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Table of Foodstuffs, showing their Uses.
⇐ ПредыдущаяСтр 10 из 10
To be of use to the body these foodstuffs must be digested and absorbed. Food must therefore be of such a nature that it can be digested—i.e., broken down by digestive juices into substances that can pass into the blood stream, and be carried to the various tissues for their use. Proteins, carbohydrates and fats are complicated compounds found in plant and animal matter, and require digestion. Water and mineral salts are simple inorganic substances; they can be absorbed, therefore, without digestion, they enter into the composition of all animal and plant matter. In fact, all living matter consists largely of water. The inorganic salts, absorbed from the soil or water, are built up by living things into organic salts.
Healthy food is food considered to be beneficial to health.
The goal of healthy eating is to develop a diet that you can maintain for life, not just a few weeks or months.
Finally, there are three main messages to follow for healthy eating: First, we should eat less fat, particularly saturated fat. Secondly, we are to cut down on sugar and salt. Thirdly, we must eat more fresh fruit and vegetables.
Exercise 7. Answer the questions:
1. What is our food made up of?
2. What are the main functions of the food substances?
3. How many essential foodstuffs are there that are supplied through the foods?
4. What substances are used as body builders?
5. What substances are used as fuel foods?
6. What substances are used as regulators of body activity?
7. What are three main rules for healthy eating?
а) Form nouns using the suffix –TH, translate the new words:
Model:Deep(глибокий) →depth (глибина)
long, true, wide, strong, grow, warm
b) Form nouns with the meaning instrument of action using suffixes -ег(-ог). Translate them:
Model: regulate (регулювати) → regulator (регулятор)
Sterilize, elevate, inhale, dilate, irrigate, transform, stimulate, time
Exercise 9. Exclude the unnecessary word from the logical sequence:
1. a) protein 2. a) heat 3. a) blood 4. a) water
b) fat b) warmth b) lymph b) hydrogen
c) carbohydrate c) coolness c) oil c) oxygen
d) hemoglobin d) refrigeration d) gastric juice d) carbon dioxide
Exercise 10. Give English equivalents of the following word combinations:
Здорове харчування, складні сполуки, нова тканина, насичені жири, процес росту, постачання палива, діяльність усіх живих істот, поживні речовини, проста, неорганічна речовина, відновлення тканини, будівельний матеріал, необхідні продукти харчування.
Exercise 11. Read and translate the information given below. You can use a dictionary. Be ready to use it in the story of your own:
Сarbohydrate is any one of a large group of compounds, including the sugars and starch that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates are important as a source of energy: they are manufactured by plants and obtained by animals and man from the diet, being one of the three main constituents of food. All carbohydrates are eventually broken down in the body to the simple sugar glucose, which can then take part in energy-producing metabolic processes. Excess carbohydrate, not immediately required by the body, is stored in the liver and muscles in the form of glycogen. In plants carbohydrates are important structural materials (e.g. cellulose) and storage products (commonly in the form of starch).
Fat is a substance that contains one or more fatty acids (in the form of triglycerides) and is the principal form in which energy is stored by the body (in adipose tissue). It also serves as an insulating material beneath the skin (in the subcutaneous tissue) and around certain organs (including the kidneys). Fat is one of the three main constituents of food; it is necessary in the diet to provide an adequate supply of essential fatty acids and for the efficient absorption of fat-soluble vitamins from the intestine. Excessive deposition of fat in the body leads to 'obesity.
Protein is one of a group of organic compounds of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen (sulphur and phosphorus may also be present). The protein molecule is a complex structure made up of one or more chains of amino acids, which are linked by peptide bonds. Proteins are essential constituents of the body; they form the structural material of muscles, tissues, organs, etc., and are equally important as regulators of function, as enzymes and hormones. Proteins are synthesized in the body from their constituent amino acids, which are obtained from the digestion of protein in the diet. Excess protein, not required by the body, can be converted into glucose and used as an energy source.
Exercise 12. Match the terms with their explanation:
Exercise 13. Put each of the following words into its correct position in the passage below:
Animals bowl chopsticks daily
Die energy European grow
Healthy knives left man
Mouth people plants plates
Food is one of our most important ... needs. It gives us ... to work and ... . It makes us grow, and keeps our bodies strong and ... . Without food, we ... . All living things – plants, ... and man - need food to live and ... . But only ... make their own food. They also provide food for animals and ... .
Customs influence the ways... eat. Most Americans and ... eat from individual ... using ..., fork, and ... . Arabs use only their ... hands to spoon foods from a central .... Chinese and Japanese use ... to pick up food from a small bowl held close to the ... .
Exercise 14. Match the words with their antonyms in the text:
Exercise 15. Make the following sentences negative:
1. Cold storage foods lose little of their nutritive qualities.
2. Fat also serves as an insulating material around certain organs (including the kidneys).
3. Canned food may be stored for long periods at the room temperature.
4. Food poisoning is most common during the summer months.
5. Milk lacks iron and other minerals essential to the diet.
6. Food preservation has now become an exact science.
7.Proteins are essential constituents of the body.
8. Fat is a substance that contains one or more fatty acids.
9. Excess protein can be converted into glucose and used as an energy source.
Exercise 16. Translate the sentences having different forms of Participles:
1. Excess carbohydrate, not immediately required by the body, is stored in the liver and muscles in the form of glycogen
2. The circulating volume of the blood depends on the changes in the air temperature.
3. Excess protein, not required by the body, can be converted into glucose and used as an energy source.
4. The inorganic salts, absorbed from the soil or water, are built up by living things into organic salts.
5. The protein molecule is a complex structure made up of one or more chains of amino acids.
6. While eating food is broken down by digestive juices into substances.
7. Proteins, carbohydrates and fats are complicated compounds found in plant and animal matter.
8.Metabolism is the term applied to all changes that occur in the body in connection with the use of food.
9. The glucose required for immediate use is carried straight through the liver and enters the circulation.
Exercise 17. Change the sentences using the Passive voice:
Model:Amino acids synthesizedproteins in the body.→ Proteins are synthesized in the body by amino acids.
1. A high concentration of salt or sugar will check the growth of many bacteria.
2. Milk may transmit infection from animals to man.
3. Special enzymes convert proteins into simple amino acids so that the body can use them.
4. Many amino acids linked together make proteins.
5. A lot of people use herbs as food.
6. Plants form the base of the natural food chain.
7. The most active tissues of the body require glucose.
8. The production of heat and energy needs the use of fats as fuel.
9. The kidneys excrete the waste products of protein metabolism in the urine.
Exercise 18. Fill in prepositions where necessary:
1. Glucose occurs ... many fruits and is present ... the blood ... animals.
2. Hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen are ... the most common.
3. Some vegetable foods are very rich ... proteins.
4. The condensation ... amino acids leads ... building ... proteins.
5. Proteins are separated ... groups based chiefly ... physical properties.
6. The granules of starch can be recognized ... a microscope, … the iodine test.
7. Fructose is produced directly ... photosynthesis.
8. The urea being useless for fuel is carried away … the blood stream and excreted … the blood … the kidneys.
9. The fatty acids combine … alkalines … the intestine to form soap.
Exercise 19. Open the brackets using correct form of the verb. Translate the sentences:
1. The diet (to be) the daily ration of foods required by the individual.
2. A well-balanced diet (should, to contain) the foodstuffs roughly in the following proportions: 1 part protein, 1 part fat to 4 parts of carbohydrates.
3. The amount of carbohydrate required (to depend) on the energy output.
4. A man doing heavy work (to require) more carbohydrates than a sedentary worker.
5. It (to be) also essential that the food (should, to contain) cellulose. It is indigestable and therefore (to remain) in the bowels and (to stimulate) it to empty.
6. The value of foods (to calculate) by the amount of heat which they (to give) on combustion.
7. The heat (to measure) in calories.
8. The caloric value of a normal diet (should, to be) 3,000 to 3,300 calories per day.
9. The caloric value required by the individual (to affect) by age, exercise, sex, weight and build, climate and weather, temperament.
Exercise 20. Put questions to the underlined words:
1. There are six essential foodstuffs.
2. Fuel is required to produce the energy for the body activity.
3. The vitamins and certain salts act as regulators of tissue activity.
4. The infants and children require extra building material for the process of growth.
5. We should eat less fat.
6. Glucose contains six carbon atoms.
7. Metabolic changes take place in every living thing.
8. Carbohydrates are acted on by the enzymes of the saliva, pancreatic and intestinal juices.
9. The waste products of the combustion of the carbohydrates are carbon dioxide and water.
Exercise 21. Speak about fats, proteins and carbohydrates using the phrases:
It is essential…
It is complicated compounds…
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