To sum up furthermore moreover secondly finally however 

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To sum up furthermore moreover secondly finally however

Computers are a major technological breakthrough of the twentieth century. Their benefits are numerous yet much can be said against them. Clive games, an Australian critic, once said that “It is only when they go wrong that machines remind you now powerful they are.”

The main disadvantage of computers is that staring at a screen for long periods of time can be damaging to the eyes, and sitting on a chair for hours at a time is certainly not healthy.

1._____ computers distract from social interactions suck as conversation. Also, people can be inclined to become anti-social and stay at home to use their computers. 2._____ the most persuasive argument against the use of computers is that the more jobs which are done by computers, the less are done by people. 3._____ the advantages of computers are numerous, such as the undeniable educational benefits, especially to children. School subjects become more interesting when presented on a computer screen. 4._____ computers can be fun with a seemingly endless variety of games, which can be played on them. In addition, computers are valuable to any business, making life easier and saving time by being capable of storing and retrieving vast amounts of information at the touch of a button. 5._____ personal gains can be seen as the use of computers increases powers of concentration. 6._____ there are strong arguments both for and against the use of computers. Yet despite the health problems risk to jobs and lack of personal interaction, it seems that as long as the use of computers is regulated, the benefits computers provide to education and business are invaluable.


***IV. Browsing the Internet, you've come across the essay, which expresses the following viewpoint on the problem of computers role in today's life. Does it sounds convincing? What are the strong and weak points of it? The author asks you to share your opinion and ideas on this problem. Send your essay to his site.

The essay:

There is no doubt that computers have made my and my friends' lives easier. Business can also benefit from using computers too.

It's easy for students to learn computers because things seem more exciting and interesting when you see them on a screen rather than in a book. There are also lots of games you can play too and you can become so interested in them that you don't want to do your homework. You can also become unfriendly because you don't want to go out. You only want to stay in your room and play with your computer. My mum says "It's not healthy to be sitting down all day."

Most workplaces have computers nowadays and it does make jobs faster and easier and they're supposed to help you with your concentration but many computers can do the same job a person can and quicker which might mean that he loses his job. This happens to many people.

Finally, I think computers are good because they help people a lot and statistics say that this is true.


***V. Some people state that the technological revolution brought more harm to the Universe than use. The others insist that without the scientific progress there wouldn't be such a high development in different spheres of life (e.g. Science, Medicine, Teaching, Communication, Entertainment etc).

Make your own choice supporting one of the points. Give your arguments and examples from the material studied and your own knowledge and make conclusions summing up everything said.


***Task VI. Put the Infinitives in brackets in Indefinite, Continuous or Perfect Tenses in the Active Voice. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian:

1. A computer (to store) information which it (to receive). 2. When I (to come) into the room my friend (to compile) a program. 3. When you (to come) to the laboratory I (to show) you how to calculate by using a computer. 4. You (to solve) this algebraic problem and I (to compare) my results with yours. 5. When a computer (to do) reasonable operations it (to compute) or (to calculate). 6. The electronic computer just (to perform) its calculations. 7. They (to do) many operations on the computer. 8. When you come back he (to perform) computing operations. 9. Owing to the computer we (to process) a great deal of information. 10. They (to write) a program for the computer by the end of the month. 11. I (to compile) a program for two hours when the lecturer came into the laboratory. 12. This equation seems to have no solution. We (to perform) calculations for an hour. 13. She (to discuss) some questions with her instructor now.

14. Before the design (to be) ready they (to work) on it for 3 hours.


**Task VII Practice the use of Active Voice Tenses.

Variant one

1. Where is your luggage? — I (to leave) it at the station. I (to take) it tomorrow when Nick (to come) to help me. 2.1 (to read) about an hour when he (to come). 3. The play (not yet to begin) and the people (to talk) in the hall. 4. Yesterday I (to buy) a new pair of gloves, as I (to lose) the old ones. 5. We (to walk) in silence. He already (to tell) me all that (to. be) interesting about himself, and I (to have) nothing to tell him. 6. The moon (not to rise) yet, and only two stars, like two distant lighthous­es, (to shine) in the dark blue sky. 7. What you (to do) these three months? 8 Our train starts late in the evening, so if you (to come) at seven o'clock, we still (to pack) our luggage. 9 When you (to see) him last? 10. I (to meet) him when he (to walk) across the park.

11. You ever (to act) on the stage? — Why, yes, that's what I (to do) for the last six years.

12. Don't enter the bedroom! The child (to sleep) there, and he always (to wake) up when somebody (to open) the door.

Variant two.

1.What you (to do) when I (to come) in? 2. When (to come) to his house, they (to tell) me that he (to leave) an hour before. 3. On checking up his answers he (to find) out that he (to make) several mistakes. 4. When I (to leave) home, the snow al­ready (to stop), but a strong wind (to blow). 5. You (to read) this book? — Yes, I (to read) it. I (to think) it (to be) very interesting. 6. What the chil­dren (to do) now? — Oh, they (to play) the new table game which I (to buy) for them the day be­fore yesterday. 7. They (to reach) the corner of the street by now and (to stand) at the bus stop.8. After we (to walk) about two hours, we arrived at a picturesque glade covered with fresh grass.9. We could not go out because it (to rain) hard since early morning. 10. She (to teach) at our school for twenty years now. 11. Ring me up as soon as you (to come) home. 12. He (to begin) to write his composition at three o'clock. It is already eleven, and he still (to write) it. He says he (to finish) it by twelve. 13. We (to help) our librarian to put the books in the right order for already three days, but we (to arrange) only half the books.


*Task I. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian paying attention to the Predicate in the Passive Voice.

1. The name "Rubber" was derived from the verb "to rub". 2. This difficulty Was overcome much later. 3. Synthetic rubber is widely used in many branches of industry. 4. The seeds of rubber producing plants had been sent from America to England before they were sent to other countries. 5. This technological process has been greatly improved due to a fortunate acci­dent. 6. To adapt natural rubber to technical uses a process of vulcanization has been developed. 7. A uniform stable substance was obtained by heating the mixture of natural rubber and sulphur to high temperatures.

**Task II. Put the Verbs in brackets in the required forms of the Tense and Voice and translate into Ukrainian.

1. He (not to participate) in the work of any international scientific confer­ence yet. 2. They just (to invite) to participate in the work of a seminar on some urgent problems of biophysics. 3. In publications of that institute much space (to devote) unusually to problems of space research. 4. The Russian Academy of Sciences (to open) in 1725.5. He (to appoint) head of Doctor in mathematics. 6. Don't switch on the light. The experiment (to carry out) in complete darkness.

**Task III. Find the Predicates in the Passive Voice and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. In the past centuries many universities were controlled by the church. 2. In the seventeenth century learned societies were organized in England and France. 3. In scientific monographs much space is often devoted to experimental work. 4. Groups of learned men were grouped together by their scientific interests. 5. July 15,1662 is usually considered the date of foundation of the Royal Society of England.

**Task IV. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian paying attention
to the Predicate in the Passive Voice.

1.The explorers were shown the nearest way to the river. 2. The design of the engine was given much attention to. 3. The explorers were seen not far from the camp of the expedition. 4. The student was asked several difficult questions. 5. She was told to leave the laboratory. 6. The students are taught English at our Institute. 7. The engineers of our laboratory were offered new research work. 8. He was helped while translating the article.

***Task V. Divide into groups: those who stand for advantages of computers an those for disadvantages. Give your reasons.

Unit II

The Use of Grammar Tenses.

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