ТОП 10:

Man and Machines. Automatic Control Systems. Infinitive and Infinitive Constructions.



Урок 1-2

 

Task I. Read and learn the following words and expressions:


Instantly

Remote

Up – to – date

Lighten

Mine

Entirely

Replace

Remote control device

Reveal

Sea bed

Appear

To be in progress

Employ

Seek

Abundance

By means of

 

зразу, негайно

віддалений, дистанційний

сучасний

полегшувати

рудник, шахта

цілком, повністю

заміняти, заміщати

пристрій дистанційного контролю

розкривати

дно

з`являтися

розвиватися

вживати, використовувати

шукати

достаток, безліч

за допомогою


Task II. Translate the following phrases from the text:

At twice the speed of sound; highly productive machines; research work; stellar worlds; to employ one's brains; general abundance; universal peace; electric engines; supersonic planes; the development of science and engineering.

Task III. Write words of similar meanings to the following words:

Remote, faster, to enjoy, up-to-date, to produce, device, globe, employ, seek, abundance.

Task IV. Read and translate the text:

MAN AND MACHINES

 

Press a button on the wall rind a dark room is full of light. Speak into a little instrument and people thousands of miles away will hear you instantly. Switch on your radio or TV set and you will hear music, the latest news or see a play even from remote regions of the globe.

Nowadays people move on land much faster than the speediest horses. Powerful motors drive cars, diesel and electric engines run trains from one country to another.

Under water sportsmen swim swifter than the speediest fish. In air people fly hundred times faster than birds. Supersonic planes fly at twice the speed of sound.

People enjoy these achievements thanks to the development of science and engineering.

We live in the age of machinery i.e. (that is) in the time when highly productive machines and up-to-date devices take the place of men for doing work. In industry and agriculture machines play the most important role. They lighten man's labour and do all the hard work in mills, factories, mines and farms. In a number of shops in up-to-date mills and plants automatic machines entirely replace the work of men.

In mining industry conveyors and remote control devices make miner's labour safer and easier. They help to produce more ores, coal, oil and gas.

In fields tractors and harvester combines replace labour of hundreds of people and help farmers to gather rich crops.

Machines help not only factory workers and farmers in their productive labour. They do part of scientists' and. explorers' research work as well. They enable scientists to reveal the secrets of the universe i.e. everything that exists on our globe as well as in the outer space. Satellites circle the earth, spaceships explore the outer space. Lunokhods carry out research programs on the Moon.

Underwater robots explore the sea bed at a depth of more than 4,000 metres. By means of remote control devices they change toots and lift weights.

Electronic instruments- radars, lasers and masers represent the latest developments of research equipment. They are of great help in all forms of scientific work.

Great and rapid changes take place in science and engineering. New branches of science appear : atomic physics, cybernetics, radio-astronomy. Big experimental research programs are in progress in all countries. Mankind is or. the eve of space flights to remote stellar worlds.

With the development of science and engineering, with the advancement of progressive ideas a new man will appear- a man who will use his hands less and less, but employ his brains more and more.

At this stage of development mankind will seek new ways that lead to better life, to general abundance. All people of the globe will win freedom and independence. The triumph of Reason and Progress will bring happiness and universal peace to the human race.

 

Task V. Answer the following questions:

1. How do people move nowadays?

2. What age do we live in?

3. How do people enjoy the achievements?

4. Do machines play the most important role in industry and agriculture?

5. What is the role of machines in mining industry?

6. Do machines help only factory workers?

7. What represents the latest development of research equipment?

8. What new branches of science appear nowadays?

9. What kind of mar: will appear with the development of science and engineering?

10. What will bring happiness and universal peace to the human race?

 

 

Task VI. Match words in the text with their definition;

1. achievement A. the activity of applying scientific know-

ledge to the design, building of machines bridges

2. machinery B. to make something known to somebody

3. replace C. a thing that somebody has done success-

fully, using their own effort and skill.

4. to reveal D. to be used instead of something, to do

something instead of something else.

5. explore E. machines as a group especially large one

6. engineering F. to travel around a country in order to l

about it.

 

Task VII. Continue the following sentences:

1. Machines do all the hard work in factories, mines and lighten man's... .

2. Machines enable scientists to … .

3. Great and rapid … take place in science and engineering.

4. Mankind is on the eve of …

5. With the advancement of progressive ideas a new man… .

6. Nowadays people move on land much faster than… .

7. People enjoy these achievements thanks to… .

8. In the shops of up-to-date mills automatic machines entirely… .

Forms of Infinitive

Форми інфінітиву

Форма Active Passive
Indefinite to help I am glad to help him. Я радий допомогти йому. to be helped I am glad to be helped. Я радий, що мені допомагають.
Continuous to be helping I am glad to be helping him. Я радий, що допомагають йому зараз.  
Perfect to have helped I am glad to have helped him. Я радий, що допоміг йому. to have been helped I am glad to have been helped. Я радий, що мені допогли.
Perfect Continuous to have been helping I am glad to have been helping him during the year. Я радий, що допомагав йому на протязі року.  

Примітка: Форми інфінітиву Indefinite та Continuous (Active, Passive) виражають дію одночасно з дією, вираженою дієсловом-присудком.

I like to play the piano.

Форми інфінітиву Continuous-

The child seems to be sleeping.

Форми інфінітиву Perfect, Perfect Continuous (Active, Passive) висловлюють дію, яка передує дії, вираженій дієсловом-присудком.

I was glad to have spoken to him.

 

Об'єктний інфінітивний зворот. Складний додаток.

Підмет Присудок Складний додаток Другорядні члени речення
We Ми know знаємо him to study що він вивчає Economics економіку

Об'єктний інфінітивний зворот вживається після дієслів:

І група II група
to assume - вважати to feel - почувати
to believe - гадати to hear - чути (слухати)
to consider - вважати to see - бачити
to expect - чекати to watch - спостерігати
to find - знаходити to observe - спостерігати
to know - знати  
to suppose - припускати,  
гадати  
to think - думати  
to show - показувати  
to state - установлювати  
to prove - доводити  
to desire - хотіти  
to require - вимагати  
to wish - хотіти  

Примітка: після дієслів 2 групи to перед інфінітивом не вживається.

Не saw the dean enter the classroom.

Перекладається підрядним додатковим реченням зі сполучниками щоб, що, як, підмет якого відповідає іменнику в загальному відмінку (або займеннику в об'єктному відмінку), а присудок - інфінітиву цього звороту.

Translate the following sentences paying attention to the objective infinitive constructions:

a) 1. He wanted us to visit his office. 2.We expect you to do business with us. 3. I suppose this firm to be about 25. 4. The board of directors expected the goods to be delivered in time. 5. We know him to have 20% of our stocks. 6. Everybody knows him to be writing business articles. 7. We thought him to have taken part in their experiment.

b) 1. We felt somebody constantly buy our stocks. 2. We heard him phone Mr. Blake and say him about a 10% discount. 3. Have you ever seen Blake & C fail? 4. Nobody noticed her leave the conference room. 5. We like to see our business projects give good results.







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