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The Founder of the Microsoft
It's hard to believe that the first personal computer, the prototype of the computer now found in homes and offices around the world, was developed less than twenty years ago. The original PC, as it's known, came in a form of an electronic kit, a piece of hardware strictly for the hobbyist. The software for that machine — the language that allows us to tell the computer what we want it to do — was developed by William Gates.
Bill was born in 1955 in Seattle. He became interested in computers when he was 13 years old. Bill attended Harvard University. There he began to develop the computer language called Basic. Later William returned to Seattle where he established the Microsoft Company in 1975. It employed only three workers at first. Microsoft developed software for established American companies like General Electric, City Bank and International Business Machines company, known as IBM. In 1981 IBM began selling a personal computer that used Microsoft products as part of its operating system. By then Microsoft had 129 workers. Today four out of five of the world's personal computers run on Microsoft software, on what is called Microsoft DOS or on its latest incarnation — Windows. Windows system makes it much easier to use a computer. It's through the Windows system that we may gain access to the Internet, the global computer network.
Microsoft does thousands of millions of dollars in business each year. It now has more than 16 thousand workers in 48 countries. Microsoft produces computer programs in 30 languages and sells them in more than 100 countries. Thanks to the success of his company, William Gates has earned a personal fortune estimated to be in excess of 7 billion dollars. He is one of the richest men in the world.
**Task X. Give the English equivalents to the following:
Світова комп’ютерна мережа, частина операційної мережі, отримувати доступ до Інтернету, заробляти мільйони доларів, електронний набір, останнє оновлення, працювати на програмному забезпеченні від Мікрософт, зразок апаратури тільки для хобі, працевлаштувати тільки 3 робітника, заснувати компанію, використовувати як частину операційної системи, заробити власний статок, оцінювати в мільярди доларів
**Task XI. Answer the questions to the text:
When was the first personal computer developed?
What form did the first PC come from?
Who was the software for that machine developed by?
What computer language did Gates used to develop when he studied at school?
When was the Microsoft company founded?
What companies did Microsoft develop software for?
What is the latest incarnation of Microsoft software?
What do you know about windows?
**Task Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense form, state the type of Predicates and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
1. The speaker just (to mention) the role of genetics in the development of medical sciences. 2. In 2000 people (to mark) the 275th anniversary of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 3. Science (to become) the productive force of the society. 4. They (to obtain) these results last year. 5. We (to do) this research since 2000. 6. The Institute of Geophysics (to carry out) the research into the structure of these planets. 7. They always (to try) to use the most efficient methods of research.
**Put the verbs in brackets in the required forms of the Tense and Voice and translate into Ukrainian.
1. The theory of the biosphere (to work out) in the first half of the XX century. 2. The biosphere (to interpret) as the global envelope produced on the Earth with the development of life. 3. The set pattern of the biosphere (to unbalance) by man's activity now. 4. The established mechanisms of the biosphere (to disrupt) by huge volumes of synthetic compounds. 5. World science (to face) with the task of protecting the biosphere from pollutants. 6. The first theory of the biosphere (to address) to the scientists.
**Put the Verbs in the brackets in the required tense form and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
1. Last month we (to place) a trial order with Brown and Co. with whom we (not to do) business before. 2. In June we (to be going) to make a transaction with Bell and Co. We (not to have) any business relations with them before. 3. "Why you(can. not to go) to the theatre with me now?" Well, you see, I (not finish) my work yet." 4. "Why you (not to go) to the manufacturing plant yesterday afternoon?" "I (can, not to go) there because we (not to complete) the talks by that time.
**Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian paying attention
He has translated the article. He had translated the article before you spoke to me. He will have translated the article by the time you come. 2. The explorers have conducted a large-scale study of the North Pole. The explorers had conducted a large-scale study of the Arctic by the end of the autumn. The explorers will have conducted a large-scale study of the Arctic before the winter comes. 3. The scientists have studied plasma since the late 1920s. Will the scientists have studied plasma by the end of the century? The scientists had not studied this problem before first plasma was produced.
The Advantages and Disadvantages of Computers. The Use of Tenses
*Task I Group the word-combinations according to the point of: a) advantages of computers
b) disadvantages of computers. Make up sentences.
Revolution in science, to reduce people’s communication, great volume calculation, high speed, to cause eye diseases, to get all information, games and net dependence, space exploration, to limit physical activities, to reduce mental activities, to enhance progress
*Task II Translate the word combinations into Ukrainian:
1 electric impulses 7 errors correction
2 computing equipment 8 computer memory
3 computer application 9 the reason of
4 automatic piloting 10 analog computer
5 high-speed computations 11 to yield data
6 word processing 12 storage device
**Task III Give the equivalents of the following word combinations:
Галузь науки автоматичний контроль
Можна вирішити вимагати
Виняткова можливість об’єм обчислень
Цифровий складні проблеми
Обчислення електроімпульсів послідовність імпульсів
Додавання та віднімання множення та ділення
Давати результати космічні механізми
Надавати підтримку високошвидкісні обчислення
**Task Read the text about computers.
HORRIFUING COMPUTER MISTAKES THAT CAUSE TROUBLES
The modern computer can do many of kinds of jobs. These include tasks in the commercial, scientific, industrial, communication, statistical, logical, and translation areas. There are two kinds of computers, scientific and commercial, which can do these tasks.
The scientific computer most efficiently attacks problems in which calculations predominate.
The commercial computer is most effective in doing the routine clerical problems of the business and commercial world. Both types will come under our scrutiny.
There were two interesting news items in the paper some time ago. One was about a man who received a bill from the telephone company for 999.999.00 dollars - for three months!
The other was about a man who received 2.000 dollars a month — for doing nothing.
The connection between the two news items is simple: computers — the worst invention of the twentieth century. The telephone bill came from a computer which made a horrifying mistake: the man's real bill was only 21.36 dollars. The other item was not so amusing. A man walked into the unguarded computer room of large packaged food company and expertly programmed the computer to pay him 2.000 dollars a month for raw meat which he "supplied" to the company. Of course he never delivered the meat, but he certainly received the money. The computer wrote out a cheque, and, even "signed" it. It was only a random check that uncovered the trick. It could be happening in thousands of other companies all over the world.
Computers are not the miracle-workers that some people say they are. They make mistakes, they're often slower than humans, and they're easily fooled. The US army used to conscript people with the help of a computer. The army sent out a card, which had to be filled in and sent back. It was easy to avoid being called up. Simply by spreading candle-wax on the card. The computer couldn't read the card, and did nothing with it.
**I. Answer the following questions:
1. In what areas can computers do many jobs?
2. What are the two main types of computers?
3. What problems do the scientific computers attack?
4. What are spheres the commercial computer most effective in?
5. Why must both computers come under our scrutiny?
6. What do you think of the computer tricks described in the text?
7. Can you give examples of mistakes made by computers?
8. Do you know the cases when computers were fooled by the people?
9. Do you agree that computers are the worst invention of the twentieth century? Give your reasons.
***II. Read the text and define its main idea. Try to define its structure (the main idea, arguments and collusions).
**III. Fill in the gaps with the correct linking words from the list below
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