Task VII. Translate into Ukrainian paying attention to the function of the Gerund.

1. Reading English technical magazines is important for an engineer. 2. It is no use speaking to her. 3.1 remember attending his lectures on history. 4. He remembers having added some water to the mixture. 5. They finished installing the apparatus only on Saturday. 6. The stranger man stopped following me. 7. They began making the experiment in May. 8. He began determining the properties of the new material. 9. After failing in the examination in January he had to take it again in February. 10. After graduating from the institute he worked in the Far North. 11. At the meeting they discussed different ways of improving their work. 12. There are different ways of obtaining the substance. 13. The problem of obtaining power was solved. 14. The organizers of the conference were informed of his refusing to take part in. 15. We were informed of new results being obtained at the laboratory. 16.1 remember his having been interested in languages in his childhood.

Task VIII. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the Gerund with the prepositions.

1. The problem of producing synthetic rubber from certain chemical compounds was solved by the Russian chemist A.M. Butlerov. 2. The advantage of using synthetic rubber instead of soft natural material is obvious. 3. This is seen by comparing theoretical and experimental data. 4. The temperature is controlled by regulating steam flow. 5. They discovered a method for transforming soft natural rubber into a hard solid. 6. These problems were solved by applying some recently developed methods of calculation. 7. The probability of obtaining synthetic rubber increased greatly with the discovery of isobutylene.

Task IX. Translate the following word-combinations into Ukrainian.

To stay at home; another drawback of the new device; to adopt a new system of control; to increase the cost; a new feature of this aircraft; particularly bad weather; it was particularly urgent business; to move forward; to walk across the street; to need little space for taking-off.


Урок 6

Тема: Matter. Characteristics of metals. Gerund.


Pre-reading tasks.


Task I. Match English words with their translations:

1. substance A. рідина
2. visible B. основний
3. conservation C. закон
4. fundamental D. згідно, у відповідальності
5. state E. тверде тіло
6. exist F. речовина
7. space G. видимий
8. weight H. стан
9. law I. зберігання
10. according to J. вага
11. liquid K. існувати
12. solid L. простір, місце


Task II. Render from English into Ukrainian.




Matter is physical substance that makes up all things. Everything that occupies space and has weight is matter. Everything around us is matter. The earth itself is matter, water is matter. Air is matter too. But not all matter is visible. Air, for instance, is not visible. Many gases are invisible as well.

The great Russian scientist M.L. Lomonosov discovered the fundamental law of matter, i. e. the law of conservation of matter. According to this law no one create or destroy matter.

Not long time ago scientists considered that matter existed in three forms: solids, liquids and gases. The scientists discovered the fourth state of matter- plasma. Now we know that matter exists in four states- solids, liquids, gases and plasma.


Task III. Define the Predicates in the text.


Task IV. Ask all possible questions on the text.


Task V. Find the Gerunds and state their grammatical functions. Translate the sentences:

1. Learning English riddles and proverbs is useful. 2. Henry likes translating from English into Ukrainian. 3. Henry and Jane think of going to the library today. 4. The buses and motor-cars stop running when the light is red. 5.1 know of his studying at Kyiv Engineering Institute. 6. We use water for drinking. 7. Driving a car is not difficult for a skilful driver. 8. Research work is carried out for the purpose of advancing man's knowledge. 9. Our engineers and scientists are carrying on important work in laboratories fitted up for conducting scientific work.



Task VI. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the Gerund.

1. Timber is used for building purpose. 2. The best season for building is summer. 3. Shut the door before going away. 4. Most people like speaking foreign languages. 5. Speaking foreign languages is of great importance for every cultured man.

Task VII. Translate the following word-combinations paying attention to the function of the Gerunda)1.variousmeans of (developing power, generating energy; solving this problem). 2. a newidea of (applying low temperatures; overcoming friction; replacing old materials). 3. greatinterest in (publishing new articles; modifying old equipment; mastering English). 4. thereason for (obtaining new sources of energy; using electronic computers; launching new space rockets) b)1. to thinkof developing new types of glasses; 2. to object toextracting metals from these ores; 3. to prevent somebodyfrom using glass plastics; 4. to be interestedin getting new data.

Task VIII. Arrange the following words in pairs according to the similar meaning.

To develop, modern, amount, model, to help, due to, negligible, to interpret, to work out, contamination, present day, because, matter, aspect, power, to reach, particularly, insignificant, pattern, by virtue of, volumes, science, since, pollution, substance, energy, to achieve, to assist, to explain, specifically.

Урок 7.

Тема: Characteristics of Metals.

Pre-reading tasks

Task I. Read and learn following new words:

Ability здібність, вміння
Arrange влаштовувати
Blankri вільне місце
Cable Кабель
Common загальний, звичайний
Conductor провідник
Elasticity пружність
Load навантаження
Oblige примушувати
Property властивість
Predict завбачати
Prove доводити
Remove усувати
Stand for означати
State стійкий
Strength міцність  


Task II. Translate the following word-combinations into Ukrainian:

Different characteristics, mechanical properties, various metals, conductor of heat, original shape, to take into consideration, selecting the material, definite system, atomic weight, great importance, orderly table, bold suppositions, similar properties, undiscovered elements.


Task III. Translate into Ukrainian and state the part of speech of the following words:

select-selected-selection; metal-metallic-metallize; vary-variety-various; conduct-conduction-conductivity-conductor; strong-strength-strengthen; deform- deformation-deformed; consider-considerable-considerably-consideration- considered; arrange-arrangement-arranger; definite-define-definitely-definition- indefinite; suppose-supposed-supposition; discover-discovery; predict- predictable- predicted-prediction-predictor; exist-existence-existent.


Task IV. Render from English into Ukrainian and define the Predicates:


Characteristics of Metals


Metals have different characteristic and these characteristics are called properties. Selecting a metal which is to be used in a metal product an engineer must know about various metals and their mechanical properties. There are some characteristics common to all metals. We find, for example, metals are good conductors of electricity and heat, that is why copper and aluminium are widely used for cables. There are some mechanical properties of metals which determine their usefulness in the industries.

They are the following: strength (that is, the ability to carry a load); elasticity ( i.e. the ability to deform under load and return to the original shape when the load is removed) and many others.

The mechanical properties of metals must be taken into consideration when selecting the material a part is made of.


Task V. Answer the following questions:

1. What are called properties of metals?

2. Why are copper and aluminium widely used for cables?

3. Which mechanical properties of metal determine their usefulness in the industries?

4. What is elasticity?

5. Give the definition of strength.

6. Why must the mechanical properties of metals be taken into consideration


Metals are metals. There are about seventy metallic elements. Mendeleyev, the great Russian scientist, was the first chemist who showed the elements arranged according to a definite system. Arranging them according to their atomic weights we find similar elements at certain definite intervals. Mendeleyev's system is called the Periodic Law. The Periodic Law as stated by Mendeleyev is of great

importance for science. It allowed to put into orderly table almost all known chemical elements and enabled Mendeleyev to make several bold suppositions proved later by experiments. In arranging the table the Russian chemist was obliged to leave several blanks in order to put the elements of similar properties in the same group. These blanks stood for undiscovered elements. Mendeleyev predicted not only the existence of these elements but their physical and chemical properties as well. He predicted the properties of what he called eko-aluminium, which when finally discovered was called gallium. Titanium, discovered 40 years after Mendeleyev's death, found its place in the great scientist's periodic table.

Task VI. Translate the following questions into English and answer them:

1. Скільки приблизно існує металевих елементів?

2. Хто першим розмістив хімічні елементи за певною системою?

3. Як Менделєєв розмістив хімічні елементи?

4. Як називається система Менделєєва?

5. Яке значення для науки мав Періодичний Закон?

6. Що означали вільні місця в таблиці?

7. Титан, відкритий через 40 років після смерті Менделєєва, знайшов своє місце в періодичній таблиці, чи не так?

8. Що передбачав великий вчений крім існування невідкритих елементів?


Task VII. Agree or disagree with the following.

1. There are no some characteristics common to all metals.

2. Engineer must know about various metals and their mechanical properties

3. Metals are bad conductors of electricity.

4. There about 50 metallic elements.

5. Mendeleyev arranged elements according to their strength.

6. Mendeleyev predicted physical and chemical properties of undiscovered elements.

  VIII. Choose the words out of the right column to make up word-combinations.
1. periodic A. consideration
2. bold B. a metal
3. similar C. elements
4. selecting D. suppositions
5. good E. system
6. original F. law
7. to remove G. properties
8. to take into H. conductor
9. chemical I. shape
10. definite J. a load

7. Mendeleyev's system is called the Periodic Law.


Task IX. Underline the suffixes and translate the words

Construction, constructional, protection, radiation, harmful, atomic, dangerous, probably, repeatedlt, simply, production, technical, ice-breaker


Task X. Build words using the following models. Translate the words.

Un+adjective un+verb+ed in+adjective pre+adjective dis+verb

1. pleasant 1. to dress 1. correct 1. revolutionary 1. to like

2. necessary 2. to close 2. active 2. historic 2. to cover

3. happy 3. to cover 3. complete 3. fabricated 3. to place




Task XI. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the Gerund.

1. Discovering the atomic structure was of great value for further research in Nuclear physics. 2. We know of the Curies having discovered some new radioactive elements. 3. The experiments resulted in discovering the process of fission of atoms. 4. The scientists spoke about the necessity of discovering new inexhaustible sources of energy for space vehicles. 5. After discovering protons in 1911 several investigations tried the structure of the atom.


Task XII. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the Gerund.

1. The worker spoke of having shown the new devices to the engineer. 2. The worker insisted on his being provided with a protective suit. 3.1 remembered having mentioned about the works of this scientist. 4. We knew of Comrade Novikov's having been informed about safety measures against radiation. 5. The scientist spoke new ultrasonic instruments being used for welding instead of conventional ones.


Task XIII. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the functions of the Gerund and the Participle I.

1. Using a beam of electronics on place of the usual beam of light solved the problem of studying microorganisms. 2. Using a beam of electrons in place of the usual beam of light scientists built a microscope with great magnifying power. 3. Studying the properties of electrons atomic physicists solved the problem of constructing a very powerful microscope. 4. Studying the properties of electrons gave the possibility of constructing a very powerful microscope. 5. Constructing an electron microscope became possible after numerous experiments of atomic physicists. 6. Constructing an electron microscope scientists succeded in bringing to view the fine structure of materials.


Task XIV. Choose the words with the similar meanings.

Single, come, involve, have, use, essential, broadly, disseminate, due to, one, arrive, vacant, for example, because of, since, adjacent, some, spread, possess, important, widely, include, employ, empty, for, several, for instance, side by side.


Task XV. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the different meaning of the Preposition „for"

1. Our young researchers have all educational facilities for their scientific work.

2. For a number of years my brother worked as a factory worker. 3. We generate electrical power for industrial purposes as well as for every-day-life needs. 4. The engineers and workers of our mill look for new ways to raise the labor productivity in all shops of the enterprise. 5. The professor's assistant listened to the student's report attentively, for it contained new data of great interest. 6. My friend leaves Moscow for Kyiv. 7. We could not translate the text, for it contained too many new words.


Task XVI. Translate the following word-combinations into Ukrainian.

To discuss reactions, to light match, to agitate the molecules, to combine with oxygen, to be composed of atoms, to break into fragments, to control the rate, to use catalysts, to increase the velocity;

It is generally known, it is very important, it is gravelly accelerated, it is easily combined, it is hardly probable, it is entirely stopped;

The temperature is increased, the reaction is started, the match is lighted, the velocity is slowed down, the rate is controlled, the change is accelerated.


Task XVII. Render from English into Ukrainian and give your title fort he text.

Radio is a miracle of ages. Aladdin's lamp, the Magic Carpet seem insignificant compared to the radio.

By radio the human voice may be transmitted around the earth in less time than it takes to say the word „radio".

Radio is playing an ever increasing part in human life of land, on sea and in the air. It makes possible much more than simply communicating news, music, etc., and it also plays a very important part in navigation.


***Task XVIII. Topic for discussion.

1. Consider some characteristics of metals and reasons why engineer must take them into account.

2. List mechanical properties, which determine their usefulness in the industries.

3. Speak on the topic "The Atom and its nucleus"



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