. 3. We are your former students. 4. She is his niece. 5. I am your colleague. 6. They are her pupils. 7. She is our neighbour. 8. He is her former school-friend. 9. I am his student.

Exercise 5. Extend the statements according to the patterns, using the

words suggested.

Model: Mary is a lucky girl. (a flat)

She's got a flat of her own.

 

1. Mr. Brown is a lucky man. (a car) 2. Bob is a lucky boy. (a boat) 3. Jane is a lucky girl. (a TV set) 4. My brother is a lucky man. (a motor-cycle) 5. Mrs. Wood is a lucky woman, (a washing-machine) 6. Miss White is a lucky girl. (a telephone) 7. The Greys are lucky people, (a garden) 8. We are lucky, (a radio) 9. I'm very happy, (a sewing-machine) 10. Tom is very happy, (a kitten) 11. The children are very happy, (a dog)

Exercise 6. Extend the statements following the examples given in the

model

 

Model: I like to cook dinner.

I'll cook it myself.

 

I. Henry likes to drive the car. 2. My sister likes to make cakes. 3. I like to gather flowers. 4. We want to repair the bicycle. 5. Children like to wash the dog. 6. You will not ask anyone to help them.

 

Exercise 7. Finish these sentences, using expressions with -self in them.

 

Model: If you want a job done well, do it…

If you want a job done well, do it yourself.

 

I. He cannot find anyone to repair the radio, so he will repair it ... .2.1 never buy anything until I have seen it ... . 3. They say John broke their table, but really they did it ... . 4. Next year we shall live all by... .5. Did the boys build this boat ... ? 6. You cannot leave that baby in the house all by... .7. In our canteen we have to serve ... . 8. The girl stood at the fire, warming ... . 9. He made a mistake, then he corrected it ... . 10. The man was badly hurt, but he tried to raise ... . 11. They went swimming, but they didn't enjoy ... . 12. How shall we entertain ... ? 13. I hope you didn't hurt ... . 14. What on earth do you mean? Explain ....

 

Exercise 8. Change the underlined words to the personal pronouns.

 

1. The man showed pictures to the boy. 2. This book is for children. 3. My mother saw Mary yesterday. 4. My friend went to the theatre with his wife. 5. My brother bought a hat yesterday. 6. Peter spoke to my father about his books. 7. The children are looking at this picture. 8. The girl is sitting with her mother near the river.

 

Exercise 9. Translate into English

 

I.Ці олівці належать Анні і Ользі. Вони їхні. 2.Ця іграшка належить її сину. Вона його. 3. Він дуже щасливий, бо має свій власний автомобіль. 4. Діти дуже щасливі, вони мають власного собаку.5. Вона прочитала їм свiй переклад, а вони прочитали їй свiй. 6. Ми вiзьмемо свої квитки, а ви вiзьмiть свої. 7. Вони принесли свої словники, а ми принесли свої.

 

II. 1. Я зустрiв у парку їх i їхнього сина. 2. Я не знаю його i його брата. 3. Я знаю їх i їхню дочку. 4. Вона бачила його i його сина. 5. Я запросив їх i їхнього батька. 6. Я запитував про це його i його матiр. 7. Вона послала його i його брата на цю лекцiю. 8. Вона запросила їх i їхнiх дiтей. 9. Ви бачили цей фiльм? — Так, я його бачив учора. 10. Тема лекцiї — Комп'ютер i його використання у нашiй країнi.

 

III. 1. Ви хочете вiдповiсти на цього листа самi. 2. Вона сама вам принесе цi листи. 3. Вони хочуть пiти туди самi. 4. Ми будемо брати участь у цiй роботi самi. 5. Вiн сам пiдписав цi листи. 6. Я впевнений, що вони це зроблять самi. 7. Я думаю, що вона сама зателефонує вам. 8. Я знаю, що вiн сам був там. 9. Ви повиннi пiти туди самi, Олена. 10. Ваш брат був тут сам учора ввечерi. 11. Вона хоче принести вам цi фотознiмки сама. 12. Я хочу побачити це сама. IЗ. Ми хочемо це зробити самi. 14. Вони хочуть поїхати туди самi. 15. Я думаю, що вони можуть це зробити самi.


 

6. Неозначені займенники

Поділяються на прості і складні. До простих належать: all, each, some, other, another, any, much, many, little, few, both, one.

У стверджувальних реченнях вживаються У питальних реченнях вживаються
some деякий, який-небудь, декілька, деякі any який-небудь, декілька, будь-який.
somebody хто-небудь anybody хто-небудь
someone хтось anyone хтось
something що-небудь, щось anything що-небудь, щось

Складні неозначені займенники утворюються від простих займенників some, any, no, every додаванням до них -body, -one, -thing (somebody, anybody, nobody, everybody, someone, anyone, everyone, something, anything, nothing, everything).

 

Give me some pencils. Will you give me any pencil?
Somebody (someone) knocked at the door. Did anybody (anyone) knock at the door?
Something has happened Has anything happened?

У заперечних реченнях вживаються:

no ніякий not ... any ніякий
nobody, no one ніхто, нікого not ... anybody, not ... anyone ніхто, нікого
nothing ніщо, нічого not ... anything ніщо, нічого

 

I have no pencils. He does not know any English songs.
Nobody (no one) was there. They did not know anybody (anyone)
Nothing has happened. She does not know anything.

 

Займенник some вживається з необчислюванними іменниками і не перекладається:

Give me some tea. - Дайте мені чаю. (мається на увазі не весь чай, а обмежену, певну кількість).

В англійському реченні може бути лише одне заперечення, тобто вживається один заперечний займенник. Наприклад, речення «Ніхто ніколи його не бачив» перекладається : «Anybody never saw him» або «Nobody ever saw him».

 

Nothing no one nowhere

 

+       there is somebody something someone   in the room  
? is there anybody anything anyone in the room  
; there is nobody nothing no one in the room  
He is somewhere nowhere десь нiде
isn’t anywhere нiде
Can we find him anywhere?

Exercise I. Give a short answer according to the model.

a) Have you got any magazines? Yes, ...

Model: Yes, I have got some.

b) Has Jane got any change for the bus? No, ...

No, she hasn't got any.

 

1. Have you got any letter for me? — Yes, ....

2. Have you got any roses in the garden? — No, ....

3. Has she got any books in the bag? — No, ....

4. Have they got any children? — No, ....

5. Have you got any sugar in the tea? — Yes, ....

6. Has she got any money in her pocket? — Yes, ....

 

Exercise 2. Finish the sentences adding some or any.

a) She has got some English stories, have you got ... ?

Model: She has got some English stories, have you got any?

b) We haven't got any matches left; we must buy ....

We must buy some.

 

1. I want some new potatoes, have you got ...? 2.You have much bread. Please give me... . 3. He wants some tea. Do you want ...? 4. I have no cigarettes. May I take ...? 5. Nelly hasn't got any money, but I have .... 6. We haven't got any apples at home. Will you buy ...?

Exercise 3. Extend statements according to the model. Use the words sug-

gested.

Model: I haven't got any cakes (biscuits).

I haven't got any cakes, but I've got some biscuits.

 

1. We haven't got any tea. (coffee) 2. The children haven't got any balls, (cars). 3. Mrs. Wilson hasn't got any drawings here. (photos) 4. Marry hasn't got any newspapers, (magazines) 5. We haven't got any rivers here. (lakes)

Exercise 4. Ask questions according to the model. Substitute any-forms for

no-forms.

Model: There's nobody here. (in the room)

Is there anybody in that room?

 

1. The book is now here in the house, (in the garden) 2. She has nothing in her hand. (in her pocket) 3. The child has nobody to play with here. (at home) 4. No one is ready for the test-paper, (for a dictation) 5. There is nothing in the box. (near the box) 6. We must go nowhere today, (tomorrow) 7. Nobody can do it at once. (by the evening).

 

Exercise 5. Extend sentences of contrast, using the given suggestions.

Substitute no-forms for some-forms.

 

Model: There's something in the box ... (on the table).

There’s something in the box, there's nothing on the table.

 

1. Father has something in his brief-case, ... (in his suitcase). 2. There's someone in the hall, ... (in the classroom). 3. There's somebody waiting for you in the library. ... (in the dining-room). 4. I have something to drink, ... (to eat). 5. There's someone in the house, ... (in the garden). 6. There's something on the shelf, ... (on the side-board).

Exercise 6. Fill in the blanks with pronouns some or any.

 

I.1. I have read ... books on the subject. 2. Have you found ... interesting stories in these magazines? 3. He bought... stamps and envelopes. 4. Are there ... illustrations in the book? 5. Here are ... letters for you. 6. I want to

buy ... flowers, as we haven't ... flowers in our garden this year. 7. Have you read ... good books lately? 8. Are there ... lemons in the cupboard? 9. There are ... oranges in the cupboard but there aren't ... lemons. 10. There aren't pictures ... on the walls in his room. 11. There are ... fruit-trees in his garden, but there aren't ... flowers there. 12. Are there ... new magazines in the reading room today?

 

II.1. There is ... butter on the table, but there isn't ... milk. 2. Take ...jam, please. 3. Put ... sugar in my tea, please. 4. Did you put ... salt in the soup? 5. He never puts ... sugar in his coffee. 6. Did he give you... money yesterday? 7. There isn't ...hot water in the kitchen? 8. Give me ... money, please. 9. Is there ... bread in the kitchen? 10. He didn't buy ... butter, but he bought ... cheese. 11.1 didn't buy meat today, as my sister brought me ... very good meat yesterday. 12. Have you ... tea?

III.1. Are there ... apples on that tree? Yes, there are ... . 2. Have you ... interesting books to read? No, I haven't ... . 3. He brought ... books from Kyiv, but she didn’t bring ... . 4. I like flowers, but I haven't got... in my garden now. 5. I bought... envelopes yesterday and I can give you .... if you like. 6. Are there ... good illustrations in this magazine? Yes, there are ... . 7. Did you find ... interesting books in his library? No, I didn't find ... . 8. I like apples and I want to buy... . 9. He didn't bring me ... water though I asked him to bring me ... . 10. I haven't got... bread and I must buy ... today. 11. I like milk, but I haven't ... today. 12. There is ... water in this cup, but there isn't ... in the kettle. 13. I haven't... free time to go there now. 14. We don't like cheese and we never buy... . 15. She poured... milk into her cup and left... in the jug. 16. My mother likes good tea and I intend to send her.... 17. Have you... blue paint? 18. I left my money at home, so I can't give you....

 

Exercise 7. Translate into English.

1. В їхньому саду немає фруктових дерев. 2. Я попросив його принести менi молока. 3. Я не маю часу для цього. 4. Купiть менi сиру, будь ласка. 5. Чи є цукор на столi? 6. Я попросив його купити менi м'яса. 7. Купiть менi, будь ласка, синю фарбу. 8. Ви купили молока? 9. Налийте, будь ласка, гарячої води в мiй стакан.

 

Exercise 8. Fill in the blanks with pronouns much and many.

 

1. Has he got ... friends here? 2. Have you got... time for reading now? 3. We haven't invited... people to the party? 4. How... time does it take you to get there? 5. He hasn't... mistakes in his exercises. 6. Did you spend... time on this work? 7. Did she write you... letters when she was in the Crimea? 8. Are there ... apple-trees in your garden? 9. He doesn't drink... wine. 10. How... butter did you buy? II. Does he spend... money on books?

 

Exercise 9. Fill in the blanks with the pronouns somebody, someone, anybody, anyone, something, anything.

 

1. Have you heard... about him since that time? 2. Does ... know about it? 3. Did you see ... there? 4. Give me ... to eat, I am hungry. 5. Did... ring me up? 6. We have not asked ... about it. 7. Is there ... new? 8. ... wants to speak to you? 9. Did... come here while we were out? 10. Can you tell me ... about the life of this scientist? II. Are we expecting...? 12. Has ... asked you about it? 13. There isn't... in this suit-case. 14. ... has probably taken my fountain-pen. 15....has opened the window. 16. Did you ask...to help you?

 

Exercise 10. Translate into English.

 

1. Ви з ким-небудь розмовляли про це? 2. Ви кого-небудь зустрiли у парку? 3. Вiн нiчого не знає про це. 4. Вiн нiчого не читав з цього питання. 5. Я бачив когось у коридорi кiлька хвилин тому. 6. Хтось стукає, вiдчинiть дверi. 7. Ми нiкому не говорили про це. 8. Ви що-небудь знайшли на цiй полицi? 9. Вiн розповiв їй щось цiкаве? 10. Ви кого-небудь запитували про це? 11. Ви що-небудь чули про це?12. Ми нiчого не купили учора. IЗ. Що-небудь сталося з ним учора? 14. Подивiться, щось лежить на пiдлозi. 15. Подивiться, хтось сидить у саду. 16. Хто-небудь заходив до вас учора?

 

Exercise 11. Translate into Ukrainian.

 

1. No steamers left the port yesterday. 2. No news reached them before the beginning of May. 3. No difficulty could prevent him from going. 4. No magazines agreed to publish his stories. 5. No motor-cars passed their house that morning. 6. No information could be sent there that night. 7. No shots were heard for quite a long time. 8. No sounds were heard in the village. 9. No boats were seen in the sea. 10. No birds were seen in the sky.

Exercise 12. Use not... a; not... any; not... anything; not... anybody in-

stead of no, nothing, nobody.

 

1. He knew nothing about it. 2. They wrote nothing to us. 3. There are no illustrations in this book. 4. I saw nobody here. 5. She answered nothing. 6. They bought nothing yesterday. 7. We told nobody about it. 8. They spoke to nobody on this question. 9. I have received no letters from him lately. 10. I have heard nothing about it. 11. There are no apple trees in our garden.

 

Exercise 13. Translate into English.

 

1. Я нi з ким не розмовляв про це. 2. Вiн нiчого менi не писав про це. 3. На цiй вулицi немає поштового вiддiлення. 4. У їхньому саду немає квiтiв. 5. Нiхто не знав про це. 6. Нiчого не сталося учора. 7. Нiхто не зателефонував менi учора ввечерi. 8. Нiхто не знає її адреси. 9. Нiхто не казав нам про це. 10. В нашiй бiблiотецi немає iноземних книг. 11. В саду не було дiтей. 12. Я нiколи нiчого не чув про це. 13. Вони нiчого нiкому не казали про це. 14. Нiхто з них не знав про це. 15. Нiхто з нас не хотiв йти туди. 16. Нiхто з моїх друзiв не пiде туди.

Exercise 14. Fill in the blanks with pronouns few or little.

 

1. There is very... water in the kettle. 2. He has very... friends in Moscow. 3. We have ... free time now. 4. He made very... mistakes in his exercises. 5. Has he ... experience in this matter? 6. We found very … flowers in the forest.7. He has very... hope to see her soon. 8. Why have you bought very... milk? 9. Why have you bought so... sugar? 10. He has very... knowledge. 11. There are so ... flowers in your garden.

 



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