Lexico-syntactical types of verbs

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Lexico-syntactical types of verbs

Acc to the verb valency:

- avalent (Eng) – verbs that have no left –hand connection with the notional subject

e.g it rains


- monovalent These are verbs have left – hand connection with the subject making sentence:

e.g he has come


- divalent are verbs that have left –hand connection with the subject and right – hand connection with the complement

- polyvalent are verbs having more than 2 connections

e.g I have the book to the girl



Acc to the role in the lang. system :

- notional

- semi – notional: auxiliary, link verbs, semi – notional, modal


Notional are verbs that have full lex meaning, maybe derivation , change for gram cstegories, perform the syntact function of the predicate


Auxiliary are verbs fully devoid any lex meaning. It can be proved by their combination with verbs having antonymous meaning :

e.g I have lost my pen (no syntact funct in the sentence); They are only components of the analytical form; have specific combinability


Modal verbs expressed the relational meaning; express the speaker’s attitude towards the action expressed by the infinitive; morphol some of them have difishened paradigms can=could; specific syntact function in the sentence; can be parts of compound verbal modal predicate (must do…)


Semi – notionals are those who followed by non –finites infinitives or gerunds (to try to do smth)


Link verbs connect the property denoted by the predicate with the subject (she is kind); morphologically link verbs within a compound nominal predicate expresses the bare morphol categories of the predicate; they are characterized by the combinability with the nominal elements in the position of the subject and various parts of speech in the position of predicative


Acc to the type of predication

- verbs of complete predication make up sentences only in combination with the subject

- verbs of incomplete are verbs that are capable of forming up full sentences with both subject on the left and complement on the right.

25 The category of person expresses the relation between the participants of the speech act. This is a tertiary equipollent opposition having the opposems of the 1st, 2d, 3d persons.

1st person is the speaker himself (or we in the plural)

2d person denotes two persons

3d person denotes persons or things spoken about in the communicative act.


In Ukr all verbs have positively marked person forms in sing and plur (писати= я пишу, ти пишеш, вони пишуть)

In Eng verb’s category is defeshiently represented. It is realized in the restricted syntactic context (in the present tense the indicative mood in this opposition is 3d person – non-3d person: come - comes). In the future tense the person category is realized by the opposition 1st person – non-1st preson: shall come – he will come .

In Eng acc to realization of the category of person all Eng verbs fall into groups:

- modal verbs (in which person category is not realized, it is neutralized)

- to be which has a tertiary opposition : am – 1st person, are – 2d person sing + 1st person plur, is – 3d person sing.

- all notional verbs that have 3d person – non –3d person

26 The category of number in verbs greatly differs form the number category in nouns.


In the opposition table –tables singular form expresses one; plural expresses more than one substance. Thus number in nouns expresses the number of substances.

Things are differ with verbs: he comes – they come, the forms “comes/come” don’t express the number of actions but express only the number of adjuncts (исполнитель).

Comes = one doer of the action

Come = more than one adjuncts


It goes from this that the number in verbs is syntactically predetermined by the quantitative characteristics of the subject.

Acc to the realization of the number category of verbs have 3 types of number. agreement (concord). They are:

- formal (e.g the wheat is ripe. The oats are ripe.), though semantically nouns are the same, the form of the predicate is predetermined only by the form of the subject : wheat – sing. noun, oats – plural.

- semantic (e.g His family is united. The family are having dinner now.) The form is the same but the difference lies in the meaning: family in the first case – one unit whole, family in the second case – individuals members of family.

- formal – semantic (The book is on the table. The books are on the table.)



- both categories number/ person are reflactory;

- both are syntactically conditioned (be the form of the subject)

- the category have intermixed character

- they are defitiontly represented by the morphological forms.

The tense category

The category of tense expresses the logical category of time and on this background it denotes relations between the time of the action and the time of speaking. There is very little in common between Eng. and Ukr. as to the tense opoosems. In Ukr verb’s tense is represented by a tertiary equipollent opposition of the present, past, future (пишу, писав, напишу, буду писати.)

In Eng there are different approaches to tense opposition:

1) two –member opposition (the rejection of the future tense) : Irtenieva, Block

2) polynomic opppsition

3) tertiary equipollent opposition:





1) Barchudarov thinks that:

- shall and will are modal verbs

- future meaning can be express otherwise (by Present Simple = the train arrives at 5 o’clock; Present Continious = the yare having exam this semester; modal verbs = you can do it in a week)

- shall, will + infinitive are not analytical forms but they are free synractic formulations

- shall can have forms on the past = should/ would in tense consequences = he said he would come


Counterarguments :

- not always shall/will may have modal meaning, sometimes the yare pure markers of the future tense = the performance will take place in a week.

- it’s true that the future semantics can be expressed by others tenses. But these means are restricted the future semantic (acc the timetable, near future), that’s why they are auxiliary

- shall/will is a specific analytical form because they can not be combined with any other form except the infinitive

- forms should/would +infinitive are rudiments of the Old Eng which doesn’t have any meaning and in some cases are not observed



2) The theory of temporal lines (prof. Irtenva = Иртеньева) thinks that all tense forms in Eng can be organized in 2 temporal lines. This opinion is based on the confusion of three gram. categories: tense, aspect, phase



3) The polynomic tense opposition recognizes more than 3 tense opposition. Actually the grammarians recognize the present, past and future in 4 paradigmatic forms: indefinite, continious, perfect, perfect – cont, which is the theoretical paradox.

This opinion is based on the categories of tense, aspect and phase.

e.g has come = Pres tense, Perf Tense = is impossible because within a gram. category the gram form may have one meaning of this category.



28. The Category of Aspect
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event or state, denoted by a verb, relates to the flow of time.In English the grammatical category of aspect is constituted by the opposition of the continuous aspect and the common aspect

It is realized through the opposition Continuous::Non-Continuous (Progressive::Non-Progressive). The realization of the category of aspect is closely connected with the lexical meaning of verbs.
There are some verbs in English that do not normally occur with continious aspect, even in those contexts in which the majority of verbs necessarily take the progressive form. Among the so-called ‘non-progressive’ verbs are Verbs expressing sense perception, that is involuntary reactions of the senses:to feel (чувствовать),to hear (слышать),to see (видеть),to smell (чувствовать запах),to taste (чувствовать вкус).However these verbs as well as other statal verbs may be sometimes used in continuous and perfect continuous forms, especially in informal English.Verbs expressing emotional state:to care, to detest, to envy, to fear, to hate, to hope, to like, to love, to prefer, to want, to wish.Verbs expressing mental state:to assume, to believe, to consider, to doubt, to expect, to find, to forget, to imagine, to know, to mean, to mind, to notice, to perceive, to remember, to suggest, to suppose, to think, to understand. The Slavic aspect is expressed with the help of pairs of correlating verbs. The aspect in English – if we accept the views supported by many researchers as to the aspectual nature of Continuous and Perfect tenses – is expressed by the word change of the same verb, therewith the word change of a special nature, i.e. analytical forms of the verb.

The most striking characteristic that they have in common is the fact that they are ‘stative’ - they refer to a state of affairs, rather than to an action, event or process. It should be observed, however, that all the ‘non-progressive' verbs take the progressive aspect under particular circumstances. As the result of internal transposition verbs of non-progressive nature can be found in the Continuous form: Now I'm knowing you. Continuous form has at least two semantic features - duration (the action is always in progress) and definiteness (the action is always limited to a definite point or period of time). the purpose of the Continuous form is to serve as a frame which makes the process of the action more concrete and isolated.

As for the ukrainian verb, it has two aspects, the perfective and the

imperfective. It is obvious at once that there is no direct correspondence between

English and Russian aspects; for instance, the English continuous aspect is not

identical with the ukrainian imperfective. The relation between the two systems is

not so simple as all that. On the one hand, the English common aspect may

correspond not only to the ukrainian perfective but also to the ukrainian imperfective

aspect; thus, he wrote may correspond both to написал and to писал. On the other

hand, the ukrainian imperfective aspect may correspond not only to the continuous

but also to the common aspect in English; thus, писал may correspond both to was

writing and to wrote.



29. Phase is the correlation of perfect, non –perfect forms has been different interpreted in the grammatical study of English.

Non – perfect form coincides with the present moment of speaking, Perfect opposing denotes precedence, priority of the action to the moment of speaking.

There are 3 approaches:

1) Tense approach. Perfect were recognized as tense forms giving the secondary temporal characteristics of the action. In terms of 2 temporal categories put forward by Prof Blokh perfect forms were treated as the category of retrospect. This opinion can hardly be taken as a retional analyses of the oppositional perfect non – perfect forms because as the form = has done = has 2 tense meanings – present/perfect tenses which contradicts the definition of the gram category and is based on the morphological confusion on: tense and time correlation (phase). Though, in fact, the forms – comes, has come = do not differ in time reference, they both referr to the present tense, but they differ in the way of correlation with the present moment.

Another proof that this 2 categories should be treated separately is that perfect/ non –perfect forms may be realize independently from the present forms = infinitive, genitive.

2) Aspect approach. Prof. Vorontsova thinks that perfect form represents the resultative aspect it’s hard to stick to this opinion because of the confusion of aspect and tense.

e.g has been reading = resultative, continious/ non – continious

One categorial meaning should be!

3) Smirnitskyi: Phase is a separate morphological category. He introduced the term of the time correlation. The category of phase is immanent morphol category realized by the binary private opposition of perf/ non-perf forms.

Non –prefect is morphologically unmarked and semantically extansive (expressing the general, wide categorial meaning)

Perfect opposeme is positively marked from the morphological point of view, by the discontinuous morpheme = have + en

This opposeme is semantically intensive, it expresses 2 basic meanings:

- correlation with the moment of speech

- presidence (has 2 realizing forms = resultiveness in the present tense; contrast form in the past tense) e.g When I met him he was grey – haired and fat, though he head been handsome


30. The category of voice
The form of the verb may show whether the agent expressed by the subject is the doer of the action or the recipient of the action (John broke the vase - the vase was broken). The objective relations between the action and the subject or object of the action find their expression in language as the grammatical category of voice. Therefore, the category of voice reflects the objective relations between the action itself and the subject or object of the action:

Relations of actions The category of voice
The category of voice is realized through the opposition Active voice::Passive voice. The realization of the voice category is restricted because of the implicit grammatical meaning of transitivity/intransitivity. In accordance with this meaning, all English verbs should fall into transitive and intransitive. However, the classification turns out to be more complex and comprises 6 groups:
1. Verbs used only transitively: to mark, to raise;
2.Verbs with the main transitive meaning: to see, to make, to build;
3. Verbs of intransitive meaning and secondary transitive meaning. A lot of intransitive verbs may develop a secondary transitive meaning: They laughed me into agreement; He danced the girl out of the room;
4.Verbs of a double nature, neither of the meanings are the leading one, the verbs can be used both transitively and intransitively: to drive home - to drive a car;
5.Verbs that are never used in the Passive Voice: to seem, to become;
6. Verbs that realize their passive meaning only in special contexts: to live, to sleep, to sit, to walk, to jump.
Some scholars admit the existence of Middle, Reflexive and Reciprocal voices. "Middle Voice" - the verbs primarily transitive may develop an intransitive middle meaning: That adds a lot; The door opened; The book sells easily; The dress washes well. "Reflexive Voice": He dressed; He washed - the subject is both the agent and the recipient of the action at the same time. It is always possible to use a reflexive pronoun in this case: He washed himself. "Reciprocal voice”: They met; They kissed - it is always possible to use a reciprocal pronoun here: They kissed each other.
We cannot, however, speak of different voices, because all these meanings are not expressed morphologically.

31. the problem of middle, reflexive and reciprocal voice

The voice identification in English is aggravated by the problem of “me­dial” voices, i.e. the functioning of the voice forms in other than the passive or active meanings. As a result, some linguists also distinguish Reflexive Voice(also called Middle Voice).In case of Reflexive Voice, the doer of an action and the object of the action coincide, that is the doer experiences his own ac­tions (e.g. She reconciled herself to the loss, You can express yourself freely).

The problem of Reflexive Voice is still under debate, since the model “transitive verb + reflexive pronoun” differs from the model of an analyti­cal form, characteristic of tense or passive forms. The controversial nature of reflexive constructions, on the one hand, and strict requirements which analytical forms must meet, on the other hand, prevent many scholars from distinguishing Reflexive Voice in English. The arguments put forward to refute Reflexive Voice are as fol­lows: 1) the model “transitive verb+reflexive pronoun” does not form a par­adigm, since it does not present any opposition to Active Voice both struc­turally and semantically (unlike, for instance, Ukrainian verbs in -ся);2) the model “transitive verb+reflexive pronoun” may have no reflexive meaning, and vice versa, a verb without a reflexive pronoun may have the reflexive meaning created by its own semantic properties and by the context (cf. She dressed herself, she dressed her child, she dressed,similar examples may be found with the verbs to wash, to shave. However, in some cases the reflexive pronoun cannot be skipped, e.g. I warmand I warm myselfcannot be mixed up as well as I amuseand Iamuse myself).

There are also scientists who believe that reflexive meaning may be ob­served and distinguished only in a context. In other words, reflexive mean­ing is episodic, formed by a certain context, i.e. reflexive meaning is one of the facets of Active Voice, where the object is expressed by a reflexive pronoun. The reflexive pronoun has a dual nature, since it can function both as a lexical part of speech and a function word.

Some scholars distinguish so-called Reciprocal Voice.In the case with Reciprocal Voice, actions expressed by verbs are also confined to the sub­ject, but, as different from the sentences with Reflexive Voice, these actions are performed by the subject constituents reciprocally: e.g. The friendswill be meeting(each other) tomorrow, James and Sandramarriedtwo years ago, Phil and Tradeare quarrellingover the washing-up again.Here, the verbal meaning of the action performed by the subjects on one another is clearly reciprocal. As is the case with the reflexive meaning, the reciprocal meaning can be rendered explicit by combining the verbs with special pro­nouns, namely, the reciprocal pronouns each otherand one another.

32. the category of mood

Mood is the grammatical category of the verb reflecting the relation of the action denoted by the verb to reality from the speaker's point of view.Mood expresses the relation of the action to reality, as stated by the speaker.A.I. Smirnitsky, O.S. Akhmanova, M. Ganshina and N. Vasilevskaya find six moods in Modern English ('indicative', 'imperative', 'subjunctive I', 'subjunctive IF, 'conditional' and 'suppositional'), B.A. Ilyish, L.P. Vinokurova, V.N. Zhigadlo, I.P. Iva-nova, L.L. Iofik find only three moods – 'indicative', 'imperative' and 'subjunctive'. The latter, according to B.A. Ilyish appears in two forms – the conditional and the subjunctive. L.S. Barkhudarov and D.A. Shteling distinguish only the 'indicative' and the 'subjunctive' mood. The latter is subdivided into 'subjunctive I' and 'subjunctive IF. The 'imperative' and the 'conjunctive' are treated as forms outside the category of mood.
G.N. Vorontsova distinguishes four moods in English: 1) 'indicative', 2) 'optative', redivsented in three varieties ('imperative', 'desiderative', 'subjunctive'), 3) 'speculative', found in two varieties ('dubitative' and 'irrealis') and 4) 'divsumptive'.

The Indicative Mood
The indicative mood is the basic mood of the verb. Morphologically it is the most developed system including all the categories of the verb.
Semantically it is a fact mood. It serves to divsent an action as a fact of reality. It is the «most objective» or the «least subjective» of all the moods. It conveys minimum personal attitude to the fact. This becomes particularly manifest in such sentences as Water consists of oxygen and hydrogen where consists denotes an actual fact, and the speaker's attitude is neutral.

As for the Subjunctive mood in Ukrainian there is just one mood expressing unreality called either subjunctive or conditional or suppositional. It is used to denote an action thought to be unreal, desirable or possible. It is formed by means of the past tense form of the verb and particle «би» (б) which can both precede or follow the verb (я б хотів зробити щось хороше). The action can be referred to the present, past or future.

In English there are 4 oblique moods: subjunctive I, subjunctive II, suppositional and conditional.

Subjunctive I does not depend on the time reference and its main seme is that of «uncertainty in the reality of the phenomenon».

The main seme of the Subjunctive II is that of «unreality». It has the forms referring the action to the present/future and to the past.

Suppositional mood expresses «supposition» (should + inf.) and has no grammatical categories.



33.The system of language means which are used for producing sentences in Engl and Ukr is called the grammatical structure.

The grammatical structure includes:

  • Grammatical classes of words and their syntactic properties
  • Rules and regularities of combining words of different classes according to their systemic properties in order to produce sentences.

The grammatical structures of any languages constitute the subject matter of grammar.

There are 3 approaches to define the subject matter of syntax:

  • Word-centric
  • Sentence-centric
  • Comprehensive

Word-centric is the framework of this approach syntactic unit are understood as mere syntagmatics of words (the environment of a word). Within this approach syntactic units are analyzed as mere structure depending on the syntagmatic properties of words. But it neglects the essential level properties of word-groups and sentences, thus sentence here can be codified just as a structure but not a communicative unit of language.

Sentence-centric reduces syntax to the theory of the sentence, because the supporters of this approach consider sentence as a basic integral unit which incorporates in its structure of all other levels. Following a separate unit and analyzed just as a sentence part which is not rational, because a lot of systemic units may and must be analyzed irrespective all the sentence it’s illustrated into

My brother lives in London

This is my brother

I’ve not seen my brother for a week

All properties of a word-group: the number of components, order, relations, connections are the same and they are not predetermined by a sentence structure.

It goes from this that the word-group should be analyzed as separate syntactic unit, but not as part of the sentence.

Comprehensive stars from the assumption that syntax is a branch of grammar which studies all syntactic level units: a word-group, sentence, text in the system of their paradigm and syntagmatic properties.

39...Subordinate word-groups are always binary, they consist of an adjunct and head.

Predicative word-groups are partly isomorphic, because in Engl there is a wide set in predicative word-group while in Ukr the number of predicative word-groups are rather rare.

Predicative word-group: primary (are based on finite predication in both language syntax), secondary (are based on non-finite predication which is not morphologically marked by by the category of person, number, tense, mood).

Secondary can be

  • Acc to expressiveness of verbal components - infinitival, participial, gerundial.
  • Acc to character of relations between word-groups – endocentric (are headed), exocentric (are non-headed)
  • Acc to inner structure – simple (are word-groups in which all the elements are in the same type of syntactic connection), complex (are word-groups in which all elements are in different types of syntactic connection).
  • Acc to composition word-groups are divided into – elementary (are word-groups consisting of only obligatory elements), extended (consists of obligatory and optional components)
  • Acc to the position – free (are word-groups in which relevance can change the position without effecting the structure and meaning), bound (are word-groups in which the position of elements is fix and can not be changed without effecting the meaning).
  • Acc to functional significance – notional-functional (only notional words), notional-functional (comprising both notional and functional words), functional (consists only of functional words).
  • Acc to the means expressing syntactic connections – syndetic (word-groups in which syntactic connection is formally represented by a special segments either conjunction, preposition), asyndetic (word-groups in which neither subordination nor coordination is formally represented)
  • Acc to phrasiological character – free, bound (idiomatic).
  • Acc to the position of the adjunct – progressive (adjunct in post position to the head), regressive (adjunct is preposition to the head), progressive-regressive (word-groups in which adjunct in both positions to the head).
  • Acc to linie characteristics – continuous, discontinuous.


34 The syntactic language level can be described with the help of special linguistic terms and notions:syntactic unit, syntactic form, syntactic meaning, syntactic function, syntactic position, and syntactic relations.

Syntactic unit is always a combination that has at least two constituents. The basic syntactic units are a word-group, a clause, a sentence, and a text. Their main features are:

a) they are hierarchical units – the units of a lower level serve the building material for the units of a higher level;

b) as all language units the syntactic units are of two-fold nature:

c) they are of communicative and non-communicative nature – word-groups and clauses are of non-communicative nature while sentences and texts are of communicative nature.

Syntactic meaning is the way in which separate word meanings are combined to produce meaningful word-groups and sentences.
Green ideas sleep furiously.This sentence is quite correct grammatically. However it makes no sense as it lacks syntactic meaning.

Syntactic formmay be described as the distributional formula of the unit (pattern). John hits the ball –N1 + V + N2.

Syntactic functionis the function of a unit on the basis of which it is included to a larger unit: in the word-group a smart studentthe word ‘smart’ is in subordinate attributive relations to the head element. In traditional terms it is used to denote syntactic function of a unit within the sentence (subject, predicate, etc.).

Syntactic positionis the position of an element. The order of constituents in syntactic units is of principal importance in analytical languages. The syntactic position of an element may determine its relationship with the other elements of the same unit: his broadback, abackdistrict, to goback,tobacksm.

Syntactic relationsare syntagmatic relations observed between syntactic units. They can be of three types – coordination, subordination and predication.


35.Syntactic relations.

The syntactic units can go into three types of syntactic relations.

1. Coordination (SR1)– syntagmatic relations of independence. SR1 can be observed on the phrase, sentence and text levels. Coordination may be symmetric and asymmetric. Symmetric coordination is characterized by complete interchangeability of its elements – pens and pencils. Asymmetric coordination occurs when the position of elements is fixed: ladies and gentlemen. Forms of connection within SR1 may be copulative (youandme), disjunctive (youorme), adversative (strict but just) and causative-consecutive (sentence and text level only).

2. Subordination (SR2) – syntagmatic relations of dependence. SR2 are established between the constituents of different linguistic rank. They are observed on the phrase and sentence level. Subordination may be of three different kinds – adverbial (to speakslowly), objective (to seea house) and attributive (abeautifulflower). Forms of subordination may also be different – agreement (thisbook –thesebooks), government (helpus), adjournment (the use of modifying particles just, only, even, etc.) and enclosure (the use of modal words and their equivalents really, after all, etc.).

3. Predication (SR3)– syntagmatic relations of interdependence. Predication may be of two kinds – primary (sentence level) and secondary (phrase level). Primary predication is observed between the subject and the predicate of the sentence while secondary predication is observed between non-finite forms of the verb and nominal elements within the sentence. Secondary predication serves the basis for gerundial, infinitive and participial word-groups (predicative complexes).


36. Though the word – group is lightly considered the main syntactic unit of the non-communicative design there doesn’t exist exapted definition of the word – group. The basic controversial problems concerning the definition of the word – group are:

- the morphological status

- the type of syntactic connection between the components of the word – group.


Acc to the morphological status of word – group components the opinions of grammarians differ in the following way. Some scholars after Prof Barhudarov think that only notional words can be components of the word-group, following this the scholars reject propositional phrases (like in the morning, to the door, біля дверей) = as soon as, in front of , according to….

Within this approach such units are treated as the so –called “complex prepositions/ complex conjunctions” which contradicts the definition of a part of speech which reads that a part of speech is a class of words having similar semantic, formal and functional properties.


Acc to the second opinion word irrespective of it being notional or functional may be part of the word – group. This is the widest approach definition possible because it recognize all extual existing word – groups consisiting of a notional word + a functional word or even word – groups consisting of only functionals. Within this approach the formations like as soon as are treated as word – groups equivalent to the conjunctions which is more adequate.


Acc to the type of syntactic connection there are also exist 2 approaches:

- many scholars after the academishian Vinogradov state that only subordination is capable of forming word – group because the resulting unit is characterized by a clear card structure; respectively coordinate and predicative word – groups …………

- there is also an opinion that all types of syntactic connection can form up word – groups though with specific features of there own. Needless to say that the second approach is more adequate.

Hands comes the definition of the word – group is the combination of any words making up a gram unit on the basis of subordination, coordination and predication.



37-38. Co-ordinate word-groupsin English and Ukrainian are formed from components equal in rank which are connected either syndetically (with the help of conjunctions) or asyndetically (by placement).

For example: books and magazines; to read, translate and retell; neither

this nor that, книжки й журнали; читати, пере-кладати й переказувати, ні те й ні се. Co-ordinate word-groups are non-binary

by their nature; this means that they may include several IC's of equal rank, though not necessarily of the same lexico-grammatical nature. Cf. (They were) alone and free and happy in love. (Abrahams).

Such and the like word-groups in both contrasted languages perform the function of homogeneous parts of the sentence, eg: There they were: stars, sun, sea, light, darkness, space, great waters. (Conrad)Тут ними були: зірки, сонце, море, світло, темінь, простір, великі води. It was done thoroughly, well and quickly. Це було зроблено досконало, гарно й швидко.

According to the structure of the ICs and their number, co-ordinate word-groups may be elemental and enlarged.

Elemental word-groupsconsist of two components only, eg: Pete or Mike, he and she, read and translate, all but me; Піт чи Майк, він і вона, читати й перекладати, всі крім мене.

Enlarged co-ordinate word-groups consist of structurally complicated components: to read the text, to analyze it stylistically and translate it — читати текст, аналізувати його стилістично і перекладати йо-


As to the expression of sense, co-ordinate word-groups in the contrasted languages may be closed or unclosed, i. e. infinite. Closed word-groups denote some actions, objects and phenomena. They consist

of two components only, eg: rivers and lakes, neither he nor she, all but me річки й озера; ні він, ні вона; всі крім мене. Commonin both languages are also the unclosed or infinite word-groups consistingof several constituent components the number of which maystill be continued (as by enumerating). These constituents may be connected

by means of conjunctions or asyndetically, eg: books, notebooks, bags, pens and pencils; ні гори, ні гірські потоки, ні звірі чи птахи, ні рослини (не цікавили їх).

A common means of expressing homogeneousness as well as forming co-ordinate word-groups in both languages is also intonation. Cf He speaks /English, /German, /French, /Spanish and \Russian.

/Явором, /канупером, /чебрецем, /м'ятою, /любистком запахло

\літо (К. Гордієнко).



41 Substantival word-groups with postposed adjuncts . Substantival word – groups are widely spread in English. This may be explained by a potential ability of the noun to go into combinations with practically all parts of speech. Substantival word – groups consists of a noun-head and an adjunct or adjuncts with relations of modification between them. Substantival word – groups with post-posed may be classified according to the way of connection into prepositionless andprepositional. The basic prepositionless NPs with post-posed adjuncts are: Nadj. – tea strong, NVen – the shape unknown, NVing – the girl smiling, ND – the man downstairs, NVinf – a book to read, NNum – room ten. The pattern of basic prepositional NPs is N1 prep. N2. The most common preposition here is ‘of’ – a cup of tea, a man of courage. It may have quite different meanings: qualitative - a woman of sense, predicativethe pleasure of the company, objectivethe reading of the newspaper,partitivethe roof of the house.

42 Verbal word –groups. The Verbal word - group is a definite kind of the subordinate phrase with the verb as the head. The verb is considered to be the semantic and structural centre not only of Verbal word - group but of the whole sentence as the verb plays an important role in making up primary predication that serves the basis for the sentence. Verbal word - group are more complex than Substantival word-groups as there are a lot of ways in which verbs may be combined in actual usage. Valent properties of different verbs and their semantics make it possible to divide all the verbs into several groups depending on the nature of their complements. Verbal word - groups can be classified according to the nature of their complements – verb complements may be nominal (to see a house) and adverbial (to behave well). Consequently, we distinguish nominal, adverbial and mixed complementation. Nominal complementation takes place when one or more nominal complements (nouns or pronouns) are obligatory for the realization of potential valency of the verb: to give smth. to smb., to phone smb., to hear smth.(smb.), etc. Adverbial complementation occurs when the verb takes one or more adverbial elements obligatory for the realization of its potential valency: He behaved well, I live …in Kyiv (here). Mixed complementation – both nominal and adverbial elements are obligatory: He put his hat on he table (nominal-adverbial). According to the structure Verbal word - groups may be basic or simple (to take a book) – all elements are obligatory; expanded (to read and translate the text, to read books and newspapers) and extended (to read an English book).

43 Predicative word-groups.

Predicative word combinations are distinguished on the basis of secondary predication. Like sentences, predicative word-groups are binary in their structure but actually differ essentially in their organization. The sentence is an independent communicative unit based on primary predication while the predicative word-group is a dependent syntactic unit that makes up a part of the sentence. The predicative word-group consists of a nominal element (noun, pronoun) and a non-finite form of the verb: N + Vnon-fin. There are Gerundial, Infinitive and Participial word-groups (complexes) in the English language: his reading, for me to know, the boy running, etc.)

53 Predicativity and modality of the sentence

Predicativity is a special aspect of the sentence which inables it to function as a communicative unit.

Semantically predicativity is defined as a reference in the sentence informat to the situation of objective reality.

From logical Predicativity is qualified as the relativeness of the sentence information to the proposition to the main form of thought, consisting of a logical subject (the logic of thought ) and a logical predicate (the development of the object of thought).

Formal-syntactical interprets Predicativity as the relations between the gram. subject and the gram. predicate of a sentence.

There is no contradiction between logical and symentic interpretations of Predicativity ad they both take into account difeerent aspects of the same phenomenon: the denote/referent or significant.

But the formal- syntactical approach is unacceptable because subject – predicate relations represent predication but not predicativity.

Predicativity and Predication correlate as meaning and form. Predicativity constitutes the meaning of predication while the predication is basic form of expressing predicativity.

Modality of the sentence includes some aspects which make up a modal hierarchy.

Objective modality:

- expresses the reference of the sentence to objective reality

- is obligatory aspect

- is grammatically represented by the cat of mood.

Subjective modality:

- expresses the attitude of the speaker to the information

- it regards the sentence information as possible, impossible, advisable, strange, important

- is an optional modal characteristics of the sentence

- it is lexiacally expressed mostly by modal words

e.g you certainly (subjective) know (objective) what to do

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