ТОП 10:

Anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system

The cardiovascular system or the circulatory system is a vast network of organs and vessels that is responsible for the flow of blood, nutrients, hormones, oxygen and other gases to and from cells. Without the circulatory system, the body would not be able to fight disease or maintain a stable internal environment — such as proper temperature and pH — known as homeostasis.The heart, blood, and blood vessels make up the cardiovascular component of the circulatory system. It includes the pulmonary circulation (the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart) and the systemic circulation, which runs through the rest of the body to provide oxygenated blood.

The human heart is a four-chambered muscular organ. It is located on the diaphragm between the lower borders of the lungs, occupying the middle of the mediastinum. The heart is enclosed in a pericardial sac that is lined with a serous membrane. Three layers of tissue form the heart wall. The outer layer of the heart wall is the epicardium, the middle layer is the myocardium, and the inner layer is the endocardium.

The internal cavity of the heart is divided into four chambers: the two atria are thin-walled chambers that receive blood from the veins. The two ventricles are thick-walled chambers that forcefully pump blood out of the heart. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from systemic veins; the left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins.

The valves of the heart include the tricuspid valve, the bicuspid (mitral) valve, the semilunar aortic valve, and the semilunar pulmonary valve.

The human heart contracts from the first moment of life until the last one. Scientists have determined that the total weight of the blood pumped by the heart daily is about ten tons.

Physiologists have determined that in the adult the heart makes from 60 to 72 beats per minute. In children the rate of heartbeat is much higher.

Each beat of the heart is followed by a period of rest for the cardiac muscle. Each wave of contraction and a period of rest following it compose a cardiac cycle.

Each cardiac cycle consists of three phases: physiologists have called the first phase of short contraction of both atria —the atrial systole. They have called the second phase of a more prolonged contraction of both ventricles — the ventricular systole. The period of rest of the cardiac muscle is called the diastole.

The blood vessels are hollow tubes which carry the blood through the tissues. There are three types of blood vessels:

1. Arteries.

2. Veins.

3. Capillaries

The arteries carry the blood out from the heart to the tissues. One large artery, the aorta, leaves the heart and gives off smaller branch of arteries to the various parts.

The veins carry blood back to the heart from the tissues.

A capillary is an extremely small blood vessel located within the tissues of the body, that transports blood from arteries to veins.

Exercise 6. Answer the questions:

1. What is the cardiovascular system?

2. What is the pulmonary circulation/the systemic circulation?

3. What is the heart?

3. Where is it located?

4. What is the heart enclosed in?

5. What does septum serve for?

6. What does each half of the heart consist of?

7. What are the valves of the heart?

8. What is the function of the right atrium?

9. What is the function of the left atrium?

10. How many beats per min does the heart make?

11. What is a cardiac cycle?

11. What is systole?

12. What is diastole?

13. What is an artery/a vein/a capillary?


Exercise 7. Form the adverb from the adjectives and translate them:

Model:slow – slowly – повільний – повільно

Special, internal, central, large, general, forcible, great, rhythmical, intramuscular, superficial, global, temporary, continuous,


Exercise 8. Make adjectives using the suffix-ant (-ent). Consult a dictionary and translate them:

Model: difference →different (різний)

Significance, dependence independence, frequency, distance, permanence, assistance, absence, presence, depression.

Exercise 9. Divide the given words into the table. Remember that that there are words which can be used both as a noun and verb:

Contraction, short, determine, pure, blood, systemic, final, rest, follow, physical, compose, pulmonary, contract, research, regulate, weight, depend, cardiac, cycle, chamber, send, possibility, pump, right, act, different, wave, consist, aorta, considerable.

Noun Adjective Verb


Exercise 10. Match the terms with their definitions:

1. atrium 2. diastole 3. pericardium 4. myocardium 5. ventricle 6. septum 7. valve 8. mediastinum 9. heart 10. systole     a) the hollow muscular organ in vertebrates whose contractions propel the blood through the circulatory system; b) a dividing partition between two tissues or cavities; c) a cavity or chamber in the body, especially the upper chamber of each half of the heart; d) a chamber of the heart, having thick muscular walls, that receives blood from the atrium and pumps it to the arteries; e) the part of the thoracic cavity that lies between the lungs, containing the heart and its vessels; f) a structure restricting the flow of fluid in one direction only g) the membrane that lines the cavities of the heart and forms part of the valves and provides protection to the valves and heart chambers; h) the muscle tissue of the heart, which forms a thick middle layer between the outer epicardium layer and the inner endocardium layer; i) the period between two contractions of the heart when the muscles of the heart relax; j) the period of the cardiac cycle during which the heart contracts;

Exercise 11. Find the corresponding equivalents in the text:

М’язовий насос, складатися з 2-х передсердь та двох шлуночків, внутрішня та зовнішня оболонки серця, верхня та нижня камери, розташовуватись на діафрагмі, нижні межі легенів, камера серця, дво- та тристулковий клапан, загальна вага крові; серцевий м’яз; загальна маса крові; хвиля скорочення: частота серцебиття; серцевий цикл; дослідницька робота; тривале скорочення шлуночків.

Exercise 12. Make questions to the underlined words:

1. The heart beats continuously and rhythmically to send blood to the lungs.

2. Much of the heart consists of myocardium.

3. The heart muscle is supplied with oxygen by 2 coronary arteries.

4. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the entire body.

5. The left atrium of the heart receives oxygenated blood from the lungs.

6. 2. Each beat of the heart is followed by a period of rest for the cardiac muscle.

7. Each cardiac cycle consists of three phases.

8. The period of rest is shorter during greater physical exertion.

9. Scientists have determined that the total weight of the blood is about 10 tons.

10. Tricuspid valve lies between the right atrium and the right ventricle.


Exercise 13. Form Participle II of the following verbs. Translate them:

Model: develop (розробляти) →developed (розроблений)

To increase, to pump, to regulate, to compose, to estimate, to discharge, to call, to determine, to receive, to contract

Exercise 14. Open the brackets using the Perfect Tense. Translate the sentences:

1. You ever (be) to Germany?

2. The young scientist (publish) many article since 2000.

3. Today the surgeon (complete) the operation.

4. You (be) to the dissecting room?

5. Recently his respiratory rate (increase) considerably.

6. The patient's sleep (become) sound since he began to take this medicine.

7. The teacher (finish) to examine students this week.

8. After the patient (to take) this medicine, he feels better.

9. We (to finish) school this year.

Exercise 15. Open the brackets using correct tense form and voice. Translate the sentences:

1. The heartbeat (to produce) the pulsation.

2. On admission to the clinic the physician (to examine) the patient’s heart.

3. The patient’s blood and urine test (to make) the following day.

4. The pain in the heart (to relieve) by a tablet of nitroglycerin.

5. The pain in his heart (to subside) lately.

6. The nurse (to remove) the dressing carefully.

7. The heart sounds (to determine) by the physician by percussion.

8. The nurse already (to give) an injection of the nicotine acid.

9. Diseases of the heart primarily (to treat) by cardiologists.

10. The blood also (to carry) nutrients from the liver and gastrointestinal tract to various organs of the body.

Exercise 14. Speak about THE HEART, ATRIUM, and VENTRICLE according to the scheme:

· definition

· location

· structure

· general characteristics

· function

Exercise 15. Translate into English using Active Vocabulary:

1. Серце людини – це порожнистий фіброзно-м'язовий орган, що забезпечує безперервний кровообіг.

2. Маса серця дорослої людини становить 250-350 г.

3. Серце розташоване у центрі грудної клітини, у нижній частині переднього середостіння, у перикарді.

4. Зовнішня стінка серця складається з трьох шарів: епікарду, міокарду та ендокарду.

5. Серце людини є чотирикамерним: дві верхні камери називаються правим та лівим передсердями, дві нижні - правим та лівим шлуночками.

6. Передсердя сполучається з відповідним шлуночком за допомогою отвору, в якому знаходиться клапан.

7. Серцевий цикл складається с періоду скорочення і періоду послаблення серцевого м’язу.

8. Кровоносні судини являють собою порожнисті трубки, які несуть кров через тканини.

9. Людське серце скорочується від першого моменту життя до останнього.


Exercise 17. Arrange the sentences in the correct order to explain the term “heart”:

1. It is located on the diaphragm between the lower borders of the lungs, occupying the middle of the mediastinum.

2. The human heart provides the blood circulation through the cardiac cycle and is one of the most vital organs in the human body

3. The organ is about 12 cm long, 8 cm wide at its broadest part, and 6 cm thick, and weights from 230 to 340 g.

4. The heart is the muscular pump in the centre of the chest that beats continuously and rhythmically to send blood to the lungs and the rest of the body.

5. A thick central muscular wall, the septum, divides the heart cavity into right and left halves; each half consists of an upper chamber, called an atrium, and a larger lower chamber, called a ventricle.


Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

I. Перекладіть словосполучення: м’язовий насос внутрішня оболонкa серця складатися з передсердь та шлуночків качати кров через вени та судини внутрішня та зовнішня оболонки серця верхня та нижня камери частота серцебиття; серцевий цикл II. Дайте відповіді на запитання: What is the cardiovascular system? What is the pulmonary circulation? What is the systemic circulation? What is the heart? Where is heart located? What is the heart enclosed in? What does septum serve for? What does each half of the heart consist of? What are the valves of the heart? What is the function of the right atrium? What is the function of the left atrium? How many beats per min does the heart make? What is a cardiac cycle? What is systole? What is diastole? What is an artery/a vein/a capillary?   III. Розкрийте поняття: Серцево-судинна система Серце Передсердя Шлуночок Серцевий цикл Систола Діастола Артерія Вена Капиляр


Blood. Blood Groups.

Exercise 1. Learn the new words:

accumulate, v [ə’kju:mjuleit] накопичувати
agglutinate, v [ə’glu:tineit] склеюватися
amino acid, n [ə'minəu 'æsid] амінокислота
aqueous, adj ['eikwiəs] водний
clump, v [‘klΛmp] утворювати тромби
crack, v [‘kr æk] зруйнуватися, тріснути
compatible (with), adj [kəm’pætibl] сумісний (з)
consequences, n [kən’si:kwənsiz] наслідки
determine, v [di’tε:min] визначити
erythrocyte, n [i’riθrəusait] еритроцит
fatal, adj [‘feitl] фатальний
inherit, v [in’herit] успадкувати
lactic acid, n ['læktik 'æsid] молочна кислота
leukocyte, n ['lju:kəusait] лейкоцит
obstruct, v [əbs’trΛkt] закупорювати
platelet, n ['pleitlit] кров'яна пластина, тромбоцит
recipient, n [ri’si:piənt] одержувач
rhesus, n [ri:zəs] резус-фактор
reproduce, v [‘riprə'dju:s] відтворюватися
solution, n [sə'luς(ə)n] розчин
thrombocyte, n ['θrombə(u)sait] тромбоцит
transfuse, v [trəns’fju:z] переливати
urea, n [juə'ri:ə] сечовина
vice versa, adv [‘vaisə ‘vε:sə] навпаки

Exercise 2. Read the following paying attention to the rules of reading. Give examples of your own:

th [θ] – thalamus, therapy, thermal, thyroid, thumb, erythrocyte


[ð] – they, this, that, then, them


sh [ʃ] – flesh, shelf life, shoulder, rash, shape


i + gh [ai] – night, right, high, sight, light


a + ss, st, sk, ff, ft [a:] – glass, mask, last, staff, after, class, cast


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