The abbreviations. The use of Conjunction. Multifunctional words Perfect tenses.

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The abbreviations. The use of Conjunction. Multifunctional words Perfect tenses.

Computers in our Life.

*Task 1.The most frequent used abbreviation .

I. ABC- American Broadcasting Company NATO-North Atlantic Treaty Organization

A.C.-after Christ V.I.P. very important person

a. f.-as follows UNESCO-United Nations Educational

A.D.- Anno Domini (lat.) Scientific and Cultural Organization

a.m.-ante meridiem v.v.-vice verse

Aus.- Australia NASA-National Aeronautics and Space

B.E.-Bank of England Administration

Br.-British E-east

FBI-Federal Bureau of Investigation W-west

GA-General Assembly Ltd

BC before Christ Xmas

AA automatic answer mp melting point

PC – personal computer


Chute- parachute


*Task Define the full name of the following abbreviations and translate

Them into Ukrainian.

Maser, d.c, Laser, yd., in., Radar, ft., hr., WC, NATO, UA, USA, UNICEF.

*Task Find the accordance to the following abbreviations and
translate into Ukrainian.

1. etc.; 2. Ltd.; 3. PS; 4. Vs; 5. WC; 6. IM.S.E and W; 7. RIP; 8. Tel.

a) before a phone number; b) on a toilet door; c) at the foot of the letter; d) on a gravestone; e) after a name of a company: f) on a compass; g) at the end of an unfinished list; h) between the names of opponents or


*Task Give the full name of the following abbreviations:
RAM, ROM, max, °C, °F, LB, P, log, hr.


Переклад науково-технічної літератури залежить від правильного розуміння лексико-граматичних одиниць типу

in addition to — крім того, на додаток до.

Особливість їх полягає в тому, що вони є частиною ре­чення і впливають на граматичні зв'язки. Це — сполучники і прийменники.

Лексико-граматичні одиниці можна умовно поділити на такі смислові групи:

1) сполучення і логічна послідовність ідей (and, also, apart from, besides, furthermore, in addition to, moreover, simultaneously, thus, too);

2) парафраз і накладання (as if, in the same way, in like manner, like, similarly);

3) причинність (accordingly, as, because, consequently, hence, once, since, therefore, as long as, owing to);

4) контраст і зіставлення (alternatively, although, but, if, however, nevertheless, otherwise, in spite of, on the other hand);

5) обмеження (except, impossible, occasionally, only, unless, if, when);

6) припущення (conclude, confirm, consider, reduce, imagine, suppose, in principle, it follows);

7) питання (how big?, how long?, what?, when?)


The conjunction

1.and, but, if, that

as well, so that, in order that

not only…but also, whether…or


atfirst, first of all, in the beginning, to begin with in addition

second, secondly moreover, furthermore

next, further, then besides, likewise, similarly

finally, lastly, at last

however, still, yet, nevertheless

on the contrary, in (by) contrast, conversely, alternately

otherwise, rather

on the one hand, on the other hand


Multifunctional words:

“It” a) personal pronoun: I started translating it at once

b) formal subject: It is well known that supply and demand are the basic concepts of economy.

c) formal object: Computers made it possible to receive all information we want.


One day, one should know, that one

“That”: that situation, they know that…, metal that melts at…

“For” : …for it seems to be interesting, for 3 minutes, for small engines, for…to

“But” : not a compound but a mixture; He is but a child .Nobody but you;

“After” : after some minutes, after they carried experiment; He invented the engine that a lot of people

used after.

“Before”: Think before talk. Before and after the transformation; Nobody used it before.

“Since” : since the electric circuit was broken; since they met…, since last year

“As” : as the most convenient one, as he wanted…


  Active Passive
Present have(has)+Ved (III) He has solved the problem. have(has) been + Ved (III) The problem has been solved.
Past had+Ved (III) He had solved the problem before we came. had been + Ved (III) He said that the problem had been solved.
Future will have Ved (III) He will have solved the problem by tomorrow. will have been + Ved (III) The problem will have been solved by tomorrow

The use of Perfect Tenses

**Task V. Define the verb tenses and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1.The first computers appeared some 60 years ago. 2.A number of complicated tasks have been solved with the help of computers. 3. The principle of work of this wonderful machine lies in counting electric impulses. 4.He has developed a new theory in Physics. 5. He announced that he had developed a new theory in Physics. 5. They will have used new equipment by the end of the year. 6. The new appliances have been already assembled in our laboratory. 7. The workers were glad as the new appliances had been assembled in their lab. 8.The new appliances will have been assembled by December.9. This branch of science is quickly developing now. 10. They informed that some space systems are being guided successfully..


*Task VI. Find the matches. Use the word-combinations to make up questions.

1. Наука і техніка a) addition and subtraction

2. зовсім нова галузь науки b) digital form

3. можна вирішити c) the volume of calculations

4. виняткова важливість d) to yield results

5. об’єм обчислень e) science and technology

6. виконувати складні завдання d) a completely new branch of science

8. обчислення електричних імпульсів e) multiplication and division

9. додавання, віднімання f) computing equipment

10. множення, ділення g) exceptional possibility

11. обчислювальне обладнання h) a network of centres

12. цифрова форма i) can be solved

13. давати результати j) to carry out complex tasks

14. мережа центрів k) the calculation of electric impulses

*Task III. Make up sentences:

    Computer         was     a machine which performs sequence of operations. a universal information processing machine. the most amazing achievement, is now widely used in many fields. a million times faster than humans. used in chemical plants, power stations. a data storage system created by man. built in 1939 by H. H. Aiken. constructed by the Ukrainian Academician S. O. Lebedev in 1950.


*Task IV. Fill in the blanks with the necessary words:

1. The store ... a numerical quantities and data which are to be processed, (contains, concludes, consists of) 2. The arithmetic unit normally ... the operation of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division and certain other special operations, (performs, carries out, carry) 3. The input and output devices are to supply information and to ... it from the computer, (obtain, receive, get) 4. Computers are a million times ... than humans in performing computing operation, (faster, quicker, rapid) 5. The number of electronic computers used in any given field of human activity is sometimes believed to ... the degree of its modernity, (indicate, show, testify)


Health and safety

Computer ergonomics

There are a number of health and safety problems that may result from continuous use of


§ Typing constantly at high speed may provoke repetitive strain injury or RSI, which causes pain in the neck, arms, wrists, hands and fingers.

§ Bad work postures and sitting in uncomfortable chairs may cause backache and stress.

§ Looking at the screen for long periods of time, and lights reflecting off the screen, can cause headaches and eye strain, pain and fatigue of the eyes.

§ Cathode Ray Tube monitors can emit electromagnetic radiation which can be dangerous to health.

The study of how people interact safely and efficiently with machines and their work conditions is called ergonomics. In computing, ergonomics is about designing computer facilities so they are safe and comfortable. Here are a few tips.



  1. Get an adjustable chair so you can change its height and angle.
  2. Make sure your feet rest firmly on the ground or on a foot rest.
  3. Ensure you have enough leg room under the desk.
  4. Put the monitor at eye level or just below.
  5. Sit at arms' length from the monitor (40-80 cm). Don't sit near the sides or back of CRT monitors; or use LCD screens, which are free from radiation.
  6. Use a document holder, in line with the screen, to reduce awkward neck and eye movements between the document and the screen.
  7. Position the keyboard at the same height as your elbows, with your arms parallel to the work surface. Try to keep your wrists straight and flat when typing.
  8. Take regular breaks from the computer and look away from the screen at regular intervals.

Electronic rubbish

Irresponsible disposal of electronic waste, from old computers and mobile phones to hi-fi and video systems, can cause severe environmental and public health problems. For example, children or workers who come into contact with the toxic components of electronic products may suffer from skin and breathing problems.


  • We should recycle or treat ICT equipment (e.g. plastics from mobiles could be used to make pens and rulers).
  • Manufacturers should pay to finance recycling programs.


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