Exercise 1. Match the beginning and the end of the sentence.



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!



Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Exercise 1. Match the beginning and the end of the sentence.



I семестр

«Бытовая сфера общения»

Тема: Семья, я сам, мои планы.

TEXT A

ABOUT MYSELF

Let me first introduce myself. My name is Anastasia or Nastya for my friends. My surname is Sokolova. I was born on the 2nd of October 1994. My home town is Ulyanovsk. It is the most beautiful town situated on the Volga. Now I’m 17. I have finished school this year and entered Ulyanovsk Pedagogical University. In four years I’ll be a teacher.

First of all let me describe my appearance. I am tall and slim and have fair hair and grey eyes. My friends say that I am pretty. Certainly I have a lot of interests such as sport, dancing and computer. I also love to listen to modern music. I am very interested in learning English because I think that the knowledge of foreign languages helps in everyday life and career.

My family is not very large, just a typical family of four: Dad, Mom, my elder brother and me. I take after my father in character and look like my mother. My parents have been married for twenty years. My father’s name is Vladimir Stepanovitch. He is 42. He is a mathematician by education and a manager by profession. My Dad is generous, gentle and tactful. He is always busy. But he often finds some spare time to spend it in the swimming-pool with my brother and me, playing tennis in summer and skating in winter. My mother’s name is Tatyana Petrovna. She is 40 but she doesn’t look her age. She is a housewife. My mother keeps house and takes care of us. She is very good at cooking and she is clever with her hands. She is a kind and sociable woman. She is fond of reading and watching soap operas. My elder brother Denis is 20. He is a student. He wants to become a dentist. He is fun to be with and easy to go along.

My grandparents live in Samara. They are pensioners. We visit them twice a month. My uncle, aunt, cousins and a little niece live in Samara too. In summer they always come to see us.

Our family is friendly. In the evenings, when all the members of our family get together after work and study, we like to watch TV, read books and newspapers, talk and discuss all our problems. I must say that all of us are not alike in tastes, manners and characters. But as a matter of fact we get along well with each other and quarrel very seldom. We usually show our interest in what others think and do. We share each other’s joy and sorrow. We never remain indifferent to what happens to others. We are attentive and sincere to each other and all these things unite our family. We are deeply attached to each other and we get on very well.

Vocabulary

To be born - родиться

To go to school – учиться в школе

To leave school – закончить школу

To graduate from – закончить (учебное заведение)

To help - помогать

To be married – быть замужем / женатым

To get married – выйти замуж / жениться

To go in for sport – заниматься спортом

A nursery school – детский сад

A husband - муж

A brother - брат

A sister - сестра

A grandfather - дедушка

A grandmother - бабушка

A grandson - внук

A granddaughter - внучка

A grandchild – внук / внучка

A nephew - племянник

A niece – племянница

Exercise 1. Match the beginning and the end of the sentence.

1. I am very interested in learning English because … .

2. My father often finds some spare time … .

3. In the evenings, when all the members of our family get together after work and study, … .

4. He is a mathematician by education … .

 

a) … to spend it in the swimming-pool with my brother and me, playing tennis in summer and skating in winter.

b) … we like to watch TV, read books and newspapers, talk and discuss all our problems.

c) … and a manager by profession.

d) … I think that the knowledge of foreign languages helps in everyday life and career.

Exercise 2. Are the statements true or false?

1. Ulyanovsk is the most beautiful town situated on the Volga.

2. My family is not very large, just a typical family of 5.

3. I take after my mother in character and look like my father.

4. My father is a mathematician by education and a manager by profession.

5. My mother is fond of listening to music and watching soap operas.

 

Exercise 3. Complete the sentences from the text.

1. I am tall and slim and have … .

2. … live in Samara too.

3. She is very good at … .

4. I must say that all of us are not alike … .

5. We share … .

Exercise 4. Fill in the gap.

1. My name is Anastasia or Nastya … my friends.

2. I was born … the 2nd … October 1994

3. First of all let me … my appearance.

4. Certainly I have a lot of interests … … sport, dancing and computer.

5. I also love to listen … modern music.

Exercise 5. Tell your group mates about your family.

 

TEXT B

FAMILY RESPONSIBILITIES

Most parents want their children to share household tasks such as cleaning, meal preparation, or washing up. There are many advantages to having children help with household tasks. Children learn about their role in the family and the importance of helping others. They can see the results of what happens when they do not follow through with their responsibilities. As children become older, they can take on new responsibilities that help them develop a sense of independence and self-reliance.

An important benefit of children helping with household responsibilities is that it teaches them the skills they will need when they have an apartment or house of their own. If children are given the responsibility for washing the laundry and cleaning the bathroom as they are growing up, they will know how to do these tasks when on their own.

Although there are many advantages to children helping with family responsibilities, it is often difficult to get cooperative, cheerful help from reluctant children. Communication among all family members is the key to the success of having children help with household tasks. Involve the child in the decision making process. Rather than telling them what they should do, ask them what they would be willing to do. Another option would be to provide them with a list of tasks that need to be completed and have them pick out what they would like to do. Short, once-a-week family meetings are extremely helpful.

Children have a tremendous need for fairness. If mom, dad or siblings are not helping around the house, it will be difficult to convince the child that they need to be responsible for certain tasks. You can make household responsibilities easier by setting rules for shared spaces of the home. For example, all papers in the living room need to be picked up by bedtime or they will be tossed out. Then, make sure you follow through on the consequences set.

Avoid blaming and labeling. Try humorous or creative ways to remind children of their responsibilities. For example rather than telling your child he/she is lazy for not picking up clothing left on the floor, ask if clothing is being left for the invisible maid. Remember children are still learning about household responsibilities. Offer praise, thanks, and encouragement…even if the meal your child prepared was a little different than what is normally prepared.

Finally, don’t force the issue. If the child refuses to fulfill their responsibilities, calmly explain that there will be no friends over, car available, or computer usage until after the work is done. Again, following through on the consequences is key.

It is safe to say that children’ household activities and responsibilities help them to explore the general world of work, develop helping behaviors, and grow toward independence. Involving children in household tasks provides families an opportunity for communication, problem solving, role modeling, discussion of gender roles, and potential reduction of family stress.

Vocabulary

household task – работа по дому, домашнее поручение

cleaning - уборка

meal preparation - приготовление еды

washing up – мытье посуды

advantage - преимущество

responsibility – ответственность, обязанность

self-reliance – уверенность в себе

independence - независимость

benefit – выгода, польза

skill - навык

laundry - стирка

cooperative – совместный, сотрудничающий

reluctant – сопротивляющийся, упорный

to be responsible - быть ответственным

to share - делить

consequence - последствие

blaming – порицание, осуждение

labeling – прикрепление ярлыка

gender - пол

Text A

MEALS

The legendary English breakfast has become the symbol of British meals. One may think that bacon, eggs, tomato, fried bread and a variety of sausages are traditional ingredients of British food.

“Go to work on an egg!” is a popular advertising slogan, but for many families the usual breakfast is tea and toast. The children may have a breakfast cereal, such as cornflakes or puffed rice with sugar and milk, or porridge – oat – flakes cooked with water and served with hot milk and sugar.

Leaving for their work, some people will take a snack with them – a couple of sandwiches of cheese or sausage meat.

The midday meal is the main meal of the day for most families. It must be healthy and substantial. The word “lunch” is still used but it means either a light meal or that the main meal of the day, dinner, will be eaten in the evening.

Tow dishes are eaten for dinner, meat of some kind (beef, lamb or pork) with potatoes and a green or root vegetable, followed by a sweet course, sometimes called pudding, which may be fruit pie, or rice pudding, or a steamed pudding . Typical dishes on a menu might be roast beef and Yorkshire pudding, baked potatoes, cabbage or carrots, apple pie and custard, or grilled lamb chops with onion sauce, boiled potatoes fresh peas and steamed jam roll.

Tea, or high tea is the third meal of the day, although some families may have a small snack during the later part of the evening, which is called supper. The cookery books describe such a meal as including cooked ham, grilled or tinned fish, salad and variety of cakes.

Vocabulary

Breakfast - завтрак

Bacon – бекон

Egg - яйцо

Sausage – сосиска, колбаса

Bread - хлеб

Ingredient - ингредиент

Cereal - овсянка

Cornflakes – кукурузные хлопья

Porridge - каша

a snack - легкая закуска

lunch – ланч

dinner - ужин

beef - говядина

lamb - баранина

pork - свинина

cabbage - капуста

custard – заварной крем

Text B

MY FLAT

We have a three-room flat in a nine-storey building in Ulyanovsky prospect. We live in a block of flats built only six years ago, but it already needs repairing. We live on the last - ninth floor. On the one hand, I like it because we have a nice view from the windows. But on the other hand, we sometimes have to walk up the stairs when the elevator breaks down. Our house has all the traditional convenience – cold and hot running water, central heating, gas and chute to carry rubbish down.

There are three rooms, a kitchen, a bathroom, a toilet and a hall in our flat. It is a pity our hall is very small. There is only place for a chest of drawers for shoes and a coat rack.

Our kitchen is large. Everything is spick and span in it. There is a gas stove for cooking , a sideboard for keeping the dishes, a wall unit for keeping the dishes, a wall unit for keeping cups and glasses, a fridge and a table with four chairs around it. Our kitchen is rather cosy.

The living room is the biggest room in our flat. It is a large square room with two broad windows. The walls of the room are papered with wallpapers. There is a thick carpet on the floor and beautiful white and blue curtains on the windows. We have a side-board, a cupboard and two big bookcase. There is also a sofa, two armchairs .

My parents’ bedroom is much smaller, the living room is almost twice as big. There are two beds, a bedside table, mother’s dressing table and a wardrobe there.

My room is the smallest. There is a writing table at the window, a bookcase by the left wall and a sofa by the right wall.

Vocabulary

A block of flats – многоквартирный дом

A house – дом

A floor - этаж

An elevator - лифт

Comfortable - удобный

A study - кабинет

A bed-room - спальня

A sitting-room - гостиная

A dining-room - столовая

A living-room – жилая комната

A kitchen - кухня

A bath-room - ванная

Square - квадратный

Round - круглый

In the middle – в середине

An arm-chair - кресло

A writing-table – письменный стол

A sideboard - буфет

Wardrobe – гардероб (шкаф)

To listen to the radio – слушать радио

A book-case – книжный шкаф

A sofa - диван

Conveniences - удобства

Central heating - отопление

A gas stove – газовая плита

A carpet - ковер

A curtain - занавеска

A bed - кровать

A picture - картина

Text C

LEISURE

There are various ways you can choose to spend your leisure time. The difficulty sometimes is what leisure pattern to take up – there are such dozens to choose from. Most people have taken up a certain number of activities to spend their leisure.

The vast majority of young people prefer outdoor activities to indoor ones. Outdoor games, camping, hiking, jogging, bicycling, observing nature or just taking walks help keep in shape and build up an enjoyable blend of shared activities with friends. Gardening has become a very popular occupation in the outdoors; quite a few of our acquaintances are involved in it.

Some of us equally enjoy indoor activities. These include watching films of different kinds, experiencing theatre and concerts or browsing museums. We like attending various exhibitions as well. Staying in the indoors, one might prefer reading, amateur photography, knitting, sewing, music, arts, reading, or just television, or solving a cross-word puzzle, or something else.

Leisure means freedom from work; it should be filled with all kinds of activities. Sometimes leisure implies recreation – a suitable occupation for the sake of relaxation and and refreshment of body and mind. At our leisure time we may also have a rest. Rest implies absence of activity, or at least leisurely activity. But rest is not just doing nothing. Rest is repair.

Vocabulary

To spend - проводить

To go to the country – поехать в деревню

To skate – кататься на коньках

To ski – кататься на лыжах

To play chess – играть в шахматы

To go to bed – идти спать

To lay the table – накрыть стол

To go to the theatre, cinema – пойти в театр / кино

To travel by car – путешествовать на машине

To have an opportunity- иметь возможность

To enjoy - наслаждаться

To have spare time – иметь свободное время

To stay at home – остаться дома

To go for a walk – пойти на прогулку

To read books – читать книги

To watch TV – смотреть телевизор

To dance - танцевать

To sing - петь

To go in for sport – заниматься спортом

To camp – разбить лагерь

To gather berries and mushrooms – собирать ягоды и грибы

Leisure - досуг

The day off - выходной

Hobbies - хобби

 

TEXT A

Ulyanovsk

Ulyanovsk, former Simbirsk, is situated on the mid-Volga, the largest river in Europe. The other river, the Sviyaga, a tributary of the Volga, also runs through the city.

Simbirsk was founded in 1648 as a fortress which defended the eastern boundaries of the Moscow state. In 1924 Simbirsk was renamed Ulyanovsk after V.I. Lenin.

Science its foundation the city has played an important role in Russia as it occupied a favorable strategic position on the Volga. By the beginning of the 18th century Simbirsk had become famous throughout Russia as one of the richest grain markets on the Volga and as a supplier of fish, caviar, wool and hides. By the end of the 18th century the city had lost its defensive military importance, its population had become over ten thousand. Sixteen churches and monasteries had been built by that time. The greater part of its buildings was wooden.

Before the revolution there was no industry, no large factories and plants in Simbirsk. But today Ulyanovsk is a great industrial, cultural and educational centre of the Volga area. It has many plants and factories which produce automobiles, motors, machine-tools, footwear and other goods.

The city has many higher educational institutions, special secondary educational institutions and secondary schools. There are two theatres, a philharmonic society, several museums, palaces of culture, stadium in the city.

The best monuments of the past are carefully preserved. Among them are the house where Lenin was born, the houses where the Ulyanovs lived, the Goncharov Memorial house, the monuments to Karamzin and Goncharov and many others.

Vocabulary

A tributary - приток

To be founded - быть основанным

A fortress - крепость

To defend - защищать

Boundaries - границы

Favourable - благоприятный

Grain market - зерновой рынок

A supplier - поставщик

Caviar - икра

Wool - шерсть

Hides - шкуры

Wooden - деревянный

A church - церковь

Philharmonic society - филармония

To be preserved - сохраняться

Exercise 1. Answer the questions:

1. Where is Ulyanovsk situated?

2. When was the city founded?

3. What was Simbirsk famous for?

4. What places of interest in Ulyanovsk do you know?

5. What rivers run through the city?

6. Were there any churches and monasteries before the revolution?

7. Simbirsk defended the western boundaries of the Moscow state, didn`t it?

8. What outstanding people lived and worked in Ulyanovsk?

Text B

My native country (village)

I live in the country. It is my native village. I was born there and have lived all my life in it. My country is situated near Ulyanovsk. It is an old Russian country. It is about 1000 years old. It is a beautiful and green. We are proud of the old church in the centre of the village. We have a school and a museum.

There is a forest near my country where people like to walk, to pick flowers or mushrooms, pick flowers. But people have many cows, sheep and pigs. So every day all the year round the people have to spend much time looking after their animals. They also have poultry and must look after the poultry giving them food and water and collecting the eggs. The people have a lot of all sorts of fruit and vegetables and have also to do some work in the kitchen garden and take care of the fruit trees.

But the country air and plenty of exercise make the young people stronger and better fit for their work at the Institute. I like my country very much. During the week-end the people like to go to our club and amuse themselves, dancing and singing till late at night or looking films.

Vocabulary

To be proud of - гордиться

To be situated - быть расположенным

Church - церковь

Animal - животное

Mushroom - гриб

Poultry - домашняя птица

To amuse - развлекать, веселить

Exercise 1. Answer the questions:

1. What is your native country?

2. Where is it situated?

3. How do people usually amuse themselves?

4. What are you proud of?

Сфера общения»

 

Тема: Образование в России и за рубежом

Text A

Education in Russia

Citizens of Russia have the right to education which is guaranteed by the Constitution. The public educational system in this country incorporates pre-school, secondary school, specialized secondary and higher education.

Pre-school consists of kindergartens and creches. Children there learn reading, writing and arithmetic. But pre-school education isn't compulsory,children can get it at home.

Compulsory education is for children from 6(7) to 17 years of age.

The main link in the system of education is the secondary school which prepares the younger generation for life and work in modern production. There are various types of schools: general secondary schools, schools specializing in a certain subject, lyceums and so on. Tuition in most of them is free of charge, but some new types of schools are fee-paying. There have appeared many private schools in Russia. Parents pay for these schools and fees are rather high.

The term of study in a secondary school is 11 years and consists of primary, middle and upper stages. The school year extends from September 1 to the end of May and is divided into four terms. Study program in schools is fixed but in the nearest future schoolchildren or their parents will have a choice of study subjects.

Children are accepted to the first grade at the age of 6 or 7, depending on individual development of each child. Students of elementary classes are normally separated from other classes within their own floor of a school building. They are taught by a single teacher through all four elementary grades except for physical training and foreign languages.

At the middle stage of a secondary school the students learn the basic laws of nature and society at the lessons of history, algebra, literature, physics and many others. After 9th grade students have to sit for examinations. Also they have a choice between entering the 10th grade of a secondary school and enrolling in a specialized secondary or vocational school to get some profession.

Russia is on the stage of bringing new technologies in education. In almost every school there are new models of computers and almost every school has a direct connect to the Internet. The Internet gives an opportunity for remote education with the help of e-mail, special forums and teleconferences.

The Ministry of Education launched the Unified State Examination (USE) program. The set of standardized tests for high school graduates, issued uniformly throughout the country and it has replaced entrance exams to state universities. Thus, the reformers reasoned, the USE will empower talented graduates from remote locations to compete for admissions at the universities of their choice.

Higher education in Russia is undergoing great changes. Russia is in the process of migrating from its traditional education model to a modernized degree structure in a line with Bologna Process model. Russia co-signed the Bologna Declaration in 2003. Russia enacted a law that replaces the traditional five-year model of education with a two-tiered approach: a four-year Bachelor’s degree followed by a two-year Master's degree.

Vocabulary

to guarantee – гарантировать

to incorporate – включать

pre-school – дошкольный

crèche - ясли

to regulate – регулировать

generation – поколение

lyceum – лицей

tuition – обучение

to be free of charge – быть бесплатным

fee – плата (за обучение)

grade – класс

compulsory – обязательный

primary – начальный

stage – ступень

to extend – продолжаться, распространяться

to separate – разделять

term – четверть, условие

choice – выбор

elementary – начальный

vocational – профессиональный

to enroll – зачислять

technology – техника, технология

a connect to the Internet – связь с Интернетом

remote education – дистанционное обучение

physical training – физкультура

to launch – запускать, начинать

Unified State Examination – ЕГЭ

to enact the law – учредить закон

location - местонахождение

graduate – выпускник

high school – средняя школа

entrance exam – вступительный экзамен

to undergo great changes – претерпевать большие изменения

to replace – заменять

two-tiered approach – двухрядный подход

Bachelor’s degree – степень бакалавра

Master’s degree – степень магистра

Text B

Education in Great Britain

Education in Britain developed by steps. The first step was the introducing of two kinds of school: grammar schools and secondary modern schools. Grammar schools offered a predominantly academic education and in secondary modern schools education was more practical. The second step was the introducing of a new type of school, the comprehensive, a combination of grammar and secondary modern, so that all children could be continually assessed and given appropriate teaching. These school were co-educational and offered both academic and practical subjects. However, they lost the excellence of the old grammar schools. Then after 1979 were introduced the greatest reforms in schooling. They included the introduction of a National Curriculum making certain subjects, most notably science and one modern language, compulsory up to the age of 16. The National Curriculum aims to ensure that all children study essential subjects and have a better all-round education. Pupils' progress in subjects in National Curriculum is measured by written and practical tests. More ambitious pupils continue with very specialized studies in the sixth form. They remain at school for two years more. Pupils sit for exams leaving secondary school and sixth form. They sit for the General Certificate Secondary Education at the end of the 5th-years' course. A-level or AS-levels are taken after two years of study in the sixth form. They are the main standard for entrance to university or other higher education. Some parents prefer to pay for their children to be educated at independent schools. This private sector includes the so-called public schools, some of whose names are known all over the world, for example Eton. It provides exceptionally fine teaching facilities, for example in science, languages, computing and design. Its students are largely from aristocratic and upper-class families.

Vocabulary

secondary- средний (об образовании)

introduce- вводить

comprehensive - всесторонний, полный, всеобъемлющий

assess - оценивать, давать оценку

appropriate - подходящий, соответствующий; должный

co-educational - совместное обучение лиц обоего пола

academic subject - учебная дисциплина

compulsory - обязательный

aim - намерение, цель

ensure - гарантировать, обеспечивать

essential - важнейший; необходимый; основной

ambitious – честолюбивый, стремящийся к (чему-л.)

level – уровень, степень, ступень

entrance - вступление, поступление

independent - независимый, свободный

 

Exercise 1. Answer the questions to the text:

1. What are the main types of schools in Britain?

2. What do grammar schools offer?

3. What is the new type of schools?

4. Are boys and girls taught together?

5. What is the aim of the National Curriculum?

6. How is pupils’ progress in subjects measured?

7. When A-level or AS-levels taken?

8. What are the main standards for entrance to university?

9. What does the private sector include?

10. What kind of students study in public schools?

 

Text C.

Universities

Today there are 89 universities in Britain, compared with only seventeen in 1945. They fall into four broad categories: the ancient English foundations, the ancient Scottish ones, the ‘redbrick’ universities, and the 'plate-glass' ones.

13th — 14th c.c. — the ancient English universities (Oxford and Cambridge)

15th — 16th c.c. — the ancient Scottish universities (St Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Edinburgh)

19th c.— 'redbrick' universities in the industrial centres (Birmingham, Nottingham, Newcastle, Liverpool, Bristol)

20th c.: the 60s — 'plate-glass' universities (Sussex, Kent, East Anglia)

the 90s — former polytechnics adopted a university title

All British universities are private institutions. Each has its own governing council, including some local business people and local politicians as well as a few academics. The state began to give grants to them 60 years ago. Students have to pay fees and living costs, but every student may obtain a personal grant from local authorities of the place where he lives. This is enough to pay his full costs, including lodging and food but the amount depends on the parents’ income. If the parents do not earn much money, their children will receive a full grant which will roughly cover all the expenses.

Students studying for first degrees are known as "undergraduates". New undergraduates in some

universities are called "freshers". They learn a new way of studying which is different from that of school. They have lectures, there are regular seminars, at which one of the students reads a paper he or she has written. The paper is then discussed by the tutor and the rest of the group. The students also see a tutor alone to discuss their work and their progress. Such tutorials take place once a week.

The Bachelor's degree. After three or four years (depending on the type of the university) the students will take their finals. Those who pass examinations successfully are given the Bachelor's degree: Bachelor of Arts (BA) for History, Philosophy, Language and Literature and sometimes Social Studies or Theology; or Bachelor of Science (BSc) or Commerce or Music. About 15% of students who start at universities leave without obtaining a degree, some of them after only one year.

The Master's degree. The first postgraduate degree is normally that of Master: Master of Arts (MA); Master of Science (MSc). In most universities it is only in the science faculties that any large numbers of students stay to do postgraduate work.

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) is the highest degree. It is given for some original research work which is an important contribution to knowledge.

Vocabulary

Private – частный

Academics – ученые

Grants – субсидии; дотации; стипендия

Fees – зд. плата за учебу

Living cost – плата за проживание

Obtain – получать; добывать; приобретать

Local authorities – местные органы власти

Full cost – общие затраты

Lodging – проживание

Amount – сумма

Income – доход

Expenses – расходы

Degree – степень

Paper – письменная работа, исследование (курсовая работа, доклад, статья, диссертация)

Tutor – куратор

Tutorial – индивидуальные консультации с куратором

Progress – успех (в учебе)

Finals – выпускные экзамены

Postgraduate degree – ученая степень

Research work – научно-исследовательская работа

Contribution – вклад

 

Exercise 1. Answer the questions to the text:

1. What are the categories of British universities?

2. Who does the council consist of?

3. Can any student obtain a personal grant?

4. What are the provisions for getting a personal grant?

5. What students are called” freshers “?

6. What is a tutor?

7. How is the process of education organized?

8. Who can get a bachelor degree?

9. What is the first postgraduate degree?

10. Which is the highest degree in Britain?

11. Do all the students obtain a degree?

 

Exercise 2. Give the definition of the following:

- grants

- expenses

- undergraduates

- tutorial

- paper

- finals

- postgraduate degree

- contribution

- original research work

 

Exercise 3. Complete the sentences:

1. The governing council includes ………

2. ……….. 60 years ago.

3. The amount of the grants depends on ….

4. New undergraduates ……………………

5. There are regular seminars, at which ……

6. …………. take place once a week.

7. ………….. are given the Bachelor’s degree

8. About 15% of the students who start at universities …….

9. In most universities it is only in the science faculties ……

10. ……… is an important contribution to knowledge.

 

TEXT A

Vocabulary

area - территория

campus – территория университета

governess - воспитательница

to be founded – быть основанным

to name after – назвать в честь

to include - включать

laboratory - лаборатория

lawyer – адвокат, юрист

speciality - специальность

picturesque - живописный

well-equipped – хорошо оборудованный

a wide choice – большой выбор

Text B

Ilya Nikolayevioh Ulyanov

Ilya Nikolayevich Ulyanov, Lenin's father, devoted almost thirty years of his life to public education. A teacher by, calling, he brought the torch of knowledge to the ignorant and oppressed peasant masses. By his work he eat a fine example to other advanced people of his time.

Т.Н. Ulyanov was a man of simple origin. He was born on July 14, 1831 in Astrakhan. He became an orphan at en early age and only thanks to his elder brother and his own unusual gifts and hard fork he finished school with a silver medal.

In 1850, despite great obstacles, I.Ulyanov entered the physics and mathematics faculty of Kazan University.

In 1854 he graduated from the University and, receiving the degree of Candidate of Mathematical Sciences, was soon appointed senior mathematics and physics master at the Penza Institute for Nobility. In Penza Ilya Ulyanov met Maria Alexandrovna Blank at the house of his colleague I.D. Veretennikov and this meeting turned out to be one of the happiest and most important events of his life. They were married in 1863 and moved to Nizhni Novgogod. While in Nizhni Novgorod, Ilya Ulyanov continued to extend his knowledge and perfect his pedagogical skill. He studied periodicals dealing with problems of school life and public education, watched out for anything new in teaching methods. As a teacher and later as director of people's schools, Ilya Ulyanov propagated the brilliant ideas about the art of teaching expressed by Dobrolyubov, Chernyshevsky and Ushinsky.

In 1869 Ilya Nikolayevich accepted the post of inspector of public schools in the Simbirsk Province as he wanted to come closer to the ordinary people and their needs, to teach them how to live better by putting education within their reach. He began his new' work with great energy putting his whole heart and soul into it.

Ilya Nikolayevich- wanted the teachers to be highly educated, cultured specialists and paid much attention to their training. All the teachers whom he had trained were called Ulyanovltes, and they turned out to be the best teachers in the province.

Ilya Nikolayevich was a genuine friend of both teachers and pupils. One of his contemporaries said that he had the wonderful gift of making children love him. Speaking of the qualities which a teacher should possess, he always mentioned love for children, an understanding attitude to them, patience and self-control. He thought that school discipline depended primarily on the quality of the lessons and the personality of the teacher. He believed that a good teacher couldn't have bad pupils.

In 1874 Ulyanov was appointed director of the Simbirsk Province people's schools. Under his guidance new schools were built and entirely new curricula and teaching methods were introduced into all the schools under his control. Working to promote the all-round development of the children, I.N. Ulyanov devoted much attention to physical education and strove to introduce it into all schools.

He did a great deal to establish the first schools for the national minorities in the Simbirsk Province. He declared that education for non-Russian children was just as important as it was for Russian children.

Ilya Nikolayevich was also largely responsible for opening the schools for girls which he regarded as the first step on the road to an all-round education for women and he fought against backward views on this issue. Through the efforts of Ilya Ulyanov the level of education at the people's schools of the Simbirsk Province become the highest in the whole of the Kazan Educational District.

He died on January 12, 1886.

Soviet people, who are educating the younger generation in the spirit of communism, carefully study all that was the best in the teaching methods of the past and gratefully remember the outstanding teacher and educationalist Ilya Nikolayevich Ulyanov, Lenin's lather, who gave all his strength and knowledge to the cause of public education.

 

Vocabulary


faculty - факультет

public education - государственное образование

to be responsible – быть ответственным

teaching method – метод обучения

curriculum - расписание

to finish school – закончить школу

to graduate from the University – окончит университет

degree - степень

pedagogical skill – педагогические навыки

public school – бесплатная средняя школа


Exercise 1. Answer the question:

1. When did I. Ulyanov enter the physics and mathematics faculty of Kazan University?

2. Who propagated the brilliant ideas about the art of teaching expressed by Dobrolyubov, Chernyshevsky and Ushinsky?

3. What did Ulyanov do when he was appointed director of the Simbirsk Province people's schools?

4. What qualities should a teacher possess according to Ulyanov?

5. How were the teachers, whom Ulyanov had trained, called?

I семестр

«Бытовая сфера общения»

Тема: Семья, я сам, мои планы.

TEXT A

ABOUT MYSELF

Let me first introduce myself. My name is Anastasia or Nastya for my friends. My surname is Sokolova. I was born on the 2nd of October 1994. My home town is Ulyanovsk. It is the most beautiful town situated on the Volga. Now I’m 17. I have finished school this year and entered Ulyanovsk Pedagogical University. In four years I’ll be a teacher.

First of all let me describe my appearance. I am tall and slim and have fair hair and grey eyes. My friends say that I am pretty. Certainly I have a lot of interests such as sport, dancing and computer. I also love to listen to modern music. I am very interested in learning English because I think that the knowledge of foreign languages helps in everyday life and career.

My family is not very large, just a typical family of four: Dad, Mom, my elder brother and me. I take after my father in character and look like my mother. My parents have been married for twenty years. My father’s name is Vladimir Stepanovitch. He is 42. He is a mathematician by education and a manager by profession. My Dad is generous, gentle and tactful. He is always busy. But he often finds some spare time to spend it in the swimming-pool with my brother and me, playing tennis in summer and skating in winter. My mother’s name is Tatyana Petrovna. She is 40 but she doesn’t look her age. She is a housewife. My mother keeps house and takes care of us. She is very good at cooking and she is clever with her hands. She is a kind and sociable woman. She is fond of reading and watching soap operas. My elder brother Denis is 20. He is a student. He wants to become a dentist. He is fun to be with and easy to go along.

My grandparents live in Samara. They are pensioners. We visit them twice a month. My uncle, aunt, cousins and a little niece live in Samara too. In summer they always come to see us.

Our family is friendly. In the evenings, when all the members of our family get together after work and study, we like to watch TV, read books and newspapers, talk and discuss all our problems. I must say that all of us are not alike in tastes, manners and characters. But as a matter of fact we get along well with each other and quarrel very seldom. We usually show our interest in what others think and do. We share each other’s joy and sorrow. We never remain indifferent to what happens to others. We are attentive and sincere to each other and all these things unite our family. We are deeply attached to each other and we get on very well.

Vocabulary

To be born - родиться

To go to school – учиться в школе

To leave school – закончить школу

To graduate from – закончить (учебное заведение)

To help - помогать

To be married – быть замужем / женатым

To get married – выйти замуж / жениться

To go in for sport – заниматься спортом

A nursery school – детский сад

A husband - муж

A brother - брат

A sister - сестра

A grandfather - дедушка

A grandmother - бабушка

A grandson - внук

A granddaughter - внучка

A grandchild – внук / внучка

A nephew - племянник

A niece – племянница

Exercise 1. Match the beginning and the end of the sentence.

1. I am very interested in learning English because … .

2. My father often finds some spare time … .

3. In the evenings, when all the members of our family get together after work and study, … .

4. He is a mathematician by education … .

 

a) … to spend it in the swimming-pool with my brother and me, playing tennis in summer and skating in winter.

b) … we like to watch TV, read books and newspapers, talk and discuss all our problems.

c) … and a manager by profession.

d) … I think that the knowledge of foreign languages helps in everyday life and career.



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