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IV. Define the Infinitive construction and translate the sentences into Ukrainian
1. We assume liquid to occupy a certain amount of space. 2. A certain amount of space is assumed to be occupied by liquid. 3. Thousands of workers are believed to have worked at the Dniprovsk hydropowerdevelopment. 4, This phenomenon appeared to be connected with the theory of relativity. 5. Our age proved to be the age of atom and space. 6. The electron is said to have a smaller mass and a smaller dimension than the molecule of a gas.
Тема: « The automatic control systems». Введення лексики. Читання та переклад тексту.
Task 1. Read and memorize the following words and word-combinations:
To involve охоплювати
To embrace a great variety охоплювати велику кількість різноманітностей
Co-ordinate приводити у відповідність
Overall повний , загальний
Toward щодо, стосовно, до
enterprise підприємство, завод
to perfect вдосконалювати, завершувати
essential істотний, необхідний
to better поліпшувати, удосконалювати
three-dimentional recognition тривимірна пізнавальна система
Task 2. Read and translate the text:
THE AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM
Automatic control now appears in many fields and involves many control instruments and apparatus. Their usage embraces a great variety of machines, plants and processes.
Automatic systems take several forms and are based on several different techniques, but in each the measurement and correction of errors are performed and co-ordinated by electronic devices and the human operator does not take an active part in It,
First of all automatic control was widely established in such industries as chemical, petroleum, iron and steel, cement, paper, textile, printing, food arid others. The overall trend now is toward a total automatic control in industry with the help of new generations of electronic devices with their rapidity, accurateness, reliability, flexibility and compactness.
Our country has many thousands of comprehensively mechanized and automated enterprises and workshops. The mechanized and automated production lines replace or lighten the work of a tremendous number of workers. All the hydropower plants in the country have been completely automated.
The present day stage of automation is based on the revolution in computer technology, in computerization of the whole national economy.
But still much research work is to be done to perfect the system, it is essential to improve the quality of automation equipment as well as the programmers of the computers. A major problem is to better automate inspection, quality control, information system. For automatic three-dimensional recognition the system ( size, shape and color) the problem still remains of greatest concern. With the increase of automation the scientist must solve the problem of complex interaction groups of sensors tied together by a single system of computer network. The development of new flexible technologies arid sociological problems involves need, of course, a new approach too,
Grammar and Lexical Exercises
/. Answer the following questions on the text:
1. What different techniques are automatic systems based on?
2. In what industries was automatic control widely established?
3. What are characteristics of new generations of electronic devices?
4. How do the mechanized production lines lighten the work of workers?
5. What is the present day stage of automation?
6. Why is much research work to be done to perfect the system?
7. How must the scientist solve the problem of complex interaction groups of
8. Does the development of new flexible technologies and sociological problem
//. Put the words in brackets in the correct tense form, state the type of Predicates and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
1. Automatic control just (appear) in many fields.
2. Automatic systems (take) several forms some years ago.
3. Human operator (take an active part) in it tomorrow.
4. Electronic devices (perform) the measurement and correction of errors now.
5. Engineers (establish) automatic control in this enterprise by the end of the week,
6. All the hydropower plants completely (automate) several years ago.
///. Translate into Ukrainian and state the part of speech of the following words:
Automate-automated-automatic-automation; technical-technician-technics-technique-technologist-technology; measure-measured-measureless-measurer-measurement-rneasuring; compute-computer-computerization-computerize-computing; accurate-accurately-accurateness; appear-appearance; use-usage-usable-used-useful-useless; correct-correction-corrective-correctly-corrector.
IV. Define the grammar forms of the following verbs:
Appears, are based, embraces, does not take, was established; have been automated; is to be done; are performed; inspects; can be used; is called; should be made; have been advanced; are being discovered; was measuring; had measured; produced; will be provided: was used; have revealed; will have conducted; did not employ.
V. Arrange the following words in pairs according to the similar meaning.
Perform, to make greater, lighten, worry, establish, check, plant, concern, usage, better, enterprise, contain, inspection, improve, mistake, involve, to make easier, application, do, take part, increase, create, error, participate.
VI. Render from English into Ukrainian
The word automation is short for automatization. Before the word was in common usage and embraced many fields of life from automatic dishwashers to missiles. The inclusion of so many fields under one word resulted from their many common characteristics.
Automation is not new. Primitive automatic machines appeared in early civilizations. But progress was slow. Man did not employ automation for useful \vork for centuries.
The chronological development of automation: first appeared devices to do work: second-devices and machines with controlling functions; third- electronic computing devices. This sequence paralleled the growth complexity of automation systems.
VII. Translate the following word combinations with the Participle I into
a) the student attending all the lectures; the plan containing many details; the
b) using new methods; constructing new machines; achieving good results;
VI1I. Form the words according to the models and translate.
Possible-; deep-; full-; safe-; easy-; simple-; close-; concentual
To access-; to move-; to treat-; to attain-; to establish-; to align-; to replace-; to punish-.
IX. Topic for Discussion. Prove that automatic control systems play an important part in the development of industries.
Тема: Введения лексики до теми «Атом та йоге ядро». Дієприкметникові
/. Arrange the following words according to:
a) international words
b) "pseudofriends" of translator
programme, planet, plan, instrument, radiation, theory, interesting, problem, type, satellite, orbit, expert, base, observations, astronomer, distance, revolution, minute, circular, radius, equator, kilometers, unique, solar system, period, origin, asteroid, position, deviation, sensational, atmospheric, resistance, progressive, confidently, agony.
//. Translate the following word-combinations:
Chemical elements, extremely small, ordinary simple terms, scientific measurements, complicated structure, constituent particles, total volume, solar system, negative charge, positive electrical charge, chemical nature, elementary-particles.
///. Read and remember following new words and word-combinations.
To be familiar with бути знайомим
To put another way висловити іншими словами
Recognizable якого можно упізнати
Unaccustomed. незвичний до
Carry носити, містити
Compared with порівняно з
To determine визначати
Equal рівний, однаковий
Principal головний, основний
Except крім, за винятком
Solid тверде тіло
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