ТОП 10:

Sensory, sympathetic, automatic, receptor, reflex, neurons, cranial, central, grey matter, ganglion.


Exercise 11. Make special questions:

1. Stimuli pass through three or more afferent neurons.

2. Central nervous system controls all movements of voluntary muscles.

3. Vital functions are controlled by the brain.

4. Neurons are considered to be important components of nervous system.

5. The average adult human brain weighs about 1400 g.

6. Movement is due to nerve stimulus.

7. The cells communicate with each other by means of electrochemical waves.

8. The brain is thought to comprise five main parts.


Exercise 12. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense form:

1. The central nervous system (to function) to send signals from one cell to others and to receive feedback.

2. Malfunction of the nervous system can (to occur) as a result of genetic defects, physical damage due to trauma or infection.

3. The medical specialty of neurology (to study) disorders of the nervous system and (to look) for interventions that can prevent or treat them.

4. In the peripheral nervous system, the most common problem (to be) the failure of nerve conduction such as multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

5. Neuroscience (to be) the field of science that (to focus) on the study of the nervous system.

6. Motor neurons (to carry) signals from the grey matter of the CNS through the nerves of the peripheral nervous system to smooth, cardiac, or skeletal muscle tissue and (to move) a part of the body to respond to the stimulus.

7.A typical neuron (to have) a cell body and long arms that (to conduct) impulses from one body part to another.

8. Autonomic nervous system (to divide) into the sympathetic, parasympathetic, enteric nervous system.


Exercise 13. Arrange the sentences to make a definition of the central nervous system:

1.The cerebrum (brain) also controls the vital functions of the respiration and circulation, the controlling centers being located in the medulla.

2.The spinal cord is the portion of the central nervous system enclosed in the vertebral column, consisting of nerve cells and bundles of nerves connecting all parts of the body with the brain.

3. Central nervous system is the seat of all sensation due to the bringing in of the stimuli from the tissues by afferent fibers to the sensory centers of the brain.

4. The brain is the enlarged and highly developed mass of nervous tissue that forms the upper end of the central nervous system.

5. The brain is a complicated organ which consists of grey matter or nerve cells on the surface, and white matter or nerve fibers in the center.

Завдання для самостійної роботи студента (СРС)

I. Перекладіть словосполучення: спинний і головний мозок жмутик нервових закінчень безумовні рефлекси сіра речовина мозку подразник життєво важлива функція свідомість і пам’ять чутливі центри цілісна система головний і спинний мозок   II. Дайте відповіді на запитання: What is the brain? What is the average weight of the human brain? What parts does the brain comprise? What is the most important part of the brain? What processes does CNS control?   III. Розкрийте поняття: Головний мозок Центральна нервова система
The Digestive System

Exercise 1. Topical vocabulary:

absorption, n [əbˈsɔːrpʃn] поглинання
alimentary tract, n [ælɪˌment(ə)rɪ trækt] травний тракт
caecum, n ['si:kəm] сліпа кишка
colon, n ['koulən] товста кишка
decomposition, n [ˌdiːkɒmpəˈzɪʃən] розкладання
digestion, n [daɪˈdʒestʃən] травлення
duodenum, n [dju:ou'di:nəm] дванадцятипала кишка
excretion, n [ɪkˈskriːʃn] виведення з організму продуктів життєдіяльності
ileum, n ['ɪlɪəm] клубова кишка
ingestion, n [ˌɪnˈdʒestʃən] прийом їжі
jejunum, n [dʒiːˈdʒuːnəm] порожниста кишка
length, n [leŋθ] довжина
pancreas, n ['pæŋkrɪəs] підшлункова залоза
portion, n [’pɔ:rʃən] частина, відділ
rectum, n ['rektəm] пряма кишка
salivary glands, n ['sælɪvərɪ glænd] слинні залози
tube, n [tju:b] труба, трубка


Exercise 2. Read the following word-combinations and translate them.

canal: alimentary canal, musculomembraneous canal, nasal canal, root canal

cavity: oral cavity, abdominal cavity, pulp cavity, nasal cavity, thoracic cavity

gland: salivary gland, endocrine gland, urethral glands, mucous gland, lymph gland

tube: thin-wall muscular tube, inner-tube, test-tube, Fallopian tube, drainage tube

palate: hard palate, soft palate, cleft palate, to have a delicate palate, depraved palate


Exercise 3. Put words in the appropriate column:

Ileum, heart, vessel, anus, jejunum, artery, duodenum, tongue, vein, pharynx, stomach, capillary, esophagus, intestine, aorta, atria, rectum, oral cavity, salivary glands, mouth, chamber, caecum, colon, teeth, ventricle.

Parts of the cardiovascular system Parts of the alimentary tract

Exercise 4. Translate the following word combinations into your native language:

Ingestion and excretion, to chop food into small pieces, to digest large meals properly, accessory organs, hydrochloric acid, abdominal cavity, to be composed of, a thin-walled muscular tube, to absorb water, the largest gland in the human body, two fists placed next to each other, a major role in metabolism, a storage tank, a number of functions in the body, decomposition of red blood cells, a hollow sac, the remaining indigestible food matter, a long thin gland.


Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:

The Digestive System

The digestive system is a group of organs working together to convert food into energy. Food passes through a long musculomembraneous tube known as the alimentary canal or the gastrointestinal tract. It is made up of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, and large intestines. In addition, there are several important accessory organs that help your body to digest food: the teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Six major functions take place in the digestive system:

· Ingestion

· Secretion

· Mixing and movement

· Digestion

· Absorption

· Excretion

Food begins its journey through the digestive system in the mouth. Teeth chop food into small pieces, which are moistened by saliva before the tongue and other muscles push the food into the pharynx.

From the mouth food passes through the pharynx to the esophagus and then to the stomach.

The stomach is a muscular sac that is located on the left side of the abdominal cavity. It is about the size of their two fists placed next to each other. This organ acts as a storage tank for food so that the body has time to digest large meals properly. It contains hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes.

The small intestine is a thin-walled muscular tube about 6.5 metres long. It is located in the middle portion of the abdominal cavity. The small intestine is composed of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum.

The large intestine is the last part of the alimentary tract. Its function is to absorb water from the remaining indigestible food matter, and then to pass useless waste material from the body. It is about 1.5 metres long. It is divided into caecum, colon and rectum.

The liver is the largest gland in the human body. It is in the right upper part of the abdominal cavity under the diaphragm. The weight of the liver is 1,500 g. This organ plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions in the body, including glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, plasma protein synthesis, hormone production, and detoxification.

The gallbladder is a hollow sac lying on the lower surface of the liver, where bile is stored, before it is released into the small intestine.

The pancreas is a long thin gland lying behind the stomach.

Exercise 6. Answer the questions to the text:

1. What is the digestive system?

2. What does the alimentary tract consist of?

3. What is the 1st division of the alimentary tract formed by?

4. What is the stomach?

5. What is the small intestine?

6. What is the function of the large intestine?

7. What largest glands in the human body do you know?

8. What is the function of the gallbladder?

9. What are the major functions of the digestive system?

Exercise 7. Translate the following word combinations into English:

Травний тракт, соляна кислота, тонкостінна м'язова трубка, через глотку в стравохід, середня частина черевної порожнини, найбільша залоза в тілі людини, травні ферменти, ряд функцій в організмі, розкладання еритроцитів, відігравати важливу роль в обміні речовин, товста та пряма кишки, травлення та виділення, змочуватися слиною.


Exercise 8. Match the terms with their definitions:

1.alimentary tract   2. stomach   3. pharynx   4.small intestine   5.large intestine   6. esophagus   7. liver   8. gallbladder   9. mastication   10. digestion a) the passage between the pharynx and the stomach; b) the process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed and assimilated by the body; c) a large, reddish-brown, glandular organ located in the upper right side of the abdominal cavity, divided by fissures into five lobes and functioning in the secretion of bile and various metabolic processes; d) the tubular passage extending from the mouth to the anus, through which food is passed and digested; e) the process by which food is crushed and ground by teeth; f) a pear-shaped, muscular sac attached to the undersurface of the right lobe of the liver, in which bile is stored and concentrated; g) beginning with the cecum and ending with the rectum; includes the caecum and the colon and the rectum; extracts moisture from food residues which are later excreted as feces; h) an enlarged and muscular saclike organ of the alimentary canal; the principal organ of digestionж i) the passage to the stomach and lungs; in the front part of the neck below the chin and above the collarbone; j) the longest part of the alimentary canal; where digestion is completed.

Exercise 9. Write down organs in their appropriate position:


Stomach caecum colon appendix liver teeth esophagus rectum salivary glands gallbladder epiglottis tongue soft palate pancreas ileum anus duodenum    

Exercise 10. Say what organ is spoken about:

I.This organ is the largest gland in the human body. It is in the upper part of the abdominal cavity under the diaphragm in the right side of the abdomen. Its upper surface is convex. This organ consists of small lobules connected together by connective tissue, different vessels and nerves.

II. This organ is pyriform (грушевидный) in shape. It is a dilated portion of the alimentary canal. It is in the upper part of the abdomen under the diaphragm. The liver is above this organ, and the colon is below it. The pancreas is behind this organ.

III. It is the beginning of the alimentary tract and the digestion starts here when taking the first bite of food. Chewing breaks the food into pieces that are more easily digested, while saliva mixes with food to begin the process of breaking it down into a form your body can absorb and use.

IV. This organ is the portion of the alimentary tract that is located between the stomach and rectum. In the human being it is divided in to two parts. Its function is to digest food and to enable the nutrients released from that food to enter into the bloodstream.

V. It is a tubular organ that lies behind the trachea and heart and in front of the spinal colomn; it passes through the diaphragm before entering the stomach.

VI. This organ is a part of two different systems of the body, digestive system and respiratory system. It is a passageway leading from the mouth and nose to the esophagus and larynx.

VII. This is a long, narrow gland that is located across the upper abdomen, behind the stomach and the spleen. It produces important digestive enzymes and hormone called insulin.

VIII. This is a hollow organ located beneath the right lobe of the liver and measures 8 centimeters in length. Its function is to store bile.

IX. This is a thin cartilaginous flap that covers the entrance to the larynx during swallowing, preventing food from entering the trachea.

X. It is the last part of the digestive system. Water is absorbed here and the remaining waste material is stored as feces before being removed by defecation.


Exercise 11. Fill in prepositions where necessary and translate into your native language:

If (2); by; or; in (4); for (2); through (2)

One of the most common locations ____ a foreign body is the alimentary tract.

It is possible ___ foreign bodies to enter the tract from the mouth, or from the rectum.

The objects most commonly swallowed ____ children are coins. Meat impaction is more common ____ adults.

Swallowed objects are more likely to lodge ____ the esophagus or stomach than ____ the pharynx or duodenum.

____ the person who swallowed the foreign body is doing well, usually a x-ray image will be taken. It will show any metal objects, and should be repeated a few days later to confirm that the object has passed all the way _____ the alimentary tract. Also it needs to be confirmed that the object is not stuck _____ the airways, in the bronchial tree.

Most objects that are swallowed will pass all the way ____ the gastrointestinal tract unaided.

____ the foreign body causes problems like pain, vomiting ____ bleeding it must be removed.

Exercise 12. Arrange the following sentences in a correct order to describe the following term “stomach”:

1. The stomach has three tasks in digestion: mixing foods with gastric juices, storing swallowed food and liquid, moving food into the small intestine.

2. It is located in the upper part of the abdomen under the diaphragm.

3. The stomach is a hollow, saclike organ enclosed in a muscular wall.

4. The stomach receives food from the esophagus.

5. These flexible muscles allow the stomach to extend when you eat.

6. As food reaches the end of the esophagus, it enters the stomach through a muscular valve called the lower esophageal sphincter.


Exercise 13. Continue the following sentences using the text to describe the following term “intestine”:

1. Intestine is the last part of the alimentary tract and consist of ….. and ….. .

2. The small intestine is composed of ….., ….., ….. .

3. The large intestine is divided into ….., ….. and ….. .

4. The function of intestine is ….. and then ….. .


Exercise 14. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Печінка — другий найбільший орган в організм людини після шкіри.

2. Печінка займає центральне місце в обміні речовин завдяки анатомічному розміщенню.

3. Печінка здатна знешкоджувати за допомогою фільтрації крові різні отрути.

4. Ознакою хворої печінки може бути низький артеріальний тиск, спричинений слабкістю венозної системи.

5. Вірусні інфекції, ожиріння, цукровий діабет, отруєння і надмірне вживання алкоголю можуть викликати проблеми в роботі печінки.

6. Гепати́т А (хвороба Боткіна, інфекційний гепатит) спричиняється вірусом, що потрапляє до організму з їжею або водою.

7. Печінка має здатність регентувати порушені або змертвілі клітини, та відновлювати своє функціонування.

8. Печінка також виробляє білки, які потрібні для згортання крові та іншім функціям.


Exercise 15. Translate word-combinations with Participle into your native language:

Saliva moistening the food; the patient complaining of pain; disease, spreading rapidly; food, containing a lot of vitamins; doctor on duty making a morning round; blood containing digested nutrients; teeth grinding the food; patient suffering from different diseases; the coughing child; the bleeding wound; surgeon operating this patient.


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