Exercise 4. Translate the following words.

Exercise 4. Translate the following words.

Technique, commercial, therefore, identify, selling message, сору, to process, however, even though, psychological, appeal, confident.


Exercise 5. Read and translate the following text.


One of the first principles that you must understand in advertising is that it is limited in both time and space. Television and radio commercials are use ally only 10 to 60 seconds long. Print ads are usually no larger than two pages, and usually much smaller. Therefore, an advertisement must do its job quickly. It must get the consumer's attention, identify the product, and deliver the selling message in a small time or space. In order to do this, advertising often breaks the rules of grammar, image, and oven society.

The second basic point is that advertisements usually have two parts: copy and illustrations. Copy refers to the words in the advertisement. These words give the sales message. Illustrations are the pictures or photographs. Most ads are a combination of copy and illustration. Some advertisements have small illustrations and a lot of copy. Some are only an illustration with the name of the product.

The decision about how much copy and illustration to use depends on how the advertiser wants to present the sales message. Understanding how advertisers make this decision is complex. First you must understand how humans process, or work with, information because we do not process all kinds of information in the same way. We process some kinds of information intellectually. In other words, we think about the information in order to understand it. We process other kinds of information emotionally. This means we use feelings rather than thinking to understand the information.

We generally process copy in ads intellectually. That is because both reading and listening are thinking processes. These thinking processes translate symbols (written words) or sounds (spoken words) into meaning. Of course, words, especially if they are spoken, can be very emotional – they can bring memories that make you laugh or cry. However, even though spoken words are often very emotional, we must first translate them. In other words, we do not see words as reality.

The mind also interprets drawings and paintings intellectually. Like words, drawings and paintings are not the things themselves, but an artist's idea of them. The viewer must translate the lines, colors and shapes into meaning. Illustrations can have a lot of emotion, but again they are not reality. In order to understand this idea better, think of a well-know painting such as The 3rd of May 1808 in Madrid: The Executions on Principe Pio Hill by Goya. This painting upsets many people. However, think of the same scene in a photograph. Most people would find the photograph even more disturbing. That is because we process photographs emotionally. To us, they are real.

Therefore, photographs do not need translation. Research supports this idea. It shows that photographs attract more readers, are more believable and remembered better than illustrations.

Just as there are two kinds of mental processes, there are two basic ways of presenting a sales message: intellectually and emotionally. An intellectual presentation uses ideas to get a consumer to buy a product or service. For example, computer buyers usually do not think about what the machine looks like or the effect it might have on their social life. They are looking for technical information. How fast does the computer work? How large is its memory?

Advertisements that present a message intellectually have a lot of copy. The copy explains the uses and benefits of the product or service. In addition, such ads are not usually seen on television because television ads are very short. It requires time and careful thinking to understand a message which contains a lot of ideas. These kinds of ads usually appear in magazines or newspapers where the consumer has unlimited time to process the information.

Ads with an intellectual presentation usually have few illustrations. If they have any illustrations, they will probably be drawings or paintings. In this way, both parts of the ad are processed in the same way. If they have photographs, the photographs will usually be simple, with little emotional content, usually showing only what the product looks like.

The second basic way to present a sales message is emotionally. In an emotional presentation, the use of the product is often not the most important sales message. Instead, the ad focuses on the buyer's social, psychological or economic needs. For example, an emotional ad may show how the product or service will make the consumers’ social life better by increasing their appeal, making them feel more confident, or making them rich. Some of the most effective ads today are ones that use an emotional presentation.

Exercise 6. Answer the questions.

1. What can you tell about time and space limits in advertising?

2. Why does advertising often break the rules of grammar, image and society?

3. What parts does an advertisement have?

4. What does the advertiser take into account presenting the sales message?

5. Why is a photograph an efficient advertising technique?

6. What are the two basic ways of presenting a sales message?

7. How do TV commercials differ from ads in magazines or newspapers?

8. Is emotional presentation often used in effective ads?

9. What needs does the ad with emotional presentation focus on?

10. What will you as a professional advertising agent tell the viewers who are annoyed by the aggressively increasing TV advertising?


Exercise 7. Match the words to their corresponding definitions:

1) support goods; 2) word-of-mouth promotion; 3) rack jobber; 4) truck jobber; 5) utility; 6) retailer advertising; 7) retailer; 8) push strategy; 9) pull strategy; 10) wholesaler; 11) sales promotion; 12) trade advertising; 13) shopping goods and services.

a) use of promotional tools to motivate consumers to request products from stores;

b) use of promotional tools to convince wholesalers and retailers to stock and sell merchandise;

c) a full-service wholesaler that furnishes racks or shelves full of merchandise to retailers, displays products, and sells on consignment;

d) advertising to consumers by retailers;

e) a marketing middleman that sells to consumers;

f) the promotional tool that stimulates consumer purchasing and dealer interest by means of short-term activities (displays, shows, exhibitions, and contests, etc.);

g) products that have a special attraction to consumers, who are willing to go out of their way to obtain them;

h) industrial goods such as accessory equipment and supplies that are used to assist in the production of other products;

i) advertising to wholesalers and retailers by manufacturers;

j) a small, limited function wholesaler that delivers goods by truck to retailers;

k) value or want-satisfying ability that is added to products by organizations because the products are made more useful or accessible to consumers;

l) a marketing middleman who sells to organizations and individuals, but not to final customers;

m) consumers talking about products they have liked or disliked.


Module 2


Exercise 1. Translate the following words.

Medium, to communicate, print advertisement, prime-time program, wasted coverage, network, coverage, market segment, peak radio listening time, special interest publication, ad page, audience profile, media buyer, pop-up ad, distributor, advertising costs, cooperative advertising program, audience selectivity, direct mail, mailing list, junk-mail.


Exercise 2. Read and translate the following text.

Module 3


Exercise 1. Translate the following words.

Major types, objective, vehicle, qualitative selectivity, segment, consumer, discriminate, brand, promotional strategy, entrenched habits, be aware of, purchase, to switch, circumstances.


Exercise 2. Read and translate the following text.

Module 4


Ancient advertising. Just when advertising began depends on how one wishes to define the term. In this History of Advertising, published in 1875, Henry Sampson says of the beginning of advertising: "There is little doubt that the desire among tradesmen and merchants to make good their wares has had an existence almost as long as the customs of buying and selling, and it is but natural to suppose that advertisements in some shape or form have existed not only time immemorial, but almost for all time. "

Because oral skills developed before reading and writing did, it is only natural that the earliest advertising medium was the spoken word. There is evidence that criers and hawkers were shouting their wares as far back as the days of the early Greeks, Romans, and Phoenicians. This primitive advertising, refined over the centuries, has carried down to the present day. Although hawkers do not often roam the streets with their cries, they have entered the home to make their pleas on radio and television.

Before long, competition and the need for identification necessitated signs. Signs used for identifying shops, with such appropriate illustrations as a goat (for a diary) or a mule driving a mill (for a baker), were unearthed in the ruins of Pompeii. (At the door of a schoolmaster there was a sign depicting a boy receiving a whipping!) There is also evidence of announcements painted on walls during this period. These included notices for theatrical performances, sports and gladiatorial exhibitions, advertisements of houses for rent, and appeals to tourists to visit local taverns. Perhaps the first written advertisement, however, was this three-thousand-year-old one inscribed on papyrus and found by an archaeologist in the ruins of Thebes: "The man-slave, Shem, having run away from his good master, Hapu the Weaver, all good citizens of Thebes are enjoyed to help return him. He is Hittite, 5.2 tall, of ruddy complexion and brown eyes. For news of his whereabouts, half a gold coin is offered. And for his return to the shop of Hapu the Weaver, where the best cloth is woven to your desires, a whole gold coin is offered. "

There is no doubt that advertising flourished in this period, but with the fall of the Roman Empire and the onset of the Dark Ages, advertising temporarily declined in importance to Western civilization.

Early English advertising. Perhaps the oldest relic of advertising among English-speaking people is family names referring to the various specialized crafts. The earliest of these designations was Smith. Names like Miller, Weaver, Wright, Tailor and Carpenter were the earliest means of product identification – the forerunner of the brand name so essential to modern advertising.

Beginning of printed advertisements. One of the most significant events in the development of advertising was the invention of a system of casting movable type by the German, Johann Gutenberg, in 1438. Paper had been invented more than a thousand years earlier by the Chinese and was introduced to Europe by the Turks in the twelfth century. Now all the necessary components were available for mass printing. At the same time, literacy was increasing. William Caxton, an early English printer, made advertising history in 1478 when he printed a handbill now regarded as the first known printed English advertisement. It advertised a book he had printed, the Salisburi Pye, rules for the clergy at Easter. The advertisement read: "If it please ony man spirituel or temporel to bye ony pyes of two and thre comemoracios of Salisburi use enpryntid after the forme of this present letter whiche ben wel and truly correct, late hym come to Westmonester in to the almonestrye at the reed pale and he shal have them good chepe. Supplico stet cedula". The Latin phrase at the end translates, "Let this notice stand."


Module 5

Module 6

Exercise 1. Translate the following words.

To pin down the meaning, vague words, excellence, to define, selling points, durability, craftsmanship, dependability, virtue, manufactured goods.



Even the dictionary finds it difficult to pin down the meaning of the word quality. It has to use other vague words like excellence. Why is quality so hard to define? Is it because it is such an abstract word and can mean so many different things? Or because its meaning depends so much on what it describes? How can you define high quality when applied to the things you buy, for example, a pop record, a pair of shoes, a meal in a restaurant? You'll probably have three different definitions of quality for the three different things.

Quality is also hard to define because it can be such a subjective word-it means quite different things to different people, even when they use the word to describe the same thing. A Pink Floyd album may in your view have quality, but your friend may consider that the same album is a waste of good money.

Yet another problem is that the meaning of quality changes over the years. Things which you think have quality may not be seen in the same way by older people. Just ask your grandmother what she thinks of the Stones? For example, consider the two ads. Both advertise clothes for men. Advertisers stress the points which they think sell quality to prospective buyers. The selling points that are stressed in 1897 ad are durability, craftsmanship, dependability, tradition.

What about the ideas of quality in the present-day ad? Present-day ads do not talk about tradition or craftsmanship, dependability or durability. They stress the virtues of newness, of being different, sometimes of being way out. Cheapness may be, emphasized too, the fact that almost everyone can afford the product. Does this mean that quality in manufactured goods is disappearing now that most things are mass-produced?


Module 7

Module 8


The central element of an advertising program is the advertising copy, the messages that the target audience is intended to see (as in magazines, newspapers, and TV) or hear (as in radio and TV). This usually involves identifying the key benefits of the product that are deemed important to a prospective buyer in making trial and adoption decisions.

Message Content. Every advertising message is made up of both informational and persuasion elements. These two elements, in fact, are so entwined that it is sometimes difficult to tell them apart. For example, basic information contained in many ads such as the product name, benefits, features, and price are presented in a way that tries to attract attention and encourage purchase. On the other hand, even the most persuasive advertisements have to contain at least some basic information to be successful. Information and persuasive content can be combined in the form of an appeal to provide a basic reason for the consumer to act. Although the marketer can use many different types of appeals, common advertising appeals include fear appeals, sex appeals, and humorous appeals.

Fear appeals suggest to the consumer that he or she can avoid some negative experience through the purchase and use of the product. Life insurance companies often try to show the negative effects of premature death on the relatives of those who don't carry enough life insurance. The famous advertising slogan of "ring around the collar" shows that others will be repelled if they observe a person with a stained collar. When using fear appeals, the advertiser must be sure that the appeal is strong enough to get the audience's attention and concern but not so strong that it will lead them to "tune out" the message.

In contrast, sex appeals suggest to the audience that the product will increase the attractiveness of the user. Sex appeals can be found in almost any product category from automobiles to toothpaste. Unfortunately, many commercials that use sex appeals are only successful at gaining the attention of the audience; they have little impact on how consumers think, feel, or act. Some advertising experts even argue that such appeals get in the way of successful communication by distracting the audience from the purpose of the ad.

Humorous appeals imply either directly or more subtly that the product is more fun or exciting than competitors' offerings. As with fear and sex appeals, the use of humor is widespread in advertising and can be found in many product categories. Unfortunately for the advertiser, humor tends to wear out quickly, thus boring the consumer.

Creating the Actual Message. The "creative people," or copywriters, in an advertising agency have the responsibility to turn appeals and features such as quality, style, dependability, economy, and service into attention-getting, believable advertising copy. This often relies on creative use of fear, sex, humor, sound, or visual effects. A relatively new upstart among advertising agencies "Fallen. McElligott, Inc. (FM)" was designated as advertising Age magazine's Agency of the Year by using wit, irreverence, and shock in its advertising copy. Its basic premise: with the hundreds of advertising impressions most of us see every day, use creative ads – not bombardment – to get the target audience's attention.

FM's newspaper ad for ITT Life Insurance Corporation, promoting term over whole-life insurance policies, proclaimed, "Your whole life is a mistake." For newspaper and TV ads for the Wall Street Journal FM came up with the theme line "The daily diary of the American dream." Its magazine ad for Lee jeans situated among the many four-color ads in consumer magazines – is a snapshot picture of a second in the life of a Lee jeans wearer and is shown in striking black and white, except for the tiny Lee logo in the corner. Translating the copywriter's ideas into an actual advertisement is also a complex process. Performing quality artwork, layout, and production for the advertisements is costly and time consuming. High-quality TV commercials typically cost about $ 125,000 to produce a 30-second ad, a task done by about 2,000 small commercial production companies across the United States. High-visibility commercials can be even more expensive: two 15-second Rolaids commercials involved $ 500,000 and 75 people over a 6-month period. About 70 "takes" are necessary, and typical, to get things "right!"


Module 9


Here are some methods used in persuasive advertising.

1. Repetition. The simplest kind of advertising. A slogan is repeated so often that we begin to associate a brand name with a particular product or service.

2. Endorsement. A popular personality is used in the advertisement, e.g. My yearnings exceed my earnings.

3. Emotional appeal. Advertising often appeals to basics such as mother, love, femininity, manliness.

4. Scientific authority. Sometimes the advert shows a person in a white coat (i.e. a scientist) telling us about the product. More often it mentions “miracle ingredients” or “scientific testing” to persuade us.

5. Comparison. The advert lists the qualities of a product in direct comparison with the rival products.

6. An appeal to fear or anxiety. This type is similar to 3, but works on our fears.

7. Association of ideas. This is usually visual. Until it became illegal in Britain, cigarette advertising showed attractive, healthy people smoking in beautiful rural situations.

8. Information. If a product is new, it may be enough to show it and explain what it does.

9. Special offers/free gifts. This is a very simple and direct appeal – it’s half price!

10. Anti-advertising. This is a modern version which appeals to the British sense of humour. It makes fun of the techniques of advertising.


Module 10


What do you think of when you hear the word promotion? Most people think of advertising. But promotion is much more than just advertising. Promotion is an attempt by marketers to persuade others to participate in an exchange with them. Marketers use many different tools to promote their products and services. Besides advertising, they use personal selling, word of mouth, public relations, publicity, and sales promotion to inform potential consumers about their organization and its goods and services. This combination of promotional tools is called the company’s promotional mix.

One reason most people mistake promotion for advertising is that they do not understand the differences among promotional tools such as advertising, personal selling, publicity, and word of mouth. Advertising is limited to paid, nonpersonal communication through various media by organizations and individuals who are in some way identified in the advertising message. Word of mouth is not a form of advertising because it does not go through a medium (newspaper, TV, etc.), it is not paid for, and it is personal. Publicity is different from advertising in that media space for publicity is not paid for. Personal selling is face-to-face communication and does not go through a medium; thus, it is not advertising. Anyone who watches television, listens to the radio, or reads magazines cannot help but notice the importance of advertising in our lives.

The importance of advertising in the United States is easy to document; one need only look at the figures. The total ad volume exceeds $118 billion yearly. The number one advertising medium in terms of total dollars spent is newspapers with about 26 percent of the total. Many people erroneously think that the number one medium is TV.

When people refer to advertising, they are usually talking about TV advertising. For example, the debate about the effect of advertising on children is really а debate about TV advertising and children. Similarly, when people talk about advertising being offensive, intrusive, manipulative, and so on, they are thinking primarily of TV advertising. But since only about 22 percent of advertising is TV advertising, there is much more to advertising than most people imagine.

Some of the leading TV ads of 1988 included those featuring the California Raisins and Michael Jackson for Pepsi. Joe Isuzu was also а big hit along with the ads for Bud Light and McDonald's. Such ads are memorable and tend to overpower the ads in other media.

The public benefits from advertising expenditures. First, advertising is informative. The number one medium, newspapers, is full of information about products, prices, features, and more. Does it surprise you to find that businesses spend more on direct mail than on radio and magazines? Direct mail (the use of mailing lists to reach an organization’s most likely customers) is an informative shopping aid for consumers. Each day consumers receive minicatalogs in their newspapers or in the mail that tell them what is on sale, where, at what price, for how long, and more.

Advertising not only informs us about products but it also provides us with free TV and radio programs because advertisers pay for the production costs. Advertising also covers the major costs of producing newspapers and magazines. When we buy a magazine, we pay mostly for mailing costs or promotional costs. Newspapers and radio are especially attractive to local advertisers.

Television has many advantages to national advertisers, but it is expensive. The average cost of a 30-second prime-time commercial in 1987 was $121,860. How many bottles of beer or bags of dog food must a company sell to pay for such a commercial? Is it any wonder that companies are now buying 15-second commercials to save money? Most companies selling consumer goods use ad agencies to prepare their advertisements.



Sales promotion is the promotional tool that stimulates consumer purchasing and dealer interest by means of short-term activities (such things as displays, shows and exhibitions, and contests).

Those free samples of products that people get in the mail; the cents-off coupons that they clip out of the newspapers; the contests that various retail stores sponsor; the catalogs you look through; and those rebates that have been so popular in recent years all are examples of sales promotion activities. Sales promotion programs supplement personal selling, advertising, and public relations efforts by creating enthusiasm for the overall promotional program. In 1988, marketers sent out some 12 billion catalogs, or roughly 50 for every man, woman, and child in the United States. You can see, therefore, how big and important sales promotion is.

Sales promotion can be both internal (within the company) and external (outside the company). It is just as important to get employees enthusiastic about a sale as it is potential customers. Often, the most important internal sales promotion efforts are directed at salespeople and other customer-contact persons such as complaint handlers and clerks. Sales promotion tries to keep the salespeople enthusiastic about the company through sales training; the development of sales aids such as Flip charts, portable audiovisual displays, and movies; and participation in trade shows where salespeople can get leads. Other employees who deal with the public may also be given special training to make them more aware of company programs and a more integral part of the total promotional effort. After enthusiasm is generated internally, it is important to get distributors and dealers involved so that they, too, are enthusiastic and will cooperate by putting up signs and helping to promote the product.

After the company’s employees and salespeople have been motivated with sales promotion efforts, and middlemen are involved, the next step is to promote to final consumers using samples, coupons, cents-off deals, displays, store demonstrators, premiums, and other incentives such as contests, trading stamps, and rebates. Sales promotion is an ongoing effort to maintain enthusiasm, so different strategies are used over time to keep the ideas fresh.

When thinking about a sales promotion scheme for Fiberrific, we might learn from General Food’s promotion of Super Golden Crisp, Honeycomb, Fruity Pebbles, and other children's cereal. They sent a “fun book” to children featuring Sugar Bear. Cents-off coupons were placed in the book for the parents. Sales went up 80 percent. Some 90 percent of the households replying wanted more mailings. Wouldn't you feel more comfortable promoting our high-fiber, low-sugar cereal to children rather than the high-sugar content cereals promoted by General Foods? Don’t firms have some social responsibility in the area of nutrition? You wouldn’t believe the number of coupons sent out by marketers such as General Foods. Recently the number of coupons reached over 215 billion! "Advertising Age" reports that sales promotion is a hot area of marketing and is getting hotter.

One relatively unexplored area in promotion is specialty advertising. Specialty advertising involves the use of specially designed products such as pens, calendars, business cards, balloons, and hundreds of other items to promote a business or a product. One of the authors of this text has used several specialty items to promote his books, including pens with the book’s name on them and balloons.

One year a book fair was enlivened by "jumping nickels" that explained why everyone was jumping into Nickels’ book rather than the competition’s. Jumping nickels ended up in people's drinks and other strange places. They caused much word of mouth for the book. The clever use of tennis ball cans, T-shirts, microwavable popcorn bags, and other items can make any other promotion come alive.


Exercise 4. Translate the following words.

Technique, commercial, therefore, identify, selling message, сору, to process, however, even though, psychological, appeal, confident.


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