TASK 2.Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian.

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TASK 2.Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian.

1.The nature of government regulation of economics is difficult to define.

2. Although law, morality, and justice sometimes regulate the same social relations, they are hardly synonymous terms.

3. The application of law may be harsh and unfair.

4. The Constitution of Ukraine provides for the protection of individual rights and liberties.

5. In Ukraine there are three major sources of law. They are: constitutional law, enactments of legislature, and administrative regulations.

6. It is the major function of the Constitution of the newly-independent Ukraine to put limitations on the power of government, both central and local, to interfere with individual liberties and economic freedoms of individuals, groups, and institutions.

7. Law is complex phenomenon of the social life; while there exist many ways of defining it, there are no single concept which could possibly include every aspect of law.



NOTE: Please pay attention to different possibilities of translating such English terms as government, law, and state into Ukrainian. Remember that English term government may be translated as уряд, державна влада, власті, форма державного правління, політичний лад. As an adjective it may correspond to the Ukrainian урядовий, державний. For example: government intervention – державне втручання, government structures – урядові структури, government policy – урядова політика.

Law may mean закон, право, правопорядок, звичаї. For example: the Law of Ukraine on the Entrepreneurship – Закон України “Про підприємництво”, Ukrainian law – право України, law of the land – місцеві звичаї (традиції).

State is usually translated as держава, країна, штат (у Сполучених Штатах Америки), державна влада, уряд, власті. For example: the state of Ukraine – Українська Держава, European states – європейські країни (держави), State California – штат Каліфорнія, the state ruled against it – влада прийняла негативне рішення у справі.



TASK 3. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Єдиним джерелом права в Україні є український народ.

2. Державна влада в Україні поділяється на такі гілки: законодавча, виконавча та судова.

3. Конституція України регламентує діяльність різних гілок влади, а також визначає межі їх повноважень.

4. Розділ II Конституції України захищає права людини і громадянина в Україні від державного втручання.

5. Протягом останніх семи років почало зменшуватися втручання держави в економіку.

6. Конституційний Суд має право переглядати нормативно-правові акти різних гілок влади (виконавчої та законодавчої) і скасовувати ті з них, які суперечать положенням Конституції України.



TASK 4. Complete the following statements.


1) Law is an important part of ......

2) Legal philosophers and legal scholars do ......

3) The term “law” is sometimes applied to ......

4) More commonly, when people speak of law they ......

5) The following definition of law is ......

6) Law in a broader sense is ......

7) In a primitive society the rules of behaviour may not be ......

8) The term a law has a ......



TASK 5. Choose the correct explanation of the following words and word combinations. Explain your choice.

Ø Law

a) is the set of values, institutions and concepts that permit civilization to exist and people to live orderly lives;

b) is the system which cannot be categorized at all;

c) is a synonym of morality and justice.

Ø Constitutional Law

a) is one of three major sources of law in the United States;

b) is the supreme law of the land;

c) puts no limits on the powers of the different branches of government.


Ø Statutes [the enactments of legislature]

a) are created on the federal, state, and local levels;

b) are the same as administrative decisions;

c) have nothing to do with law.


Ø Common Law

a) or “unwritten law”, is the body of law that emanates from courts through judicial decisions;

b) is the only source of law in the United States;

c) is molded and implemented in the House of Commons.



TASK 6.Just for Fun.


When asked to explain the difference between an ordinary citizen and a lawyer, a well-known barrister explained, “If an ordinary citizen gave you an orange, he would, say, “I give you this orange” But if a lawyer gave you an orange, he would say, “I hereby give, grant and convey to you all my interest, right, title and claim of and in this orange, together with all its rind, skin, juice and pulp, and all right and advantage therein with full power to bite, cut, suck, or otherwise eat or consume the said orange, or give away or dispose of to any third party the said orange, with or without its rind, skin, juice and pulp, subject to any amendments subsequently, introduced or drawn up to this agreement”.



Criminal Law



Remember the following words and word combinations.

criminal law кримінальне право
body of law сукупність правових норм
apprehension затримання, арешт
charging обвинувачення
convicted засуджений
voluntary act умисна дія
omission бездіяльність
wrong правопорушення
state of mind намір, напрям думок, психічний стан
epilepsy епілепсія
awareness усвідомлення власних дій та вчинків
recklessness необачність, необережність
mental disorder психічне захворювання
absolve пробачати, прощати
otherwise в інших відношеннях
justifiable той, якого можна виправдати
enforcement of law застосування закону
arson підпал
rape зґвалтування
treason державна зрада
aggravated assault напад за обтяжуючих обставин
theft крадіжка
burglary нічна крадіжка зі зломом
robbery грабіж із насиллям чи розбій
murder умисне вбивство
conspiracy змова про вчинення злочину
public trial відкритий судовий процес
right to counsel право користуватися допомогою адвоката
establish the guilt доказати провину
postconviction procedure судочинство після засудження
challenge давати відвід, викликати
conviction обвинувачувальний вирок





Criminal law absorbs our attention in a way that no other body of law does. Horrific crimes, juicy tales of passion, and mundane muggings occupy the front pages and public attention. Criminal law is a hot political topic that has immediate personal dimensions. But, as elsewhere in the law, the issues are more complicated than they seem.

To define criminal law, we need to distinguish it from other bodies of law that do something like that, and to distinguish the substantive criminal law from the process that applies it.

Criminal law is the body of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging, and trial of suspected persons, and fixes punishment for convicted offenders. Criminal law defines acts as criminal. In other words, however immoral or unjust an act may be thought to be, it is not a crime unless the law says it is one. Criminal acts are so wrongful that when someone commits a criminal act as distinguished from some other type of wrong, she is not just made to pay damages or be snubbed at the country club, she is punished.

We need criminal law to punish criminals and prevent crime.

The first purpose criminal law serves is to define what behavior society regards as wrongful. It is wrong to murder your neighbor, set fire to her house, or steal her lawnmower. The acts defined as criminal often (but not always) have the most serious consequences for others; murder and arson are very harmful, but stealing your neighbor’s lawnmower probably is less of a social evil than manufacturing lawnmowers without adequate safety devices, which is only a civil wrong.

A crime is usually defined as a voluntary act or omission, together with a given state of mind. The state of mind involves purpose, awareness, recklessness, or negligence. Acts committed during fits of epilepsy or while sleepwalking are involuntary and thus do not qualify as crimes. Mental disorders are also recognized as limiting or absolving responsibility for acts otherwise regarded as criminal. The law of most countries recognizes that the use of force might be justifiable. The use of force might be justifiable in self-defense, defense of other persons, protection of property, and enforcement of the law. Criminal acts include arson, rape, treason, aggravated assault, theft, burglary, robbery, murder, and conspiracy. [Conspiracy is a secret plan made by two or more people to do something that is harmful or illegal.] Criminal law also deals with the preparation of charges and with trial procedures. The latter involves the formation of juries, the guarantee of a public trial, the right to counsel, the presentation of evidence, the establishment of guilt, and sentencing, if guilt has been established. Criminal law is concerned with postconviction procedures, such as calling for a new trial or challenging a conviction, either in the court where the conviction was declared or in appeal to a higher court.


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