Modal verbs and their equivalents

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Modal verbs and their equivalents

Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Future Indefinite
can could shall be able to ... will бути спроможним ...
may might shall be allowed to ... will мати дозвіл…
must had to shall have to ... will повинен бути зобов'язаним…

Модальні слова ought to, should вживаються для: 1) виразу морального обов'язку

You should be more careful in accounting. Вам слід бути більш обережним у розрахунках. 2) в поєднанні з перфектним інфінітивом виражає докір. You should have helped your friend to deliver goods in time. Вам слід було допомогти вашому другу доставити товари вчасно. You ought to give the discount. Вам слід було дати знижку.

*Task 1.Insert "to " wherever necessary:

1. You can ... get all necessary information about our products on the ground floor. 2. We are ... sign the contract next week. 3. They must ... deliver goods on time. 4. You should be ... present on the business conference. 5. She had ... come to her office early yesterday. 6. She could ... speak English well in her childhood. 7. You needn't ... be worry, everything will be all right. 8. You may no! ... find new business partners among the members of the delegation.

**Task 2.Choose the correct modal verbs from the box.

I should, may, may not, can't, can, must, needn't
1. Повинно бути забезпечено -----------------be provided
2. Може бути одержано -----------------be obtained
3. Можна визначити -----------------be determined
4. Слід застосовувати. -----------------be applied
5. Не треба виробляти. -----------------be produced
6. Треба ввести. -----------------be introduced
7. Не можна визначити. ---------------------be determined
8. Треба розглянути. ---------------------be regarded

Task 3.Translate the following sentences paying attention to the modal verbs and their equivalents:

1. What bank can offer me a banker's credit card? 2. Could you speak English two years ago? 3.1 hope you will be able to open the current account in our bank in a week. 4, You should take a taxi if you don't want to be late for the business talks. 5. As he got a little profit, he had to stop his business activity. 6. We were to meet at the Midland bank at 7 p.m. 7. They are to finish business talks today, becausethey may not have any time tomorrow. 8. Every businessman must know at least one foreign language.


**Task IV. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the meaning "shall, should, will, would, to be, to have".

1.I shall take my examinations in June. 2. They shall improve their method of work, if they want to obtain better results. 3. This new car will be tested tomorrow. 4.I will replace the old parts of the car. 5. You should do it by all means. 6. If I had read yesterday's news-paper, I should have learned about the accident. 7. They knew that I should fly to London. 8.I would not change my plans. 9. If he had not made a mistake in the calculations, the bridge would not have collapsed. 10. She said she would be delayed at the institute. 11. He would sit for hours on the shore and look at the water. 12. The plant was far away from the city. 13. The channel was deepened. 14. He was travelling in the north. 15. He was to come at 5.16. They have a good plan. 17. They have already passed their exams. 18. They had to test the engine twice.

**Task V. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the meaning of the Modal Verbs and their equivalents.

1. I can translate this article. I am able to translate the article from English into Russian. 2. He could translate foreign magazines. He was able late the article in time. We were able to translate two articles. 3. He will be able to translate the text. We shall be able to translate these English texts 4 He must study a foreign language. He has to study English. He had to study two foreign languages. He will have to study German at the Institute. 5 Engineers must create new technology. Scientists have to create new materials. Man had to create new sources of energy. The people of the globe will have to create the abundance of consumer goods. 6. I am to study a foreign language. I was to study French at the Institute. 7. You should know the subject better. 8. Our plant is to increase its output. The workers of this plant are to increase the productivity of labour. They were to increase the production of instruments. 9. Workers should apply new methods of production.


**TaskVI. Translate the sentences, pay attention to the functions of the Verb "to be".

1. When a structure or a machine is to be built, suitable materials are to be chosen for the parts. 2. Every element is made up of minute particles, which are called atoms. 3. Burning is simply the combination of a substance with oxygen in the air. 4. One of the great problems of the mechanical engineer is to eliminate friction in a machine. 5. It is the cyclotron that can be used to produce very high speed positively charged particles of enormous energy. 6. A study of the motions of the objects is necessary if we are to understand them and to learn to control them. 7. Many important observations are being made by our cosmonauts. 8. Every large industry has research laboratories where there are many opportunities to observe the experiments which are being performed. 9. A great number of new blocks of flats were built in our city. 10. Automation is finding wider application in all branches of industry.

** Task VII. Translate the sentences paying attention to the Modal Verbs.

1. Scientists can calculate and correct the orbits of sputniks with the help of electronic computers. 2. Thanks to the remote control devices and the radio communication system one person can control the operation of the most complex machinery. 3. The distance between the Earth and the Moon may change. 4. All radio receivers must have three essential parts: a) antenna-to-ground system; b) a detector; c) a speaker or headphones. 5. By means of a special microscope biologists can examine the smallest organisms in their live state. 6. The fourth-year students must regularly inform their Physics instructor of their scientific experiments. 7. Our team must assemble the device.

**TaskVIII. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the Modal Verbs.

1. In his experimental work any research worker must apply the necessary safety measures. 2. Man can live and work both in a spaceship and outside it in space. 3. Some radio signals may serve as a clue to the chemical processes that take place in outer space. 4. A radio-engineer must know radio, TV and radar equipment perfectly well and must be able to design it. 5. First of all we can and must explore the Moon and other planets with the aid (help) of automatic devices. 6. Scientists, engineers and other experts could calculate the orbits of Sputniks with the help of electronic computers.

**Task IX. Translate into Ukrainian paying attention to the Modal Verbs.

1. The sputniks can be used to study the magnetic fields, atmosphere, ionosphere and cosmic radiation. 2. The memory unit of that electronic instrument can remember results, repeat them at the right moment and compare them with the results of another calculation. 3. Radio engineers may use new technological methods and automation to develop micro TV receivers. 4. A digital computer can solve thousands of mathematical operations in one second.

**Task X. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the Modal Verbs.

1 You should carry out this experiment using the technique developed in our laboratory. 2. Everyone must do his duty. 3.I have to do some extra work now because one of my colleagues is having a holiday and I have taken over his part of our joint research. 4. We can carry out this experiment now because we have all the necessary equipment. Last year we did not have it and therefore could not do the job. 5. May I take your pen for a minute? — Yes, of course, you may.


**Task XI. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian to the equivalents of the Modal Verbs.

1 Chemists have to create the materials that do not exist in nature. 2. Without a computer scientists will not be able to solve complicated problems. 3. You should take into consideration the results of our experiments. 4. The workers were to assemble the machine yesterday. 5. The engineer has to use new technological processes. 6. The electronic devices will have to ensure regular production processes. 7. The engineer from our plant is to take part in this conference. 9. Are you able to make this experiment once again? 10. At present our engineers are to develop the most advanced methods of production.


*Task XII. Find in the right column the corresponding Ukrainian sentence, use the grid below:

1. She must be in the office now. а) Вам не потрібно хвилюватися про втрату ваших клієнтів.
2. His profits are not very high, he should look for another sphere of business activity. b) Він одержує невисокий прибуток, йому слід пошукати другу сферу підприємницької діяльності
3. There was to be a business conference in Mr. Blake's office yesterday. c) Вона бажала поговорити зі мною, але ж я не хотів слухати.
4. You needn't be worry about losing your customers. d) Учора у офісі Mr. Blake повинна була відбутися ділова конференція.
5. They shall come here at ll є) Зараз вона повинна бути у офісі.
6. You ought to help him to organize his own business. f) Чи почекати мені Мр. Блейка у його кабінеті?
7. She wanted to talk to me, but I wouldn't listen to. g) Вони прийдуть сюди об 11 годині.
8. Shall I wait for Mr. Blake in his cabinet. h) Ви повинні допомогти йому організувати свою ділову справу.



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