Ex. 6 Translate the following conditional sentences into Ukrainian.



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Ex. 6 Translate the following conditional sentences into Ukrainian.



1. If there were no atmosphere, the surface of the earth would become very very hot by day and too cold at night. 2. Provided all the data of the experiment had been important, they would have been tabulated. 3. A column of warm air will weigh less than a column of cold air if both are the same height and cross section. 4. If would have saved you a lot of time if you had prepared for your experiment more carefully. 5. Starting an experiment we must first determine if the substance is a compound or simply a mixture. 6. Provided we use the necessary instruments the measurement will always be correct. 7. Could our observations have been supported theoretically, they would have done much to advance our knowledge in the field of radioactivity. 8. Many accidents could have been prevented had the principles of physics been known and properly applied. 9. If he does it, he will be right. 10. If I were you, I should do it. !!. If you were more attentive, you would not make so many mistakes.

Ex. 7 Open the brackets and insert the right form instead of the Infinitive. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. If I ( to be ) you I should not treat her in such way. 2. If he (to be) well, he would join our excursion. 3. If you spoil my things, I (to be angry) with you. 4. If the ore had been extracted in this place, we (to see) something on the ground.5. The engineer said to the workers:” If you (to return) to the shaft, you will find the car near it “. 6. If he had stopped him going there, this accident (not to happen). 7. If I saw you every day, I (to inform) you about all the happenings. He (to notice) me on the platform if I had had my old dress on.

Ex. 8 State the form of the Subjunctive Mood and translate the following sentences.

1. Without the force of gravitation there would be no pressure in liquids. 2. The sun radiates as much energy every second as would be released by the explosion of several billion atomic bombs. 3. By reduction in jet velocity it would appear to be possible to increase the propulsive efficiency for a given rocket. 4. Only a few years ago, the idea of setting up artificial moon to circle the Earth would have sounded fantastic.

Ex. 9 Translate the following sentences and underline the verb-predicate in the Subjunctive Mood.

1. It is necessary that all the data should be sent to the Weather Bureau. 2. It is very important that you should take part in the discussion. 3. But for you we should not know how to find the way.4. But for the new canal the collective farmers would have no water for irrigation. 5. It would be very interesting to travel in the mountains in summer. 6. According to the laws of physics such experiment should be made in dark room.7. This test should always be applied to thermometers, which are to be employed for very accurate work.8. On the way to Madrid the plane may land at some places. 9. The workers invited the Hindu guests to our mill so that they might see our new shops. 10. No one knows what effect the conditions in the very high atmosphere may have upon the weather.11. Training in science should help everybody to understand that problems now considered insolvable might be solved in future. 12. Without the Sun there would be no light, no energy of any kind.

Ex. 10 Translate the following pairs of words, pay attention to the meaning of the prefixes.

Division – subdivision, to appear – to disappear, to impose – to superimpose, to heat - to superheat, to connect – todisconnect, to energize – to deenergize, to magnetize – to demagnetize, to change – to interchange, to lead – to mislead, to determine – to predetermine, to use – tomisuse

 

Самостійна робота № 3

 

Текст: Solar energy. Solar energy abserbed by earth.

Лексико-граматичні основи перекладу та вправи:Інфінітив, функції. Інфінітивні звороти.

 

Ex.1 Read the theoretical material and fulfill some exercises.

LEXICAL - GRAMMAR EXERCISES

Ex.2 Find the infinitive in the following sentences; define their forms and functions. Translate into Ukrainian.

1.To use solar energy for practical purposes is the task facing the scientists. 2. Our task is to study well. 3. The purpose of this book is to serve as a textbook for students and to demonstrate the wide array of ecological problems. 4. There are various possibilities to be considered. 5. We began to develop new methods of teaching foreign languages. 6. To find the actual convergence due to wind, it is necessary to take into account both the velocity and the latitude. 7. The velocities along the bottom in this region are too small to give to bottom friction. 8. In every ocean region water of a certain density tends to sink to and spread at depths where that density is found.

Ex.3 Define the form of the infinitive in the following proverbs and sayings. Memorize them. Give their Ukrainian equivalents:

1.Live not to eat, but eat to live. 2. Men are not to be measured by inches. 3. Friendship is not to be bought at a fair. 4. Live and let live. 5. It is love that makes the world go round. 6. It is better to give than to take. 7. It takes two to make a quarrel. 8. Be slow to promise and quick to perform. 9. To err is human. 10. To know everything is to nothing.

Ex.4 Translate into Ukrainian, paying attention to the subjective Infinitive Construction and to the Objective Infinitive Construction:

1.The air is known to extend about 200 miles above the earth. 2. Heat and cold are believed to be distributed by ocean currents over thousands of miles. 3. If a body of air tends to remain in its position it is said to be stable. 4. Greater solar activity seems to produce lower earth temperatures. 5. The air in winter is likely to be cooler than the surface water so that heat passes from water to air. 6. We know the earth’s crust to be constantly changing. 7. Molten and Chamberlin believed the earth and other planets to have come originally from the sun. 8.Subtropical climate enables the farmers to grow two crops. 9. The students expected the teacher to explain to them different hypotheses of the earth’s early history.

Ex.5 Had better is a common idiomatic verb phrase followed by an infinitive, the sentence “You had better see a doctor at once” means it is advisable that you see a doctor at once. In every day conversation this phrase is generally used in contracted form as follows: “You’dbetter see a doctor at once”.

Change these sentences so as to introduce had better. (Use only a contracted form). Follow an example:

1.It will be better if you come back later. (Example: You’d better come back later. ) 2. It will be better if she rewrites this applications. 3. It will be better if Peter works harder at his English. 4. It will be better if she doesn’t go there again. 5. It is advisable that they spend their vacation in the country. 6. It will be better if you don’t mention this to anyone. 7. It is advisable that you send him a letter at once. 8. It will be better if your brother sees a doctor immediately. 9. It is advisable that you tell them the truth. 10. It will be better if your friend comes on Saturday.

 

Ex. 6 Read the following paragraphs of the text and define their main idea in writing.

A SOLAR ENERGY

The radiant energy transmitted by the sun covers a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

What happens to the enormous amount of energy impinging upon the earth in the form of electromagnetic waves'? When rays encounter the earth's atmosphere some pass through undisturbed, some are absorbed by the atmosphere, and the rest are turned hack.

Absorption. Oxygen, ozone, water vapour, carbon dioxide and dust particles arc the most significant absorbers of the "short-wave" radiation from the hoi sun and the "long-wave" from the cool earth. The gases are selective absorbers, meaning-that they absorb strongly in some wavelength, weakly in others, and hardly at all in still others. The very short ultraviolet radiation of the sun (less than 0.20mm) is absorbed as it encounters and splits molecular oxygen into two atoms in the upper levels of the atmosphere. Ozone formed by the combination of O and 03 effectively absorbs ultraviolet light of longer wavelengths - those between 0.22 and 0.29mm. Absorptivity is the fractional part of incident radiation that is absorbed.

Water vapour is significant absorber of radiation. Although not effective in the wavelengths below 0,8m. where most of the solar radiation exists, it absorbs wavelengths at which the cool earth and its atmosphere emit much of their energy. The atmosphere is essentially transparent between 0.3 and 0.8mm, where most of the solar (short-wave) radiation occurs. But between 0.8 and 20mm, where much of terrestrial (long-wave) radiation is emitted, there are several bands of moderate absorptivity by water vapour.

Scattering. The atmosphere is composed of many discrete particles space between particles is actually greater than the volume occupied by the particles. Each particle acts as an obstacle in the pass of radiant energy (e.g. light waves) travelling through the atmosphere. The wave fronts arc deformed by these obstacles in a pattern that mates it appear that the rays emanate from the obstacles. Thus, radiant energy propagating in a single direction is dispersed in all directions as it encounters each particle on its path. This dispersion of the energy is called scattering.

Refection. Radiant energy from the sun encounters still another obstacle before it reaches the earth - clouds. Most clouds are very good reflectors but poor absorbers of radiant energy. The reflection by clouds depends primarily on their thickness, but also to some extent on the nature of the cloud particles (i.c whether ice or water) and the size of these particles. The reflectivity of clouds varies from less than 25 percent to more than 80 percent, depending on the cloud thickness. Clouds absorb very little radiation that strikes them

In general, the earth is a poor reflector of solar radiation.

 



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