Exercise 6. Give Ukrainian equivalents to the words and phrases.

Promotion; promotional mix; advertising; personal selling; word of mouth; public relations; publicity; sales promotion; media space; advertising medium; direct mail advertising; local/national advertising; commercial; ad agency.


Exercise 7. Match the words to their corresponding definitions:

1) persuade; 2) communication; 3) medium(-ia); 4) volume; 5) exceed; 6) debate; 7) feature; 8) expenditure; 9) cover; 10) commercial.

a) the exchange of information, news, ideas or opinions;

b) an advertisement on television or radio;

c) to be enough money for smth.;

d) talking over a question by at least 2 people or groups, each expressing different point of view;

e) to be greater than smth.;

f) spending or using up time, effort, money on a piece of work;

g) typical or noticeable part or quality;

h) to cause to do smth by reasoning, arguing, begging, etc.;

i) a method for giving information (the newspapers, television and radio);

j) amount produced by some kind of activity.


Exercise 8. Find in the text words and phrases which have the opposite meaning to those listed below. Use them in the sentences of your own.

Local advertisers; to spend money; nonpersonal communication; organization; similarity; to mail minicatalogues; agreement; friendly; paid TV and radio programs.


Exercise 9. Look at the words and give their derivations:

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb

– – intrusive –

– – – erroneously

– – manipulative –

– – – primarily

– – direct –

– – memorable –

promotion – – –

– – informative –


Exercise 10. Complete the sentences using the words mentioned before.

1. Some people make _____ thinking that promotion is the same thing as advertising.

2. People argue that sellers _____ their shopping behaviour by showing so many TV commercials.

3. We usually _____ commercials featuring famous people.

4. Advertising gives comsumers a lot of _____ about products.

5. Companies try to reduce _____ costs by mailing catalogues of their products ____ to the customers.


Exercise 11. Working in pairs do the following tasks.

1. What are the six elements of the promotional mix? What is the central focus of the promotional mix? Draw a scheme of promotional mix.

2. Read the passage below about two promotion strategies. Think of any product and describe how to implement a push strategy or/and pull strategy for this product (e.g. Coca-Cola drink). Push strategies versus pull strategies.

There are two ways to promote the movement of products from producers to consumers. The first is called a push strategy. In push strategy, the producer uses advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, and all other promotional tools to convince wholesalers and retailers to stock and sell merchandise. If it works, consumers will then walk into the store, see the product, and buy it. The idea is to push the product down the distribution system to the stores. One example of a push strategy is to offer dealers one free case of soda for every dozen cases they purchase.

A second strategy is called a pull strategy. In a pull strategy, heavy advertising and sales promotion efforts are directed toward consumers so that they will request the products from retailers. If it works, consumers will go to the store and order the products. Seeing the demand for the products, the store owner will then order them from the wholesaler. The wholesaler, in turn, will order them from the producer. Products are thus pulled down through the distribution system. Dr. Pepper has used television advertising in a pull strategy to increase distribution. Of course, a company could use both a push and pull strategy at the same time in a major promotional effort.

3. Consult the Glossary to find information about the major classes of advertising. Give definitions and examples of retail, trade, industrial and institutional advertising. Explain the differences among different forms of advertising.

4. Can you list the advertising media in order based on the total amount of money spent by advertisers?

5. Bring in samples of advertising to show how informative consumer advertising can be. Bring in other ads that are not so informative. Discuss both sets of ads to see which are more effective in attracting consumer interest.


Exercise 12. Practise the pronunciation of the following words. Translate them into Ukrainian.

Exhibition (n); sample (n); supplement (v); enthusiasm (n); enthusiastic (adj); audiovisual (adj); participation (n); premium (n); incentive (n); maintain (v).


Exercise 13. Read and translate the following text.


Sales promotion is the promotional tool that stimulates consumer purchasing and dealer interest by means of short-term activities (such things as displays, shows and exhibitions, and contests).

Those free samples of products that people get in the mail; the cents-off coupons that they clip out of the newspapers; the contests that various retail stores sponsor; the catalogs you look through; and those rebates that have been so popular in recent years all are examples of sales promotion activities. Sales promotion programs supplement personal selling, advertising, and public relations efforts by creating enthusiasm for the overall promotional program. In 1988, marketers sent out some 12 billion catalogs, or roughly 50 for every man, woman, and child in the United States. You can see, therefore, how big and important sales promotion is.

Sales promotion can be both internal (within the company) and external (outside the company). It is just as important to get employees enthusiastic about a sale as it is potential customers. Often, the most important internal sales promotion efforts are directed at salespeople and other customer-contact persons such as complaint handlers and clerks. Sales promotion tries to keep the salespeople enthusiastic about the company through sales training; the development of sales aids such as Flip charts, portable audiovisual displays, and movies; and participation in trade shows where salespeople can get leads. Other employees who deal with the public may also be given special training to make them more aware of company programs and a more integral part of the total promotional effort. After enthusiasm is generated internally, it is important to get distributors and dealers involved so that they, too, are enthusiastic and will cooperate by putting up signs and helping to promote the product.

After the company’s employees and salespeople have been motivated with sales promotion efforts, and middlemen are involved, the next step is to promote to final consumers using samples, coupons, cents-off deals, displays, store demonstrators, premiums, and other incentives such as contests, trading stamps, and rebates. Sales promotion is an ongoing effort to maintain enthusiasm, so different strategies are used over time to keep the ideas fresh.

When thinking about a sales promotion scheme for Fiberrific, we might learn from General Food’s promotion of Super Golden Crisp, Honeycomb, Fruity Pebbles, and other children's cereal. They sent a “fun book” to children featuring Sugar Bear. Cents-off coupons were placed in the book for the parents. Sales went up 80 percent. Some 90 percent of the households replying wanted more mailings. Wouldn't you feel more comfortable promoting our high-fiber, low-sugar cereal to children rather than the high-sugar content cereals promoted by General Foods? Don’t firms have some social responsibility in the area of nutrition? You wouldn’t believe the number of coupons sent out by marketers such as General Foods. Recently the number of coupons reached over 215 billion! "Advertising Age" reports that sales promotion is a hot area of marketing and is getting hotter.

One relatively unexplored area in promotion is specialty advertising. Specialty advertising involves the use of specially designed products such as pens, calendars, business cards, balloons, and hundreds of other items to promote a business or a product. One of the authors of this text has used several specialty items to promote his books, including pens with the book’s name on them and balloons.

One year a book fair was enlivened by "jumping nickels" that explained why everyone was jumping into Nickels’ book rather than the competition’s. Jumping nickels ended up in people's drinks and other strange places. They caused much word of mouth for the book. The clever use of tennis ball cans, T-shirts, microwavable popcorn bags, and other items can make any other promotion come alive.


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