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Варіанти перекладу модальних дієслів у сполученні з Passive Infinitive та Perfect Infinitive.
Найбільші труднощі виникають при перекладі сполучень модальних слів з Infinitive Passive і Perfect Infinitive.
Сполучення модального дієслова з Passive Infinitive означає, що підмет є об'єктом, на який спрямована дія, виражена інфінітивом. Підмет англійського речення перекладається на рідну мову додатком.
1. The process must be controlled. Процес необхідно контролювати.
2. The total number of ions in the chamber may then grow very quickly and each primary ionization may be followed by several thousand secondary ionizations. Загальна кількість іонів в камері може далі дуже швидко збільшуватися, і за кожною первинною іонізацією може проходити декілька тисяч вторинних іонізацій.
Сполучення модальних дієслів з Perfect Infinitive.
Модальні дієслова must, тау і might у сполученні з Perfect Infinitive виражають можливість чи ймовірність виконання дії в минулому і перекладаються за допомогою слів: можливо було.
1. This instrument may have been improved, because it became more accurate. Цей прилад, можливо, був удосконалений, тому що він став більш точним.
2. We now see that this point must have been the center of mass of the body. Ми тепер бачимо, що ця точка, можливо, була центром маси тіла.
Модальні дієслова сап і could у заперечній формі у сполученні з перфектним інфінітивом виражають сумнів у можливості завершення дії у минулому і перекладаються за допомогою не може бути.
1. Не cannot have shown this scientific work to a man he has known for such a short period of time. He може бути, щоб він показав цю наукову працю людині, яку він знав протягом такого короткого часу.
2. Не cannot have made such a serious mistake. He може бути, щоб він зробив таку серйозну помилку.
Модальні дієслова ought to, should, could, might у сполученні з перфектним інфінітивом вказують на те, що дія, яка могла і повинна була завершитись, не завершилась.
1. You could have done it more carefully. Вам слід було зробити це старанніше.
2. You should have changed the current strength at all points of the circuit. Вам слід було змінити силу струму в усіх точках кола.
**Task I. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the Modal Verbs with the Perfect Infinitive.
1 The earliest life forms ought to have appeared over three billion years ago. 2. Chance mutations may not always have been successful. 3. The tropical zone should have suffered most from the process of erosion. 4. The condensation theory proposes that the Sun could have formed from a large cloud of dust and gas. 5. The decay of radioactive elements ought to have heated the Earth until its internal temperature rose to about 7000 °С. 6. A generation ago it may have been restricted discussion of environmental modifications to fauna, flora and soil. 7. In nature genetic experiments must have been constantly carried out.
**Task II. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the Modal Verbs with Perfect Infinitive.
1. Something must have happened to our TV set; it is out of repair. 2. Absolute accuracy cannot be expected with this kind of instrument; you should take the mean of several observations. 3. You should have tested the device more carefully considering its importance. 4. The pilot should have made use of radar in locating the position of the plane. 5. The operator ought to have known the radio fundamentals better. 6. The scope must have been out of order; that is why the data obtained were not displayed continuously. 7. The operator could have detected the target in time; somebody may have switched off the receiver. 8. The new device must have been broken by accident. 9- The instrument may have been improved, because it became more accurate.
**Task III. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the Infinitive Passive Voice.
1. These substances can be used in agriculture. 2. The properties of this element must be described in detail. 3. These distances can be measured with great accuracy. 4. This phenomenon cannot be observed in nature. 5. This theorem can be easily proved. 6. A large number of experiments had to be made on electrons of the given speed. 7. It is to be assumed that the results obtained will influence greatly the development of this promising branch of physics. 8. Lectures in organic chemistry must be attended by all the students of chemical department. 9. A great number of experiments had to be made to obtain the required data.
**Task IV. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the Modal Verbs with the Infinitive Passive Voice.
A 1. This material may not be used in space technology. 2. It should be noted that these processes cannot be automated. 3. It must not be said that he knows this subject well. 4. It has to be remembered that the machine cannot work at high speeds for a long time. 5. Many new materials had to be developed by the chemists. 6. Space exploration will have to be intensified in the future. 7. This production processes to be further advanced by new technical means.
В 1. Mention should be made that chemical resistance may be dependent on temperature. 2. These processes cannot be directly controlled by man. 3. Proper care must be taken to protect spaceships from solar radiation. 4. This temperature limit must not be exceeded if the original shape is to be maintained. 5. New machinery has to be installed to make this work safe.
Task V. Choose English equivalents of the following Ukrainian words:
Task VII. Translate the following word-combinations:
Remarkable achievement, innumerable discoveries, electric currents, accumulation of electrons, ordinary electrical equipment, wireless communication, measuring devices, electrically operated, broad application, superhard materials, two-electrode detector.
ELECTRICITY AND ELECTRONICS
“Atomic Age” is the name often applied to the period in which we live. It is also frequently referred to as the “Air Age”. These terms emphasize the importance of science and invention in our time. But we can speak of an age that has prepared the way for these and includes them all — the “Age of Electricity and Electronics."
From the remarkable achievements of nuclear science and the noticeable progress in aviation to the innumerable discoveries that have added comfort and convenience to our daily lives, we are constantly dependent upon electricity and electronics.
It is very difficult to separate the meaning of the two words "electricity" and "electronics". The field of electricity is usually thought of as electricity that is used in magnets, generators, motors, lights and heaters.
The field of electronics is usually thought of as electricity that is used in radio, television, and other equipment where electron tubes and transistors are needed.
Basically electronics is not so much a new subject as a new way of looking at electricity. All electrical effects are really electronic because all electric currents result from the movements of electrons, and all electric charges are due to the accumulation of electrons.
Electronics is the science or practice of using electricity in devices similar to radio tubes so as to get results not possible with ordinary electrical equipment.
Although electronics has received greater attention in recent years, we have been using electronic equipment for half of a century. Radio, television, sound pictures, fluorescent lighting and long-distance telephone calls owe their existence to electronics. As most of these familiar equipments serve to carry or give information one may say that communication has been the major purpose of electronics.
Electronics is closely connected with a series of discoveries and inventions which have revolutionized the life of man in this twentieth century. In 1883 Thomas A. Edison discovered current conduction through gas in an incandescent lamp. This phenomenon known as the Edison effect marked the birth of electronic science. The Edison effect was followed by the discoveries of electromagnetic waves, X-rays, wireless communication and at last by the invention of the two-electrode detector or the "valve". These basic discoveries and a lot of others have produced what is known as electronics.
Nothing can be done in modern research laboratory without the aid of electricity and electronics. Nearly all of the measuring devices used in industry and research are electrically operated. Electronics has found broad application in industry as a means of automation, control and inspection, and as a direct means of fulfilling such operations as melting, cutting of super hard materials and welding.
**Task IX. Answer the following questions:
1. What is the name of the period in which we live?
2. Why are we constantly dependent upon electricity and electronics?
3. Is it easy to separate the meaning of the words "electricity" and "electronics"?
4. How long have we been using electronics equipment?
5. What has been the major purpose of electronics?
6. What is electronics closely connected with?
7. What is known as the Edison effect?
8. How are all of the measuring devices operated?
9What application has eletronics found in industry?
**Task X. Be ready to define the Tenses in the text.
*Task I. Supply Modal Verbs or equivalents in the correct forms.
1 We ... to go to the plant with Mr. Brown this Monday, but he hasn't arrived in Kyiv yet. We ... to go to the plant next week. 2. There is no stop near this building, you ... to get off at the next stop. 3. These things are not duty-free. You ... .to pay duty on them. 4. If you don't leave now, you ... not to come to the concert on time. 5. When... the Sellers to deliver the goods? 6. We... to reserve accommodation for Mr. Brown tomorrow. 7. As the Buyer ... not provide shipping facilities the Seller... to deliver the goods on GIF terms.
**Task II. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the Modal Verbs with Perfect Infinitive.
1. Anyone watching the space flights of our astronauts must have been impressed by the information available at ground stations, even without any word from the astronaut; this is possible due to telemetry. 2. You should have bought a new transistorized TV set — it is fully portable as it does not depend on the a. c. line as a source of power. 3. The designer could have introduced some changes in the cathode-ray tube to improve the TV set. 4. The circuit of the TV set must have been improved, that is why the picture is much better. 5. The radio set may have been plugged in the wrong way, therefore there is nothing happening. 6. You must have bought a new radio set, I have not seen it before.
*Task III. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the Modal Verbs.
1. A radio engineer must know the principles of TV and radar equipment operation. 2. Every scientist, every researcher must have some idea of what an electronic computer is. 3. The lab assistant can and must show the students how to carry on the experiments. 4. By means of radio and television extra-mural students may get all the necessary information from the consultation centre of the correspondence institute. 5. You must practice your English. 6. The reporter may be late for 10-15 minutes as he must finish his experiment. 7. May I enter the lab?
**Task I. Change the following sentences from Active into Passive Voice
1. My brother carries out many interesting experiments in our lab. 2. The engineer often gives the workers instructions. 3. The teacher often shows the students new devices, 4. In the assemble shop the workers assemble parts and fit them on the body of the machine. 5. My friend sends me two reference books a year. 6. In the engineering shop engineers repair engines. 7, The postman brings us newspapers and letters in the morning.
**Task II. Use the Present Indefinite Passive. Mind the place of the Preposition in the sentences. Translate the sentences:
1. We always look through the results of your experiments with great interest. 2. Students speak much of the new device which is used for measuring pressure. 3, They often refer to the facts given by you. 4. Many students attend your lectures. 5. He always looks through my reports. 6. The discussion usually follows the experiments. 7. We look upon crude oil as one of the most useful products. 8. What do we obtain petrol and paraffin from?
**Task III. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the Predicate in the Present, Past, Future Perfect Passive Voice
1. Electronics has made a rapid progress. A further progress has been made in microwave systems. 2. When the designer came we had already installed new equipment. New equipment had been installed in our shop when the designer returned to the plant. 3. By the end of this week the students will have conducted all the experiments. By 8 o'clock all the experiments will have been conducted. 4. T he radar has been used for automatic control of automobiles. 5. The majority of valves have already been replaced with tiny transistors. 6. By the middle of the 19th century about 60 elements had been discovered. 7. By he end of the year a large variety of semiconductor devices will have been produced.
*Task IV. Put the Verbs in brackets in the required tense form and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
1. We believed that we (can) get seats a first-class compartment.
2. I knew that Fred usually (to travel) second-class.
3. I hoped if I (to go) by the 10 o'clock train I (not to have to) change.
4.He didn't know that it (to be) to start.
5.We knew that the 2 o'clock train (to start) already and decided to go by the next train.
6. I didn't know that it (to be) a slow train.
7. We hoped that our friend (to be able) to come to the station in time.
8. I thought I (no to be able) to get to the station in 30 minutes and I (to have) to take a taxi.
9. I knew that we (to have) to have a snack at the station as there (to be) no buffet-car on the train.
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