ТОП 10:

The Anatomy and Physiology of the Urinary System



The urinary system is a group of organs in the body concerned with filtering out excess of fluid and wastes from the bloodstream. Wastes in the blood come from the normal breakdown of tissues and from food.

The urinary system keeps the chemicals and water in your body balanced. A type of waste called urea is removed from the blood by the urinary system. Urea is produced when foods containing protein, such as meat, are broken down in the body and is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys.

The urinary system consists of two kidneys, which secrete the urine, the ureters, which convey urine to the urinary bladder, where it is stored for some time; and the urethra, through which it is discharged from the body.

The kidneys are paired bean-shaped organs with two surfaces, two borders, and an upper and lower extremity. There are three major regions of the kidney: the renal cortex, the renal medulla and the renal pelvis. The kidneys are situated behind the peritoneum. They are covered by the renal capsule.

The functional unit of each kidney is a nephron. Its chief function is to regulate the concentration of water and soluble substances by filtering the blood, reabsorbing what is needed and excreting the rest as urine. The nephron eliminates waste substances from the body, regulates blood volume and blood pressure and regulates blood pH.

The ureters are two tubes which convey the urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. Muscles in the ureter walls continually tighten and relax forcing urine away from the kidneys.

The urinary bladder is a triangle-shaped, hollow musculomembranous organ located in the lower part of the abdomen. It is held in place by ligaments attached to other organs and the pelvic bones. The urinary bladder is a temporary storage for the urine. The bladder's walls relax and expand to store urine, and contract to empty it. Nerves in the bladder alert a person when it is time to urinate.

The urethra is a tube that connects the urinary bladder with the outside of the body. Male and female urethra differs in shape and length. The brain signals the bladder muscles to tighten, which squeezes urine out of the bladder. Normal urine is sterile fluid which contains fluids, salts and waste products, but it is free of bacteria, viruses and fungi.

 

Exercise 6. Find corresponding equivalents:

1. renal pelvis 2. to regulate blood volume and blood pressure 3. kidneys and urinary bladder 4. renal medulla 5. ureter and urethra 6. a temporary storage 7. to discharge urine 8. breakdown of active tissue 9. bacteria, viruses and fungi 10. to be situated behind the peritoneum a) сечовід та сечовипускальний канал b) мозкова речовина нирки c) розташуватися за очеревиною d) ниркова миска e) нирки та сечовий міхур f) виводити сечу g) руйнування активних тканин h) регулювати об’єм крові та тиск i) бактерії, віруси та грuбки j) тимчасове зберігання

Exercise 7. Translate word-combinations into English:

Тимчасове зберігання, виводити продукти життєдіяльності, ниркова миска та мозкова речовина нирки, сечовина, надлишок води, руйнування активних тканин, бактерії та грибки, регулювати об’єм крові та тиск, повідомляти мозок, сечовід та сечовипускальний канал, виділяти сечу, сеча застоюється у сечовому міхурі, вживання їжі та рідини, нормальне сечовиділення, черевна порожнина.

Exercise 8. Find corresponding definition to the words on the left:

1. kidney 2. ureter 3. urethra 4. urinary bladder 5. renal cortex 6. nerves 7. nephron 8. urea 9. urine a) each of the functional units in the kidney, consisting of a glomerulus and its associated tubule, through which the glomerular filtrate passes before emerging as urine; b) a membranous sac in which the urine, excreted from the kidneys, is stored; c) each of a pair of organs in the abdominal cavity of mammals, birds, that excrete urine; d) colorless crystalline compound that is the main nitrogenous breakdown product of protein metabolism in mammals; e) the duct by which urine is conveyed out of the body from the bladder; f) the duct by which urine passes from the kidney to the bladder or the cloaca; g) the outer portion of the kidney containing the glomeruli and the tubules; h) a watery, typically yellowish fluid which contains nitrogen compounds such as urea and other waste substances removed from the blood by the kidneys; i) any of the cordlike bundles of fibers that conduct sensory or motor impulses.

 

Exercise 9. Answer the questions to the text:

1. What does the urinary system consist of?

2. What is urine?

3. Where are the kidneys situated?

4. What is the function of nephrons?

5. What is the function of the ureters?

6. Where is the urine stored before it is discharged from the body?

7. What is urethra?

8. What is the function of the urethra?

9. What conveys urine from the kidneys?

10. What is the function of the urinary bladder?

 

Exercise 10. Translate words given in italics:

1. The urine is stored in сечовий міхур.

2. The nephrons regulate об’єм крові та кров’ний тиск.

3. Сечовід виводить urine from the kidneys.

4. All urine is виділяється from the body by сечовипускальний канал.

5. Normal urine is free of бактерії, віруси та грuбки.

6. Ниркова миска is the hollow funnel, into which urine is discharged before entering the ureter.

7. A renal stoneis a solid piece of material that forms in the kidney from substances in the сечі.

8. Nephrons виводять продукти життєдіяльності from the body.

Exercise 11. Find synonyms to the words in italics in the text (sometimes more than 1 word is possible):

to keep the urine in the bladder,

to remove urine from the body,

to carry urine out of the body,

these organs are placed behind the peritoneum,

substances that can be dissolved, absorb substances again,

inflammation of nephrons,

unwanted (unnecessary) materials.

 

Exercise 12. Find the proper object to the verb and translate it into your native language:

1. to excrete a) muscles in the bladder
2. to alert b) an infection
3. to regulate c) urine out of the body
4. to remove d) food and fluid
5. to consume e) blood volume and pressure
6. to break down f) waste substances
7. to maintain g) nerves in the brain
8. tighten and relax h) active tissues
9. to filter i) water balance
10. to cause k) blood through the nephrons

 

Exercise 13. Fill in the gaps with words from the box:

nephrons urine bladder kidneys wastes urea ureters nerves

1. ………… in the blood come from the normal breakdown of active tissues.

2. Normal ……………….. contains fluids, salts and waste products.

3. ……………….. usually holds 300-350 ml of urine.

4. ………………………. carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

5. All the blood in our bodies passes through ……………….. several times a day.

6. Urine is formed by ………………….. together with water and other waste substances.

7. A person gets an alarm from the ………………….. in the bladder when it is time to urinate.

8. In humans, a normal kidney contains 800,000 to 1.5 million…………………………

Exercise 14. Find the definitions to the terms mentioned in ex. 13:

1. It filters waste products and urea from the blood.

2. It is composed of waste products and urea and usually averages 1-2 L a day.

3. These are the materials performed as a result of a breakdown of active tissues.

4. It is an organic compound, which is colorless, odorless, solid and highly soluble in water.

5. It is an organ in the pelvis. When empty, it is about the size and shape of a pear.

6. It serves as a natural filter of the blood, and removes wastes, which are transferred to the urinary bladder.

7. They are tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.

8. It is a cable-like bundle of fibers (the long projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.

Exercise 15. Agree of contradict the following statements:

1. Urine is stored in the urethra before discharging from the body.

2. A nephron regulates the concentration of water and soluble substances.

3. The urinary bladder is a hollow bean-shaped organ, which discharges urine from the body.

4. The ureters convey the urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.

5. Kidney is a muscular sac which stores the urine before eliminating it from the body.

6. The urine is discharged from the body through the ureters.

7. Urethra is a tube that connects the kidney and the urinary bladder.

8. The main function of the ureters is to regulate the concentration of water and soluble substances.

 

Exercise 16. Translate the sentences into your native language paying attention to Participles:

1. Microorganisms invading the urinary bladder can develop cystitis.

2. Ducts carrying urine to the urinary bladder are called ureters.

3. Urine being a sterile fluid is free from bacteria, viruses and fungi.

4. A nephron eliminating wastes from the body, regulates blood volume and blood pressure.

5. Being examined by the physician the patient was prescribed antibiotics.

6. Being located in the posterior part of the abdomen the kidneys receive blood from the paired renal arteries.

7. Having asked the patient about his complains the doctor could make a diagnosis of a kidney infection.

8. Having been operated successfully the patient was gradually recovering.

Exercise 17. Read and translate paying attention to the translation of Absolute Participle Construction:

1. The nephron carrying out nearly all of the kidney's functions, its chief function is to regulate the concentration of water.

2. The nephrons in the kidney being inflamed, the patient was administered antibiotics.

3. The patient suffering from pains in the lumber area, urine analyses were made.

4. The patient being admitted to the hospital, the doctor examined him in the reception ward.

5. The patient having been hospitalized, the infection in the renal pelvis was treated several weeks later.

6. The patient having survived the operation well, the danger of peritonitis was eliminated.

7. Cystitis having been proved to result from infection of the urinary bladder.

8. Hypertension complicating the nephritis, the patient was prescribed vasodilators and diuretics.

Exercise 18. Make questions to the underlined words:

1. The human organism can fight against the microorganisms.

2. The doctor has just examined this patient.

3. The administrations were changed to prevent nephritis.

4. The kidneys perform regulation of the body's salt, potassium and acid.

5. Bacteria cause inflammation of the urinary bladder.

6. The bladder is composed of serous, muscular, submucous, and mucous coats.

7. High blood pressure caused kidney damage in this patient.

8. The symptoms of acute pyelonephritis are aching pain in the lumbar region and fever.

Exercise 19. Open the brackets and translate the sentences:

1. A kidney infection already (to develop) because of urine standing still.

2. The urine (to form) in three steps: Filtration, Reabsorption, and Secretion.

3. Significant sex difference (to exist) in the shape and length of male and female urethra.

4. A test in the structure of the kidneys (to pass) the day after tomorrow.

5. Last night she (to experience) an attack of acute pain in the lumber region.

6. The inflammation of nephrons in the kidneys (to call) nephritis.

7. The patient (to complain) of pain and burning during urination a week ago.

8. When he entered the room, they (to carry out) the experiment.

 

Exercise 20. Translate the sentences into English:

1. Головна робота нирок полягає в регулярному очищенні всього нашого організму.

2. Сечовипускальний канал поєдную нирки з сечовим міхуром.

3. М’язи в сечовому каналі постійно скорочуються та розслабляються, виводячи сечу з нирок.

4. Нефрони виконують майже всі функції нирок.

5. Сечовина продукується після розщеплення білків у організмі.

6. В сечі здорової людини не повинно бути бактерій, вірусів та грибків.

7. Головна функція нефронів – регулювати концентрацію рідини у тілі.

8. Сечовий міхур діє як тимчасовий резервуар для сечі.

 

Exercise 21. Arrange the following sentences in a correct order to describe the term “a kidney”:

1. The function of the kidneys is to secrete the urine.

2. The major regions of the kidney are the renal cortex, the renal medulla and the renal pelvis.

3. The kidneys are paired bean-shaped organs with two surfaces, two borders, and an upper and lower extremity.

4. The urinary system consists of two kidneys, the ureters, the urinary bladder and the urethra.

5. They are covered by the renal capsule.

6. The kidneys are situated in the posterior part of the abdomen, behind the peritoneum.

Exercise 22. Arrange the following sentences in a correct order to describe the term “the urinary system”:

1. The urinary bladder stores the urine until it is discharged from the body through the urethra.

2. The urinary system consists of two kidneys, the ureters, the urinary bladder and the urethra.

3. The urinary system keeps the chemicals and water in your body balanced.

4. The kidneys secrete the urine out of the body.

5. The urinary system is a group of organs in the body concerned with filtering out excess of fluid and wastes from the bloodstream.

6. The ureters convey urine to the urinary bladder.

Exercise 23. Arrange the following sentences in a correct order to describe the term “the urinary bladder”:

1. Nerves in the bladder alert a person when it is time to urinate.

2. The bladder's walls relax and expand to store urine, and contract to empty it.

3. It is a membranous sac in which the urine, excreted from the kidneys, is stored.

4. The urinary system is a group of organs in the body that filters excess of fluid and wastes from the bloodstream.

5. The urinary system consists of two kidneys, the ureters, the urinary bladder and the urethra.

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

 

I. Перекладіть наступні словосполучення: накопичуватися в крові бактерії, віруси та грuбки спорожнювати сечовий міхур виведення сечі через уретру вживати рідину та продукти харчування тимчасове зберігання нормальне сечовиділення повідомляти мозок руйнування активних тканин регулювати об’єм крові та тиск   II. Дайте відповідь на наступні питання: What does the urinary system consist of? What form do the kidneys have? What is the function of nephrons? Where is the urine stored before it is discharged from the body? What is the function of the urethra? III. Розкрийте поняття:нирки, сечовидільна система, сечовий міхур

 

Anatomy and Physiology of the Reproductive System

 

Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary:

coitus, n [ˈkɔɪtəs] статевий акт
embryo, n [ˈem.briəʊ] ембріон
enlargement, n [ɪnˈlɑːdʒmənt] збільшення
estrogen, n [ˈestrədʒən] естроген
fetus, n [ˈfiː.təs] плід
fertilize, v [ˈfɜː.tɪlaɪz] запліднювати
gonads, n [ˈɡəʊ.næd] гонади, статеві органи
maturity, n [məˈtjʊərɪti] зрілість
ovaries, n [ˈəʊvərɪz] яєчники
placenta, n [pləˈsɛntə] плацента
pregnancy, n [ˈpreɡnənsi] вагітність
progesterone, n [prəʊˈdʒestərəʊn] прогестерон
puberty, n [ˈpjuː.bəti] статева зрілість
testosterone, n [ˌtesˈtɒstərəʊn] тестостерон
umbilical cord [ʌmˈbɪlɪkl kɔːd] пуповина
uterus, n [ˈjuːtərəs ] матка
viable, adj [ˈvaɪ.əbl̩] життєздатний
zygote, n [ˈzaɪɡəʊt] зигота

 

Exercise 2. Read the following words, paying attention to the rules of reading:

[əs] fetus, nervous, numerous, coitus, uterus

[ɜː] occur, sperm, nurse, surgeon, urgent, fertility

[ʃən] menstruation, ovulation, abortion, fertilization, reproduction, implantation

[aɪ] height, fertilize, cycle, either, lining, time

[i] system, female, visible, skin, fill, implant

 

Exercise 3. Form and translate the new words using the given suffixes:

E.g.:infect – infection: інфекція – інфікувати.

excite – excitement: збудження – збуджувати.

- ion (-ation), -sion, -tion: implant, transport, stimulate, distribute, fertilize, collect, ovulate, menstruate.

- ment: require, achieve, treat, develop, enlarge, involve, move, impair, nourish.

 

Exercise 4. Read the word combinations and translate them into Ukrainian:

For the purpose of producing a new life; to begin during puberty; males and females; to produce hormones; to occur between the ages of 13-15; to remain viable; to enter the cell membrane of the ovum; implantation; uterine lining; to stimulate the gonads to produce testosterone; to result in ovulation and menstruation; to occur as part of the female pubertal process; to be released into vagina; to combine to form a zygote; to travel to the uterus; to be transported in the fallopian tube.

 

Exercise 5. Read and translate the text:







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