ТОП 10:

Exercise 15. Say whether the following statements are true or false. Comment on your answer.

1. A hormone is a chemical released by a cell or a gland in one part of the body that sends forth messages that affect cells in other parts of the organism.

2. Some non-endocrine organs such as the brain, heart, lungs also produce and release hormones.

3. The thyroid gland secretes hormones which are necessary for normal digestion.

4. The thyroid is generally asymmetric, with the right lobe being significantly larger than the left one.

5. The posterior lobe of the hypophysis produces the secretion known as thyroxin.

6. The hypophysis and the gall-gladder are of the size of a pea.

7. The amount of adrenalin increases in excitement and strong emotions.

8. The thyroid gland is well supplied with blood vessels and consists mainly of secreting cells.

9. Oversection of the adrenal gland cortex does not affect sex.


Exercise 16. Open the brackets using the correct form of the verb. Translate the sentences:

1. Thyroxin (to control) the general metabolism or activity of the body tissues

2. The patient already (to treat) by the doctor from pneumonia.

3. The wound is usually dressed by the nurse.

4. Blood pressure (to take) now.

5. Skin irritation (to cause) by overdosage of the drug.

6. The anterior lobe of the hypothesis (to produce) a number of important hormones

7. I (to treat) at this clinic for acute pneumonia last week.

8. We were said that the direction of the nerve fibers already (to establish) experimentally.

9. The thyroid gland (to supply) well with blood vessels.

Exercise 17. Make up questions to the underlined words:

1. The hormones are delivered to various organs.

2. The thyroid gland is well supplied with blood vessels.

3. The patient has been recommended to consult his pharmacist for professional advice on medicines.

4. Many hormones affect metabolism.

5. The chemical composition of some hormones is well-known.

6. Each gland consists of the glandular epithelial tissue.

7. The hormones affect the functions of the different parts of the nervous system.

8. The pituitary gland is about the size of a pea.

9. The outer part of the adrenal glands produces a secretion which affects sex.

Exercise 18. Translate into English:

1. Ендокринна система - це система залоз та інших структур, що виробляють внутрішні секрети (гормони), яку вони виливають у кровотік.

2. Гормони – це хімічні речовини, що виділяються і переносяться потоком крові.

3. Ендокринна система включає такі органи, як: гіпоталамус, гіпофіз, щитоподібну залозу та інші.

4. Усі залози у людському тілі розділяються на залози з протоками і залози без протоків.

5. Слинні залози, залози шлунку, підшлункова залога і потовидільні залози – це залози з протоками, яку продуцують секрецію, яка має назву наружна секреція.

6. Гіпофіз – це маленька залоза, яка має велике значення і виробляє гормони, що впливають на численні функції організму.

7. Печінка виробляє гепарин, який попереджає формування тромбів і виробляє антитіла , яку захищають організм від захворювань.

8. Мозок надниркової залози виробляє адреналін, кількість якого зростає від страху і сильних емоцій.

9. Недостатня секреція передньої долі гіпофіза у дітей визиває карликовість.

Exercise 19. Arrange the following sentences in a correct order to describe the following term. Use them in describing the terms:

А) The endocrine glands

1. Glands which produce internal secretions or hormones are called endocrine glands.

2. Ductless glands make a secretion which they pour into the blood stream.

3. The endocrine glands regulate all functions of the body.

4. All glands in the human body can be divided into glands with ducts and ductless.

5. The chief ductless glands are: the thyroid gland, the adrenal glands and the pituitary gland.


B) The thyroid gland

1. The cells of the thyroid secrete thyroxin, which passes into the circulation.

2. The thyroid gland lies in the front of the neck.

3. The gland is well supplied with blood vessels and consists essentially of secreting cells.

4. Thyroxin controls the general metabolism or activity of the body tissues.

5. The thyroid consists of two lobes lying on either side.


C) Adrenal glands

1. The adrenal glands consist of two parts, cortex and medulla.

2 .Adrenalin increases in excitement and strong emotions such as fear or anger.

3. The adrenal glands are two small triangular glands lying one over each kidney.

4. The medulla produces a very important secretion called adrenalin

5. The outer part produces a secretion which affects sex. Oversecretion produces masculinity in the female and in the male it produces too early development of the male reproductive organs.


D) The pituitary gland

1. The pituitary gland lies in the pituitary fossa in the base of the skull.

2. The anterior lobe produces a number of important hormones affecting growth and sexual development and the functioning of the thyroid and the adrenal glands.

3. The pituitary gland (hypophysis) is a small gland about the size of a pea.

4. Pituitrin stimulates involuntary muscle and therefore contracts the blood vessels and raises blood pressure, stimulates peristalsis,

5. The posterior lobe produces the secretion known as pituitrin.

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

I. Перекладіть словосполучення: Щитовидна залоза підшлункова залоза страх або гнів знищення червоних кров’яних клітин обмін вуглеводів активність тканин тіла вражати ріст та статевий розвиток потовидільні залози карликовість   II. Дайте відповіді на питання: What is endocrinology? How are glands in the human body classified? What is hormone? What are the main ductless glands? What is the structure of the thyroid gland? What does thyroxin control? What is the structure of the adrenal glands? When is adrenalin secreted? What is the structure of the pituitary gland? What does the pituitary gland affect? What is the liver? What is the shape of the gall-bladder? What are functions of the liver? What the localization of the pancreas? What is the external secretion of the pancreas? What is the internal secretion of the pancreas? What are the functions of the spleen?   III. Розкрийте поняття: Ендокринні залози Щитовидна залоза Надниркова залози Гіпофіз Печінка Підшлункова залоза Селізінка
Vitamins and Minerals


Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary:

compound, n [ˈkɒmpaʊnd] суміш, сполука
diverse, adj [daiˈvəːs] різноманітний
exception, n [ɪkˈsɛpʃən] виняток
expose (to), v [ɪkˈspəʊz] піддавати (чомусь)
ingest, v [ɪnˈdʒɛst] ковтати
maintain, v [meɪnˈteɪn] підтримувати
nutrient, n [ˈnjuːtrɪənt] поживна речовина
store, v [stɔː] накопичувати
strengthen, v [ˈstrɛŋθən] зміцнювати
sufficient, adj [səˈfɪʃənt] достатній

Exercise 2. Write in words (all the words are from the text below) and translate into Ukrainian:

[ˈprəʊtiːn], [ˈsʌlfə], [ˈfɒsfərəs], [pəˈtæsɪəm], [mægˈniːzɪəm], [tɪn], [ˈkrəʊmɪəm], [ˈkopə], [ˈɛnzaɪm], [ˈkɛmɪkəl], [ˈkælsɪəm], [ˈklɔːriːn], [ˈsəʊdɪəm], [zɪŋk], [ˈaiən], [ˈaɪəˌdiːn]

Exercise 3. Read the word combinations with the new words and translate them into Ukrainian:

Compound: acid compound; iodine compound; oxygenated compound; low molecular weight compound.

Exception: without exception; an exception to the rule; as an exception; make an exception; be no exception.

Nutrient: nutrient medium; nutrient absorption; nutrient excess; intravenous nutrient; nutrient-enriched food.

Sufficient: sufficient quantity; sufficient skills; sufficient energy; self-sufficient; sufficient reason.


Exercise 4. Form nouns with the help of the following suffixes, translate them into Ukrainian:

-ance(-ence):perform, assist, differ, maintain, appear, occur, disturb, resist

-ion:except, reflect, direct, ingest, suggest, collect, infect, solute, combine

Exercise 5. Read and translate the following word combinations:

Organic compound, sufficient quantity, single exception, water-soluble vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins, be stored in the fatty tissue, ingest frequently, excreted through the urine, diverse biochemical functions, maintain body tissues, immune system’s performance, deliver oxygen, strengthen each other, take after meals.


Exercise 6. Read and translate the text:

Vitamins and Minerals

A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism. In other words, an organic chemical compound is called a vitamin when it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by an organism, and must be obtained from the diet. If a molecule can be synthesized in the body, it is not a vitamin. The single exception to this rule is vitamin D which can be synthesized in the skin, but only when exposed to sunlight and Niacin (B3) which itself can be synthesized in the liver in small amounts.

Vitamins are classified as either water-soluble or fat-soluble. There are 13 universally recognized vitamins: 4 fat-soluble (A, D, E, and K) and 9 water-soluble (8 B vitamins and vitamin C). Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body's fatty tissue, so they do not need to be ingested every day. Water soluble vitamins cannot be stored and must be ingested frequently for optimal health. They are easily excreted through the urine.

Vitamins have diverse biochemical functions. For example, vitamin A helps to develop and maintain body tissues such as bone and skin; it also helps the body’s vision. Vitamin C helps form tissues, cells, bones and teeth and improves the immune system’s performance.

Along with vitamins human body needs a certain amount of minerals. There are 20 minerals including copper, iodine, chromium, iron, tin, zinc, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chlorine, phosphorus, calcium, sulfur and others. They also have their own functions in the body. For example, copper is needed by enzymes for metabolizing; iodine assists the thyroid gland in working properly; calcium and phosphorus build bones and teeth; iron delivers oxygen to the body’s cells, and so on.

Vitamins and minerals not only help the body function, but they work to strengthen each other. The body absorbs iron through the help of vitamin C. Vitamin D helps the body absorb phosphorus and calcium.

A diet naturally high in vitamins and minerals can be the best defense against many diseases. You can develop health problems if you do not get enough of a particular vitamin. It is good to know thatfat-soluble vitamins should be taken before meals, and water-soluble ones should be taken after meals.


Exercise 7. Answer the questions:

1. What vitamins can be synthesized in the body?

2. How are vitamins classified?

3. How many vitamins are universally recognized?

4. Why is it unnecessary to ingest fat-soluble vitamins daily?

5. How are water-soluble vitamins excreted out of the body?

6. What minerals are there?

7. What does iron do in the body?

8. How do vitamins and minerals strengthen and help each other?

Exercise 8. Find corresponding equivalents in the text:

Різноманітні біохімічні функції, органічна сполука, покращувати продуктивність імунної системи, виділяти з сечею, допомагати підтримувати тканини тіла, у достатній кількості, єдиний виняток з цього правила, потрібно споживати щоденно, накопичуватися у жировій тканині, водорозчинні вітаміни, жиророзчинні вітаміни, доставляти кисень до клітин тіла, підсилювати один одного, приймати після їжі.


Exercise 9. Match the words with their definitions:

1. vitamin 2. fat-soluble vitamin 3. water-soluble vitamin 4. nutrient 5. mineral a) any vitamin that is soluble in water b) an inorganic element, such as calcium, iron, potassium, sodium, or zinc, that is essential for the nutrition of humans, animals, and plants; c) any substance that nourishes an organism d) any of various organic compounds that are needed in small amounts for normal growth and activity of the body e) any vitamin that is soluble in fats
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Exercise 10. Put the words in the correct order to make questions:

1. can / be / How / vitamins / classified?

2. Where / produced / vitamins / are / synthetic?

3. helps / change / into energy / What / the body cells / carbohydrates?

4. folate / does / form / help / What?

5. for / What / essential /is / biotin?

6. the body / leave / vitamins / do / How / water-soluble?

7. What / the body’s fatty tissue / vitamins / stored / are / in?

8. the first / isolated / Who / vitamin complex?


Exercise 11. Put questions to the underlined words:

1. Vitamin supplements are usually available as isolated vitamins or in combination with other nutrients.

2. The skin creates vitamin D when it is exposed to sunlight.

3. Vitamin K is produced by intestinal bacteria.

4. Along with vitamins human body needs a certain amount of minerals.

5. Iodine assists the thyroid gland in working properly.

6. The body absorbs iron through the help of vitamin C.

7. Calcium and phosphorus build bones and teeth.

8. The body absorbs iron through the help of vitamin C.

Exercise 12. Ask questions beginning with the question word given in brackets:

1. Cashmir Funk was the first scientist who used the term “vitamine”. (Who?)

2. In the 1930s a scientific discovery demonstrated the biochemical functions of the vitamins. (When?)

3. Vitamins have been commercially produced since 1930. (Since what time?)

4. Niacin can lower blood cholesterol levels. (What?)

5. Vitamins were given letters to go with their chemical names to simplify discussion about them. (Why?)

6. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal tract. (How?)

7. Water-soluble vitamins dissolve easily in water. (Where?)

8. Vitamin C promotes wound healing. (What?)

Exercise 13. Open the brackets, using the verbs in either active or passive tenses and translate the sentences into Ukrainian:

1. Vitamins (to contribute)to good health by regulating the metabolism and assisting the bio­chemical processes of the body.

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