Outstanding scientists and their work

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Outstanding scientists and their work

1. Read aloud and memorize the following words:

millenium [mi'leniəm] — тисячоліття; survival [sə:'vaivəl] — виживання; antiquity [æn'tikwiti] — старовина, ан­тичність; neighbourhood ['neibəhud] — сусідство; en­vironment [in'vaiərənmənt] —оточення, середовище; sur­round [sə'raund] — оточувати, обступати; ancient ['einsnt] – давній, античний;


acquire [ə'kwaiə] — набувати, оволодіва­ти; leisure ['lеЗə] — дозвілля; executive [ig'zekjutiv] — виконавчий; mosquito [məs'ki:tou] — москіт, комар; fre­quency ['fri:kwənsi] — частота; require [ri'kwaiə] — по­требувати, вимагати; severe [si'viə] — суворий; depletion [di'pli:sən] — виснаження.


2. Words and expressions for the text comprehension:

to be on the eve (of) — бути напередодні; existence — існування; long uphill struggle — тривала тяжка боротьба; severe environment — суворе оточення; to domesticate ani­mals — одомашнювати тварин; to record and pass on (one's) knowledge — записувати і передавати знання; to dissemi­nate knowledge — поширювати знання; prehistoric times — доісторичні часи; did not begin until ... —не почався аж поки ...; to be in full flourish — бути в повному розквіті; means of communication — засоби зв'язку; let alone (cont­rol) — не кажучи про (контроль); versatility — багато­бічність, різноманіття; on one's way to — на шляху до; for the very survival—для самого виживання (життя); deple­tion — виснаження, спустошення.



Part 1


The present civilization is on the eve of the third milleni-um of our era. According to some scientists, man has lived on the Harth for over 2,000,000 years. The development1 of human life has been very rapid if we consider man's exist­ence as one long uphill struggle for survival in the severe environment.

One of the greatest philosophers of antiquity Lucretius Carus2, in his poem On the Nature of Things, described how human life changed: man learned to use fire, skins and dwellings and established the laws of marriage and good neighbour! iness.

It took man some 20 thousand years to learn how to use the energy of fire and how to use clay for making pots, to do­mesticate animals and to be able to make the simple clothes for himself. It was some 10 thousand years ago that writing -was invented, and it became possible for people to record and pass on their knowledge about the environment from . generation to generation. It was practically not long ago (in 1454—55)) that the printing press was invented, and so books were used to disseminate knowledge.

A scientific explanation of the world surrounding man began in prehistoric times, probably in Egypt3 s and Baby­lonia4, more than 2,000 years В. С.5. But true progress in science did not begin until the sixth century В. С, when еhe Greek civilization was m full flourish: Any school student an name many contributions made to the development of science and technics in the period from the ancient Greeks to the Renaissance6. The scholars of ancient Greece and Rome say in their records that by the time they came on the scene humanity had gone a long way and had acquired many skills and a great deal of knowledge. From its first steps, the development of science and technology have influenced the growth of our civilization more and more.



**I. State the tense and type of Predicates and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. When the engineer was measuring the temperature he used the ultrasonic technique. When measuring the temperature the engineer used the ultrasonic technique. 2. The temperature the engineer was measuring was of great value for our tests. The temperature was being measured great importance for our tests. 3. When the temperature was being measured it Proved extremely low. Being measured the temperature proved extremely low. 4. When the student had measured the temperature he wrote it down in the table.

**II. Put the Verbs in the brackets in the required forms of the Tense and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. For many years scientists (to study) the nucleus before they found that it is possible to split it. 2. By the first of January our plant (to use) atomic energy for running different machines for eight months. 3. Many power stations (to use) atomic energy for a long time before I knew it. 4. All this period scientists and engineers (to develop) rocket technology and electronics in close cooperation. 5. We widely (to use) electronic devices in industry for many years. 6. We know that our astronomers (to observe) the moon for a long time. 7. My friend (to make) these experiments to compare the weigh of elements since the first of September, 8. The question about the new experiment on this subject (to discuss) for some time before we came to a definite conclusion.

**Task I. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the Verbs in the Passive Voice.

1. Heat is radiated by the sun to the earth, but the land, the sea, and the air are affected differently by this radiation. 2. The positive particle in the nucleus was given the name of the "proton". 3. We were shown a number of experiments illustrating the presence of high-energy particles in the cosmic radiation. 4. The scientists of the world are confronted with the problem of interplanetary flights. 5. The modern scientific forecasts of weather can be fully relied upon. 6. Light may be thought of as some factor that is capable of affecting the eye. 7. The neutron is completely unaffected by a magnetic field. 8. The theory which K. Tsiolkovsky arrived at was based on experimen­tal work. 9. We live at the bottom of an ocean of air, and our lives are constantly influenced by the change and movement of this gas.

**Task II. Translate the following sentences with the Predicates in the Passive Voice.

1. I invite the students to the conference, I am invited to the conference. 2. He invited the students to the conference. He was invited to the conference. 3. The researcher carries out the experiment at high temperatures. This experiment is carried out at high temperatures. 4. Scientists use crystals in
electronic devices. Crystals are also used in quantum generators. 5. The
scientists developed several types of lasers. The first lasers were developed
in 1960.6.1 shall inform you about this new discovery. We shall be informed
about this discovery. 7. Solar batteries will generate electricity. Electricity
will be generated from solar energy.

**Task III. Put the verbs in brackets in the required forms of the Tense and Voice and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. The fact that atom has a nucleus in its center, which is positively charged, (to discuss) by Ernest Rutherford in 1911.2. This problem (to solve) in the near future, 3. The phenomenon of radioactivity (to use) widely in industry, medicine and agriculture, 4. He found that this effect (to cause) by some unknown subatomic particles. 5. The weights of these particles (to calculate) with the help of electronic computer. 6. U-238 (to convert) into plutonium and then (to use) to generate atomic power. 7. These substances (to refer to) usually as hydrogen isotopes. 8. One of the isotopes of hydrogen (to call) deuterium. 9. He (to puzzle) by these unexpected results. 10. It (to show) that these substances differed greatly in their chemical properties. 11. It (to expect) that the results of our research (to apply) in chemical industry.

** 1. Change the following sentences from Active into Passive Voice

1. My brother carries out many interesting experiments in our lab. 2. The engineer often gives the workers instructions. 3. The teacher often shows the students new devices, 4. In the assemble shop the workers assemble parts and fit them on the body of the machine. 5. My friend sends me two reference books a year. 6. In the engineering shop engineers repair engines. 7, The postman brings us newspapers and letters in the morning.

**2. Use the Present Indefinite Passive. Mind the place of the Preposition in the sentences. Translate the sentences:

1. We always look through the results of your experiments with great interest. 2. Students speak much of the new device which is used for measuring pressure. 3, They often refer to the facts given by you. 4. Many students attend your lectures. 5. He always looks through my reports. 6. The discussion usually follows the experiments. 7. We look upon crude oil as one of the most useful products. 8. What do we obtain petrol and paraffin from?

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