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ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Техника нижней прямой подачи мяча.
Франко-прусская война (причины и последствия)
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Смысловое и механическое запоминание, их место и роль в усвоении знаний
Коммуникативные барьеры и пути их преодоления
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Образцы текста публицистического стиля
Четыре типа изменения баланса
Задачи с ответами для Всероссийской олимпиады по праву
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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
The noun as gram.class of words in the contrasted lang
As any other class of word noun should be charectorized acc.to 5 criteria
1. general implicit mean
3. system of derivational morpheme
5. syntactic function in the sentence
General implicit mean-is substantivity (is a very polysemic notion. It includes the nomination of the hman being, inanimate object, abstract notions, locations, qualities, names of matter)
From morphological point of view EN & UA nouns are characterized by gram.category of number &case (EN); number, case, gender (UA).
Each notional in En & UA are characterized by specific set of derivational affixes, which predominates in UA. EN nouns have prefixes: ex- co-; while UA have much wider: від- пре- роз-.
Both EN & UA nouns has left-hand & righr-hand connection with other notionals & function.
The most typical is left-had connection are articles (EN) pronouns (both, all кожний, якийсь), adj, numerals, gerund. PI, PII
Right-hand connection: finite verbs, prepositions, numerals.
From the syntactic point of view it is necessary to divide functions of nouns into:
1) substantive nouns occur quite frequently functions corresponds to the mean of Noun-subject & Noun-object.
2) Non-substantive infrequent, having no correspondence to the noun meaning of thingness(predicate, attribute, adv.modif)
Noun is constituted by words, which are grammatically and semantically divided into various classes.
16. morphological classification of nouns in EN & UA
Acc.to the morphological composition EN & UA falls into
· Simple (N consist of root) they prevails in EN because notionals are not distinguished at the language level. It means that words are nor marked by affixes, suffixes or prefixes.
· Derived are n consisting of a root and prefix/suffix. Suffixes are of greater importance for noun-building especially in EN
Acc. Degree of frequency
· Native (-ite; -ness; -ry)
· Foreign (international –ism; -ist; -rix;)
Acc.to semantic of noun they build
· Agentive (-er; -or;-ant; -ent;-ard)
· Angentive (UA)(-ань –юр –юк –уч)
· Diminutive (productive: -y –ie –ling –och; less-productive: -enrtt –ur –ор –оньк)
· Abstract notions (-ism – hood –dom –ness-tion –ність –ство –ття –ння)
Prefixes divided acc.to origin
· Native are of Germ.orig (out- miss- over- in- un- на- пра- від- за-)
· Borrowed (anti- ex- in- co- super- vice-)
In both lang the full scheme of morphological composition is: prefix+root+suffix+inflection.
· Compound are nouns consisting of 2 roots. The typical compound is adj+ stem of noun; verb+stem of noun
The problematic is the morph status of such nouns as a common ball, a speech sound as compound noun or free syntactic word combination
· Composit are nouns that are formed from a stable syntactic combination (go-betweens, commander-in-chief, mothe-in-law, take-offs)
In UA composite nouns are requently use for building up names (Рябоконь)
Composite are alsonouns which obligatory definite article (the Dnieper)
17. the semantic subdivision of nouns in contrasted lang. Lexico-morphological & lexico-syntactical types of nouns in EN & UA
Due to the great variability of noun properties they fall into different classification
· Semantically acc.to the type of nomination. EN &UA nouns fall into:
· Proper (personal, geograph., parts of day, months, different institutions, street, ships). Proper nouns have no conceptual meaning because their nomination is individual.
· Common (concrete falls into classification that indicate object of a large number being similar in nature; collective are noun representing sets of people & objects as one unity; abstract). Common nouns represent a generalizing meaning of a group or class of words. They have conceptual meaning.
Less rigorous is the discrimination of concrete & abstract noun. Usually concrete nouns denote object that can be counted; abstract nouns are generally represented by verbal nouns or adj.nouns.
Mess nouns nominate different materials.
· Lexico-morphological classification of nouns. There are 2 classification
· Is based on the realization of the category of number
· Countable (noun expressing substances that can be counted & morphologically they are characterized by both number (pl-sing).
· Uncountable (nouns denoting substances that can not be counted morphologically they have only one number (absolute sg; absolute pl).
· Is based on the realization of the category of case
· Animate (declin)
· Inanimate (indecl)
There is a progress of migration of uncountable into count with a certain shift in meaning.
In EN only animate can be declin while inanimate stand outside the category of state.
In UA both anim & inanim nouns are declin, indecl are only borrowed words.
· Lexico-syntectical classification is based on the position & function in word-groups
· head noun (governing noun). Noun of active valence (they presuppose their environment) e.g two girls
· adjunt noun (governed noun). Noun of passive valence (shows the pictures) e.g побачити дівчину
18. Typology of the categ of number inEN &UA nouns
The grammatical category of number is the linguistic representation of the objective category of quantity. The number category is realized through the opposition of two form-classes: the plural form :: the singular form. The category of number in English is restricted in its realization because of the dependent implicit grammatical meaning of countableness/uncountableness. The number category is realized only within subclass of countable nouns. The logical criteria of number and amount is realizedin bothlang basically with the help of special lexemes: numerals, nouns.
Lex-syntect it can be expressed number (a great deal of., a lot of, a number of).
Morphologically by means of category of number (table-tables→by gram.cat. of number).
Thus the categoru of number in EN & UA can be defined as morphological way of expressing the logical category of number & amount. This category are grammetical in both lang because it has its owm gram.meaning and it is expressed by morphological opposition.
The general categorial meaning is onenss or more then oneness of substances.EN & UA differ in number opposims of noun. In EN nouns the number of opposims is binary private, UA nouns realize the category of number by tortuory equipolent opposition (Sin-duel-pl) дерево-дерева-дерева.
Duel number is chracterized for Rus, UA & Belorussia. It’s mostly forms by shifting the stress of the plural form onto the first suitable. Duel number is singled out in the combination of noun with numerals.
Some of borrowed noun sing EN have developed the assimilated EN pl forms.(mediun-media)
As for UA noun they have number forms depending on 3 factors: Declination, gender, final consonant (hard, soft, palatalized)
1st decl хата-хати
2d decl х inf in sing -moskulina
е Inf pl -moskulina
о,а Opposite - neutral
о,и opposite – plural
3d decl мати-матері, тінь-тіні, печ-печі
4th decl імя – імена, теля-телята. Курча-курчата
The pl of EN nouns is produced by productive regular variants, which are realized be three phonetical conditional allophones s→z-iz.
Irregularly pl number form in EN is expressed by ending –en (oxen, children).
One more way of plural building in EN by means of replacive morphs (foot-feet, mouse-mice).
In both languagesthere exist 2 specific groups of noun which do not stand outside the category of number, but have neutralized position.
· Singularia tantum of noun sing in variable nouns which have the absolute sing number form, with no plural counter part. They names of materials, nouns denoting abstract notions, collective nouns, proper nouns, branches of science
· Pluralia tantum- are plural nouns that have absolute plural form with no regular sing counter part.
The grammatical meaning of number may not coincide with the notional quantity: the noun in the singular does not necessarily denote one object while the plural form may be used to denote one object consisting of several parts. The singular form may denote:
· oneness (individual separate object – a cat);
· generalization (the meaning of the whole class – The cat is a domestic animal);
· indiscreteness (нерасчлененность or uncountableness - money, milk).
The plural form may denote:
· the existence of several objects (cats);
· the inner discreteness (внутренняя расчлененность, pluralia tantum, jeans).
To sum it up, all nouns may be subdivided into three groups:
· The nouns in which the opposition of explicit discreteness/indiscreteness is expressed :cat::cats;
· The nouns in which this opposition is not expressed explicitly but is revealed by syntactical and lexical correlation in the context. There are two groups here:
Singularia tantum. It covers different groups of nouns: proper names, abstract nouns, material nouns, collective nouns;
Pluralia tantum. It covers the names of objects consisting of several parts (jeans), names of sciences (mathematics), names of diseases, games, etc.
· The nouns with homogenous number forms. The number opposition here is not expressed formally but is revealed only lexically and syntactically in the context: e.g. Look! A sheep is eating grass. Look! The sheep are eating grass.
The Category of case.
There isvery little of common in Eng and Ukr as far as the category of case is concerned. The only Isomorphic feature is the assene of the case category. In both lngs the case category is a pure gram. category which has it's own gram. meaning and morphological way of its expression. As to the scope of cases the meaning of cases Eng differs greately from Ukr. In Ukr nouns the case category is represented by a polynomic equipollant opposition of seven case forms in sing. and plural
- the nominative case хмара
- genetive case хмари
- dative хмарі
- accusative хмару
- instrumental хмарою
- locative хмарі
- Vocative хмаро
Things are quite different in eng nouns. There are four theories concerning the case deveopment in Eng. They are:
- the theory of positional cases
- the theory of prepositional cases
- the theory of possessive close position
- limited case system
1)Theory of positional cases is based on analogy of latin grammar. Within this theory besides the inflected genetive case the nominative, D Acc Voc cases are recognized according to the position a noun occupies in phrases and sentences.
---e.g I saw the girl -Acc case
--- Come here, girl - Voc case
I gave the book to the girl. – Dative case
2) The theory of prepositional cases recognizes some inflectional prepositions .The noun with some prepositions are reguarded as different case forms in some attributive and objective phrases. It concerns the prepositions of + noun, (genetive case), to for + noun (dative case). This theory can hardly pass any serious linguistic trial because in noun declentional languages all prepositions by vertur of functional nature are combined with a particular case form ( so called prepositional govement). If so than any combination of a preposition + noun in Eng should be regarded as a specific case form. It results in recognizing practically unlimited number of cases in Eng nouns.
3) The theory of posessive clause position wa put forward by the russian linguist Vorontsova. Who thinks that the case category has got extinkt, with nouns losing all inflexions of case. It goes from this that Vorontsova doesn't recognize the apostrophy S morpheme as the inflexion of Genetive case. She considers the apostrophy S sign as a pure syntactic element resembling preposition. The only difference betveen apostrophy S sign and a preposition is that the appostrophy S is always in post position to the noun while preposition can have both left and right connections to the nouns.
In order to reject the case category in modern Eng nouns Vorontsova put forward arguments
1. Apostrophy S sign is optional, because the meaning rendered by it can be expressedothevise.
--- A mans voice - a voice of a man
2. The limited character of the apostrophy sign. The restricted usage of the apostrophy S sign is prooved by using only animate nouns in the genetive case form.
3. The loose character of the apostrophy sign which is prooved by the fact that this is the only morpheme tht can be attached not to a single noun but to the phrase and even the sentense.
4. The same inflexion of apostrophy S is added in the same form to singular and plural.
1. Not all phrases N S N can be replacer by a prpositional phrase. In numerous instances the transformation NSN is imposible
2. Modern eng fact show that inanimate nouns can also be used in genetive case. ( The churce's roof, the novel's heroes).
Acc to the lates data obtained in linguistics 96 percent of total use of genetive case is with single nouns. 4 percent illustrates the use of the apostrophy S morpheme with pronouns or phrases and sentences
3. In most cases app S morpheme solves the morphological representation of the genetive case. But in regular plurals and in ancient greek names the genetive case is represented by a zero morpheme.
4) Theory of the limited case system
Is most widely spread in G teaching of English. It was formulated by such scholars as Henry Sweet, Otto Jesperson, for the developed by prof. Parcudarov, Smirnitskiy and others. This theory starts from the assumption that the case category is sintectico morphological category in m.eng nouns because the category expresses the relations of a noun with other words in the sentence. It is represented by a binary private opposition of the common and genetive case. The common case is:
1, Morphologically unmarked (zero )
2. Semantically extensive (indefinite)
3. Functionally unlimite (noun in a common case can perform different functions)
The genetive case form is morph marked by appostrophy S morpheme which is represented by 3 phonemically conditioned allomorphs ( -s -z -iz) and may have zero representation in regular plurals and in the greek names.
It s semantically intensive. A moe concrete definite individual meaning.
The genetive case form is functionally limited. The only funktion of the dependive genetive is that an atribute of moduified noun.
There a 2 positional variant of genetive case:
- the dependent genetive
- the absolute independent genetive (without a modified noun)
There are 2 structural types of genetive case:
- group genetive
- double genetive (expressed twise)
( a college of my father's)
The category of gender
According to some language analysts (B.Ilyish, F.Palmer, and E.Morokhovskaya), nouns have no category of gender in Modern English. Prof.Ilyish states that not a single word in Modern English shows any peculiarities in its morphology due to its denoting male or female being. Thus, the wordshusband and wife do not show any difference in their forms due to peculiarities of their lexical meaning. The difference between such nouns as actor and actress is a purely lexical one. In other words, the category of sex should not be confused with the category of sex, because sex is anobjective biological category. It correlates with gender only when sex differences of living beings are manifested in the language grammatically (e.g. tiger – tigress). Still, other scholars (M.Blokh, John Lyons) admit the existence of the category of gender. Prof.Blokh states that the existence of the category of gender in Modern English can be proved by the correlation of nouns with personal pronouns of the third person (he, she, it). Accordingly, there are three genders in English: the neuter (non-person) gender, the masculine gender, the feminine gender.
Standard Ukrainian distinguishes three genders ± masculine, feminine and neuter ± assigned on the basis of biological sex where applicable; otherwise,largely on the basis of the (morpho)phonological form of the noun stem. With few exceptions, nouns ending in consonants are masculine, nouns ending in –a and -я feminine, and nouns ending in -o or -e neuter. English nouns of courselack this grammatical category.
The category of gender is expressed in English by the obligatory correlation of nouns with the personal pronouns of the third person. These serve as specific gender classifiers of nouns, being potentially reflected on each entry of the noun in speech. The category of gender is strictly oppositional. It is formed by two oppositions related to each other on a hierarchical basis. One opposition functions in the whole set of nouns, dividing them into person (human) nouns and non-person (non-human) nouns. The other opposition functions in the subset of person nouns only, dividing them into masculine nouns and feminine nouns. Thus, the first, general opposition can be referred to as the upper opposition in the category of gender, while the second, partial opposition can be referred to as the lower opposition in this category.
As a result of the double oppositional correlation, a specific system of three genders arises, which is somewhat misleadingly represented by the traditional terminology: the neuter (i.e. non-person) gender, the masculine (i.e. masculine person) gender, the feminine (i.e. feminine person) gender.
The strong member of the lower opposition is the feminine subclass of person nouns, its sememic mark being "female sex". Here belong such nouns as woman, girl, mother, bride, etc. The masculine subclass of person nouns comprising such words as man, boy, father, bridegroom, etc. makes up the weak member of the opposit A great many person nouns in English are capable of expressing both feminine and masculine person genders by way of the pronominal correlation in question. These are referred to as nouns of the "common gender". Here belong such words as person, parent, friend, cousin, doctor, president, etc. E.g.:
The President of our Medical Society isn't going to be happy about the suggested way of cure. In general she insists on quite another kind of treatment in cases like that.
The capability of expressing both genders makes the gender distinctions in the nouns of the common gender into a variable category. On the other hand, when there is no special need to indicate the sex of the person referents of these nouns, they are used neutrally as masculine, i.e. they correlate with the masculine third person pronoun.
In the plural, all the gender distinctions are neutralised in the immediate explicit expression, though they are rendered obliquely through the correlation with the singular.
As we see, the category of gender in English is inherently semantic, i.e. meaningful in so far as it reflects the actual features of the named objects. But the semantic nature of the category does not in the least make it into "non-grammatical", which follows from the whole content of what has been said in the present work.
In Russian, German, and many other languages characterised by the gender division of nouns, the gender has purely formal features that may even "run contrary" to semantics. Suffice it to compare such Russian words as стакан — он, чашка—она, блюдце — оно, as well as their German correspondences das Glas — es, die Tasse — sie, der Teller — er, etc. But this phenomenon is rather an exception than the rule in terms of grammatical categories in general.
Moreover, alongside of the "formal" gender, there exists in Russian, German and other "formal gender" languages meaningful gender, featuring, within the respective idiomatic systems, the natural sex distinctions of the noun referents.
In particular, the Russian gender differs idiomatically from the English gender in so far as it divides the nouns by the higher opposition not into "person — non-person" ("human— non human"), but into "animate —inanimate", discriminating within the former (the animate nounal set) between masculine, feminine, and a limited number of neuter nouns. Thus, the Russian category of gender essentially divides the noun into the inanimate set having no meaningful gender, and the animate set having a meaningful gender. In distinction to this, the English category of gender is only meaningful, and as such it is represented in the nounal system as a whole.
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