This kind of modality is realized in both languages via modal verbs/their lexical equivalents plus the infinitive of the notional verb. These constructions perform the function of the compound modal verbal predicate and express different meanings predetermined by the modal verb in the main, which can be observed in many citations and their Ukrainian translations on the forthcoming pages.

1. Thus, the modal verb can/could expressing physical or mental ability is usually translated into Ukrainian with the help of the modal verbs могти, вміти or by means of their equivalents мати змогу/можливість, бути в змозі/мати силу:

a)l saw that he could hardly Я бачив, що він не може/не take his eys off her. (Maugham) має сили очей відірвати від неї.

«Now, you pray, Harold,» she said. «I can't», said. Krebs. (Hemingway) «I haven't been able to do what I meant.» (E. Warton)

«А тепер ти молись, Гарольде,» - сказала вона. «Я не вмію.» відповів Кребс.

«Я не мав змоги зробити те, що надумав зробити ...»

b) When expressing doubt, distrust, uncertainty, etc. (mainly in interrogative and negative sentences) the meaning of can/could is mostly enforced in Ukrainian with the help.of the particles невже, хіба or the adverb навряд:

«Невже (хіба) ви мені не вірите, мамо?» «Навряд чи це той самий чоловік.» «Та невже/хіба то Волтер?»/ Навряд чи то Волтер.

«Can't you believe me, mother?» (Hemingway)

«It can't be the same man -


It can't possibly be Walter.» (Maugham)

с) When expressihg the meaning of reproach, surprise or per­mission the lexical equivalent of the modal verb can in Ukrainian is mostly the stative можна:

Як можна таке обіцяти/ такого наобіцяти? «Можна прийти й подивитись ваші картини?» «Маючи все це, не можна залишати жінку без шеляга.»

«How can one promise that?» (Greene)

«Can I come up and see your pictures?» (Hemingway)

«Having it all, one can't leave a woman without a bob.» (Maugham)

d) When the modal verb can expresses irrefutability of action or assuredness of statement, it may be conveyed in Ukrainian, where this kind of modal meaning is usually expressed implicitly, through a definite word-order and sentence stress (prosodic means):

«You can't teach an old dog «Старого вчити - тільки
new tricks.» (D. Lessing) час даром марнувати.»

There was nothing, the boy Хлопцеві нічого не could do but run. (J.K. Jerome) залишалось, як тікати.

Can the leopard change his Горбатого могила вип-
spots? (Saying) равить.

e) Some modal meanings of can/could are expressed in Ukrainian either lexico-grammatically or through phonological means. The choice of the means rests then exclusively with the translator. Thus, in the sentence below the meaning of the modal verb could is under logical (or emphatic) stress which may be marked (pointed out) accordingly in Ukrainian: / could know it without your telling me. (B.Shaw) Я міг довідатись про це і без тебе.

The same could in the isolated sentence may also be treated as a form of the subjunctive mood, marked by the participle б/би: Я довідався б/міг би довідатись про це і без твоєї допомоги.

«І can't recollect him.» «Я щось не пригадую/не
(Greene) можу його пригадати.»

«Why can't he go to a hospi- «Чому він не може лягти в
tal?» (Christie) шпиталь?/Чому він не лягає

до шпиталю?»

Note. Some English modal meanings of can have no corre­sponding equivalents in Ukrainian. Cf.: / can see in this picture. Я бачу на цій картині... І can hear you well. Я добре чую тебе. Сап you see me? Ти бачиш мене?

f) In some contextual environment the modal meaning of can may be expressed in Ukrainian through other modal verbs:

«How can you talk to me like «Як ти смієш зі мною так
that.» (Fitzgerald) розмовляти.»

«We had an awful time get- «Повинен тобі сказати. ting back, I can tell you.» (Ibid.) дорога назад була страшенно


The modal verb can/could followed by the perfect infinitive

and expressing a probable, doubtful, uncertain, incredible, etc. ac­tion is usually translated into Ukrainian depending on its contextual meaning. The latter may be expressed: 1) through the past form of the corresponding verb (indicative mood) or 2) through its subjunc­tive mood form (умовний спосіб). For example:

1) «She can't have neglected all that.» (F.King)

«Невже вона всім цим знехтувала?»

«Вона не могла всім цим знехтувати»

2) «How could she have been like that?» (Fitzgerald) Nobody could have saved him. (W.Trevor) But he could have lived, this boy. (Hailey)

«Як вона могла так поводитись/бути такою?»

Ніхто його не врятував би/ Навряд чи хто врятував би його.

Проте хлопчина той міг би й жити/міг би й вижити.

Exercise I. Offer appropriate Ukrainian particles or modal adverbs (or both) to convey the phonologically expressed (through emphatic stress or intonation) modality in the English sentences below.

Model: «I did have ideas that way. For a time.» (Hailey) Таки закрадалися спершу такі думки/У мене й справді закралися були спершу такі думки, (modal particle таки', modal particle й plus the modal adverb справді).

1. «Wouldn't you like me to read?» she asked. 2. «Wouldn't you like some broth?» 3. «I wouldn't know what to do. Honestly.» 4. «Behave yourself.» «Why don't you try behaving?» (Hemingway) 5. «Oh, I am longing to see it,» Iris said. 6. «Sweety, I don't honestly like this very much.» (F.King)?. «I know you didn't mean to. but you did it (hurt).» (Fitzgerald) 8. «John, it was you who initiated the Joe Black Memorial Award.» (B. Glanville) 9. «I do apologise, Madam. I feel so... I would not have troubled.» (S.Hill) 10. «Now I caught you!» she said. «Now you can't get away!» 11. «It (music) seems to be right in them.» 12. «Wait till I tell him I met Walter Williams,» she said. 13. «Why don't you have another concert, some time?» 14. «Well, I'll be there. ГИ be there, if I possibly can. You can count on me.» 15. «I just caught myself in time.» (D.Parker) 16. «You think so?» «Why not.» I said. (Hemingway) 17. «I'm not hungry. Dave. I wouldn't lie to you.» (Caldwell)

Exercise II. Identify the modal meaning of can/could, to be able to (physical ability, mental ability, etc.) and translate the

Sentences into Ukrainian.

1. Anyone can be a fisherman in May. (Hemingway) 2. «Can you draw?» 3. «I could wash the floors.» (Dreiser) 4. Suleman-ibn-Daoud could hardly speak for laughing. (Kipling) 5. «You have done everytning you could for me.» (Hemingway) 6. « ... but I can't make head and tail of it.» (Maugham) 7. She couldn't bear the sight of him. (Christie) 8. «I was able to do the commissioner a favour once, and he sends me a Christmas card every year.» (Fitzgerald) 9. Dorian seemed to be able to exercise whenever he wished. (Wilde) 10. Still there are many individuals who have never been able to work. (D.K.Stevenson) 11. A man can do no more than he can. 12. No man can serve two masters. (Proverb) 13. «Can't I go with you, Holden? Can't I?» (Salinger) 14. It could scarcely be said that he did this in a fatherly spirit. (Dreiser) 15. And there followed, of course, squeals and gaffaws of delight - so loud that they could be heard for half a mile. (Dreiser) 16. As for Mrs.Gerhardt, one could better imagine than describe her feeling. (Ibid.) 17. For a moment the set of his face could be described in just that fantastic way. (Fitzgerald) 18. He was unable, however, to long keep silence. (Galsworthy) 19. You cannot burn the candle at both ends. (Proverb) 20. «I suppose, Joe, there couldn't be any doubt about that blood test on Mrs.Alexander?» (Hailey) 21. All that could be truly said of him now. (Dreiser) 22. «How could it have mattered then?» 23. How could she have been like that?» (Fitzgerald) 24. «I couldn't have missed that.» 25. «I could have forgiven it if fallen desperately in love with someone and gone off with her.» 26. «That's just why they couldn't have had the key.» 27. «She could have gone back to Strove,» he said irritably. (Maugham) 28. «Oh,» cried Fleur. «You could not have done it.» 29. There could not have been such relentless unforgiveness. (Galsworthy) 30. We could have stayed in Paris or gone elsewhere. (Hemingway)

Exercise III. Choose the most fitting meaning of the two pertained to the modal verb can/could and translate the sen­tences faithfully into Ukrainian.

1. If we ignore this problem, we can easily find ourselves in an embarrasing situation. (Stevenson) 2. «I don't think I can stand it.» 3. «I'd send you a certain sum of money and you could give it him gradually, as he needed it.» 4. «Even now I can hardly believe it's true.» 5. «I can tell you why he left his wife - from pure selfishness and nothing else whatever.» 6. «Why can't you write yourself?» 7. «I could not hear what he said.» 8. «Why can't he go to a hospital?» 9.

«May I speak now? (Maugham) «May I offer you some fruit?» (E.Bates)

I could not tell how they were getting on. (Maugham) 10. «It's more than he's worth, I know, but it can't be helped now.» (Dreiser) 11. «If it wasn't for the mist, we could see your home across the bay.» 12. Neitner of them can stand the person they're married to. Can they?» (Fitzgerald) 13. He couldn't say the word «dead». (W.Trevor) 14. «You'll have no trouble. I can assure you.» (Christie) 15. «Pardon, but could you tell me if a Mr. or Mrs.Kobinson resides here?» (Ibid.) 16. «I couldn't take the chance of letting it be known that there was doubt.» (Hailey) 17. «I can't bear the look of that horrible muzzle.» (C.S.Lewis) 18.1 could not believe that Strickiand had fallen in love with Blanche Stroeve. (Maugham) 19. I could think of no excuse. (Christie) 20. «You can't expect me to think it's a very good system.» (Hemingway) 21. «I couldn't expect you to understand it.» (Maugham) 22. «What's your opinion, Joe?» «It could be a bone tumor?» (Hailey)

Exercise IV. Find appropriate Ukrainian equivalents forthe explicitly and implicitly expressed meanings of can/could in the sentences below and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. Thus, you can keep rubbing the wounds of the day a little sorer even while he is on his knees ... (C.S. Lewis) 2. There are lots of fellows who would be delighted to have your chance, I can tell you. (Dreiser) 3. «It can't possibly be Walter.» (Maugham) 4. Vivian could see he was puzzled, not knowing what to make of it. (Hailey) 5. Love cannot be compelled. (Proverb) 6. «You can't wait in the dining-room, Miss.» (Mansfield) 7. She could not help giving ear to the sounds surrounding her. (Dreiser) 8. «I wish I could see him.» (Hemingway) 9. How weakened she was I had not been able to imagine until I saw her at the railway station ... (Buck) 10. You could see they were being careful as hell not to drink up the minimum too fast. (Salinger) 11. «Your sister? I can't believe it.» (Greene) 12. If we ignore this problem, we can easily find ourselves in an embarrassing situation. (D.K.Stevenson) 13. «I'm sorry, Granger. I wish I could help.» (Greene). 14. Can it really be true, then, that a non-commercial, non­profit public network is the largest. (D.K.Stevenson) 15. « ... you can't expect me to «believe a word you say.» (Galsworthy) 16. «I can't bear it.» (Christie) 17. She used to be able to understand. (Fitzgerald)

18. «We had an awful time getting back, I can tell you.» (Fitzgerald)

19. «Oh. If only I could return back to my flower basket.» (B.Shaw)

20. «I cannot have you call on me here.» (Dreiser) 21. «I can't say anytning in this house, old sport.» (Fitzgerald) 22. «You can't talk to me like that.» (Ibid.) 23. «You can't live on air, you know.» (Christie) 24. Love and cough cannot be hid. (Proverb) 25. «...compare her

with that poor Mrs. Osborne who could say boo to a goose.» (W.Thackeray) 26. A fog cannot be dispelled with a fan. (Proverbs) 27. He was not old, he could not have been more than forty. (Galsworthy)

2. The modal verb may/might with its lexical equivalents to be permitted I to be allowed has also some peculiarites of use and expression of meaning. The latter predetermines the use of its Ukrain­ian lexical equivalents. Thus, when the modal verb may/might ex­presses permission it is usually translated into Ukrainian as the stative можна. For example:

a) «Now may I go?» (Christie) «To що, можна мені йти?»
At the hospital they told me І «У шпиталі сказали, що
might wait.» (Ibid.) мені можна почекати.»

This meaning of may, as can be seen below, coincides with the meaning of the modal verb can in the indefinite personal or im­personal sentences as in One can count it/It could be counted on the fingers of one hand - це можна(можна було) порахувати на пальцях однієї руки.

b) The meanings of permission expressed by the modal verb may/might can equally be conveyed by the Ukrainian verbs дозволяти, не заперечувати:

« Тепер дозволяєте/можна мені говорити?»

«Можна запропонувати вам/Не заперечуватимете проти фруктів?»

с) When the verb may/might expresses possibility (coincid­ing with the verb can/could) or probability, assumption, uncertainty, admonition, advice, etc., it is usually translated into Ukrainian with the help of the polysemantic verb могти.

This verb is therefore homonymous in its meaning incorporat­ing in Ukrainian the meanings of canand may wnich can be seen from the following sentence:

«I think I may, remind him of а «Я могтиму/матиму
time he prefers to forget.» змогу, думаю, пригадати йому
(Christie) той чаСІ Пр0 якии в;н
Єол/є не



pelled from the organisation by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. (Charter of the United Nations)

d) When expressing assumptio.ri,^rQ^!:|J||:^,.:.p)i^sumability, wish, advice, etc., the verb may andI its^ pasf ^o^subjunctive) form might often acquires some additional modal meaning.which is mostly rendered into Ukrainian with the help of different modal particles. The most frequently employed of them are б, ще/ще й, хай, etc.

«Let's wait a little more, she «Зачекаймо трохи, вона ще
might return in a couple of min- може (може ше й) прийде за
utes.» (Bailey) кілька хвилин.»

Bass said we might get some Бас каже, що ми могли б
of the laundry of the men at the брати в пожителів^готелю
hotel to do. (Dreiser) білизну прати (для прання).

«We shall never be married.» «Ми ніколи не одружимось.»

«Some time-we might,» said «А може, колись і одружи-
Dorothea in a trembling voice, мось,» відповіла Доротея
(Seghal) тремтливим голосом.

e) When expressing wish, the subjunctive meaning of may is conveyed in Ukrainian either with the help of the particles хай or щоб, initiating the sentences:

May they live a long life. Xmi їм щастить.
damnation take him. Шобвінбув проклятий./Хай

йому трясші!

f) Some modal meanings (supposition, assumption, desire, etc.) expressed in English by may/might are rendered into Ukrain­ian through modal particles and a peculiar logical word order:

«May He (God) support me «Допоможи й мені Боже.»
too.» (H.Hawthome) (Хай Бог помогає й мені)

Between the cup and the lip a He кажи гоп, доки не
morsel may slip. (Proverb) перескочиш (Скажеш гоп, як


«Might he not, later, be pun- «А його за це часом/згодом
ished for a thing like this?» не покарають?»(А його це_
(Dreiser) можуть потім покарати?)

g) The-modal verb may is often used in the language of docu­ments to express polite though severe warning:

A Member of the United Na- Держава - член Організації' tions which has persistently vio- Об'єднаних Націй, яка lated the Principles contained in постійно порушує зазначені в the present Charter may_be ex- цьому Статуті принципи,

може бути виключена з ООН Генеральною Асамблеєю згідно рекомендації Ради Безпеки. (Статут Організації' Об'єднаних Націй).

h) The modal verb may/might followed by a perfect infinitive often expresses supposition, desire, uncertainty, probability, etc., of actions which might not have been carried out. When isolated from a contextual environment, the construction of may/might with the per­fect infinitive may be treated as polysemantic and consequently of­fered different interpretatations in Ukrainian. Thus, the sentence «She may have forgotten, you know; or got the evening mixed.» (Galsworthy) may have the following five faithful (from the transla­tor's point of view) interpretetions/variants:

1) «Знаєте, вона мабуть забула чи сплутала вечір.»

2) «Вона певне забула або сплутала вечір.»

3) «Можливо, вона забула чи сплутала вечір.»

4) «Цілком імовірно, що вона забула чи сплутала вечір.»

5) «Знаєте, а може вона забула чи сплутала вечір.» і) There appears still more uncertainty while conveying the meaning of may/might with the negated perfect infinitive as in the sentence «The aircraft might not have been downed in the action.» (USA Today) The lexical ambiguity of the construction can be seen from the following possible variants of its interpretation in Ukrainian:

1) Літак може й не збито в тім бою.

2) Літак мабуть не збито в тім бою.

3) Цілком імовірно, що літак не був збитий у тому бою.

4) Навряд чи літак був збитий у тому бою.

5) Може літака й не збили в тому бою.

These meanings of may/might are naturally realized through the infinitive forming the content core of the modal predicate in the sentence.

In many sentences the modal verb might adds a subjunctive meaning to the predicate, which it is a part of, as in the following example:

Mrs.Gerhardt thought of all Дженні Ґергардт перебрала
the places to which she might й усі інші місця, де можна було
apply. (Dreiser) б спитати про роботу.


Exercise I. Before translating the sentences into Ukrain­ian, state the meaning (supposition, probability, assumption, uncertainty, permission, etc.) expressed by the modal verb may/ might. Suggest the use of the stative можна or the adverb можливо (with or without a modal particle) where necessary.

1. «They may not like it.» 2. «She may and she may not prove to be a riddle to me.» (Dreiser) 3. Erik says that you may be coming to New York. (M.Wilson) 4. He may have to go to Monte Carlo with his father. (O.Wilde) 5. There may be a number of benefits. 6. Many non-Americans may be aware of the geographical size of the United States. 7. Other aspects of America may be a far more serious chal­lenge to our experts. (D.K.Stevenson) 8. The hospital might receive money now or it might not. 9. «I suppose I might be difficult to live with. (Hailey) 10. Anything might happen. (G.Greene) 11. «We might dine together.» (Christie) 12. «She was afraid he might die before she had done so.» (H.James) 13. I thought you might be glad to learn of my good fortune. (O.Henry) 14. «Sometimes when Mr. de Winter is away and you feel lonely, you might like to come up to these rooms and sit here.» (Du Maurier) 15. You may know one of them to be a great warrior on the Enemy's side. (C.S.Lewis) 16. ... her heart might be lonely, but her lips continued to sing. 17. Yes, he might be called a successful man. (Dreiser) 18. You might see noth­ing in him. (O.Wilde) 19. «There's one thing that might work, might give us a better pointer. That's X-ray. If there's a tumor, X-ray might show it.» 20. It might be dangerous, if we get a disease carrier at the hospital. (Hailey) 21. This may be the reason of their refusal to join us. (J.F.Cooper) 22. «She might be a duchess.» 23. «I may be very stupid, but I can't make head or tail of what you're saying.» (Maugham) 24. «You might as well ask for a reflection without a mirror.» 25. «You may or may not be right on that point, Hastings.» (Christie) 26. «Per­haps I may keep the handkerchief. (C.S.Lewis) 27. I told her she might fool me but she couldn't fool God. (Fitzgerald) 28. «... but you may as well get what you can out of it.» (Maugham) 29. A fool may ask more questions than a wise man can answer. (Proverb) 30. «If I may introduce myself, I am Mr.Chou's manager.» (Greene) 31. She might come-this afternoon if she wants to.» 32. «They might all be wrecked by such fast driving.» (Dreiser).

Exercise II. Offer the most fitting lexical equivalents for the modal verb may/might with the perfect infinitive in each sentence below and after that translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. They may not have said anything about it. (H.Munro) 2. If they had been in the room then, she might have murdered them. (J.Cheever) 3. «That may not have occured to you that it would be rather a shock to a girl to find out that her husband had lived for ten years with another girl and had three children.» (Hemingway) 4. She may have had no particular feeling for him. 5. For all, we know they may have settled down into a most domestic couple. (Christie) 6. Miss Matfield might have been very sorry for him. (J.Priestley) 7. «Well, he might have been murdered by the Vietminh.» (Greene) 8. «He looked at Hilda; he might have been looking at a stranger.» (Bennett) 9. «You might have told me earlier - what you told me on Wednesday night.» 10. It may have been a healthy wind, but the effect on the nerves was evil. (Bennett) 11. Wolf too had disappeared, but he might have strayed away after a squirrel or a partridge. (W.lrving) 12. «You might have told us that half an hour ago.» (B.Shaw) 13. Of course, there were many things, I might have an­swered to this.» (Christie) 14. «If I had remained a rich man, I might have lost it for good and all.» 15. «And we might have been so happy.» (Maugham) 16. «Catherine, who might have said anything didn't say a word.» 17. Of course, she might have loved her for a minute. (Fitzgerald)

3. The modal verb must has also some peculiar features of its own. Borrowed by Ukrainian from German through Polish, this verb in English and Ukrainian expresses strong obligation, duty, neces­sity. In these meanings must has for its direct lexical equivalents the strongest Ukraininan modal verb of this same meaning мусити.

a) «Now I really must get back «Тепер я мушу серйозно
to my tasks. End of term in sight, взятись за роботу. Знаєш,
you know.» (Murdoch) скоро кінець семестру.»

We must eat, we must drink, Ми мусимо їсти, пити і and we rnust be merry. (Saying) мусимо завжди бути веселими.

b) Not without the long influence of the Russian language, which was for some centuries a dominant political factor in Ukraine, the modal verb мусити has been more often substituted by urban Ukrainians for its almost as strong semantically Ukrainian synonym повинен or for the modal stative треба. То convey the meaning of necessity, duty or obligation, expressed by the modal verb must. whose direct Ukrainian equivalent is still often avoided on the aforenamed grounds, present-day Ukrainians often resort to the ad-

ditional use of the modal adverb обов'язково:

«I must sit down. This leg gets «Я мушу/повинен сісти,
tired.» (Greene) Щось поболює оця нога.»

«You must certainly send it «Ти повинен обов'язково вис-
(picture) next year to the тавити портрет наступного
Grosvenor.» (О. Wilde) року у павільйоні Ґросвенор.

The meaning ofmi/sfin both English sentences above directly corresponds to our Ukrainian мусити, which is also proved by the use of the intensifying modal adverb обов'язково in the last sen­tence.

It may naturally not always be clear from an isolated sentence, which of the possible meanings the modal verb must expresses: that of the strongest (мусити) or those of the somewhat weaker ones (повинен, треба). Thus, from Martin Eden's words in the sentence below is not clear whether it is Ruth's duty, moral/presumptive obli­gation or her necessity to address her father: «And you must tell your father for me.» (London) Hence, the translator may suggest three posible equivalents for this modal meaning of must in Ukrain­ian:

1) «I/A ти мусиш сказати це за мене батькові.» (duty, ob­ligation)

2) «I/A ти повинна сказати це за мене батькові.» (neces­sity)

3) «І/А тобі треба самій сказати це за мене батькові.» (presumptive obligation)

с) The translator may sometimes choose the Ukrainian lexical equivalent of must under the influence of the traditionally established usage of a modal meaning in his native tongue. Thus, the meaning of necessity, obligation following from a prescription or rule, may of­ten be expressed in Ukrainian through strict logical word order or via some other finite verbs with the intensifying adverb, as can be ob­served in the following sentences:

сіли в затишному куточку... Конституцією США вста­новлено, що державний пере­пис («поголівний облік») насе­лення повинен проводитися кожні десять років.

«I musn't take the money,» «Я ніколи не візьму цих гро-
said Carry, after they were set- шей,»- відповіла Керрі, коли вони

tied in a cosy corner... (Dreiser) The Constitution of the US specifies that a nationwide cen­sus, a «head count» of all Ameri­cans, must be taken every ten years. (O.K. Stevenson)

d) When expressing assumption or supposition, the modal verb must may have for its lexical equivalent in Ukrainian a contextually fitting modal adverb or a modal particle:

«Він мабуть/не як з глузду з'їхав!-вигукнувполковник. (Та ж він просто з глузду з'їхав!) «Топ хлопець певне/як залізний. Він ніколи не стомлюється.» «Якщо я почуваюсь так, це означає, що моє серце більш не витримує.»

«He must be as mad as a hat­ter!» exclaimed the Colonel. (Christie)

«That fellow must be made of steel. He's never tired.» (R.Warren)

«If I feel this way, my heart must be broken.» (Hemingway)

e) Some meanings of this modal verb are formally obligatory in English, where they express obligation or certainty but they may not have an explicit expression of these meanings in Ukrainian:

«I must apologize, Agnes, I'm «прошу вибачити. Еґнес;
very sorry...» (Coward) мені дуже жаль. »/«Перепро-

шую. Еґнес, мені дуже прикро.»

«І thought you must be «я думала, що тебе нема
away.» (Maugham) вдома/що ти вже пішов.»

f) Therefore, the usual meaning of must in some Ukrainian contexts may be weaker than in the English language original where it clearly expresses certainty, duty or obligation. Consequently, it can not be substituted in Ukrainian for either the modal verb мусити or for its weaker variant повинен. Then, some other equivalents have to be chosen for such nationally predetermined meanings of must. For instance:

«What must you have thought «Що ти міг тільки подумати
of me?» (Maugham) про мене?»

«It must seem very funny to «Це може здатися /певне
you.» (Galsworthy) здається тобі/дуже дивним.»

«Were the people looking at Чи люди дивилися на неї? her? They must be.» (Mansfield) Мабуть./Напевне. ш.о так.»

Some contextual meanings of must have a national Ukrainian non-explicit expression of modality. For example: «Come, Dave, you must see.» (London)

«Ходіть-но, Дейве, подивіться.» or: «Ходи-но, Дейве, на свої

очі пересвідчишся.»


g) The Ukrainian modal verb мусити or повинен is to be used, however, when conveying the meaning of the English syntagmeme have got (to) with the indefinite infinitive having the function of the compound modal verbal predicate:

(Greene) «Doris, l say to you.» (Hemingway)

«I've got to stay sober.» «Я повинен/маю бути


jot something to «Доріс, я маю/повинен тобі дещо сказати.»

h) The modal verb must when used with the perfect infinitive usually expresses actions supposed to have taken or not taken place but of which the speaker is mostly informed. The meaning of thus expressed action is usually rendered into Ukrainian with the help of the modal adverbs or particles можливо, очевидно, мабуть, напевно, певне:

«Не must have fallen off when we left the first bull.» (Hemingway)

«Зброєносець певне випав з машини, коли ми від'їхали від першого застреленого буйвола.»

Тут лікар Браун промовив:

«Цей чоловік уже мертвий певне з тиждень.»

So Dr. Brown's whispered words: «The man must have been dead a week.» (Greene)

Some probable action expressed by the modal verb must with the negative particle not and the perfect infinitive shows that the ac­tion might have been carried out. Though other interpretations, i.e., expressions of the meaning are not excluded either:

She must not have followed Вона не повинна була
the advice ... (Austen) виконувати цю пораду...

Some other interpretations of this modal verb with the perfect infinitive construction may be quite opposite to that in the sentence above. Namely:

1) Навряд чи вона послухалася тієї поради.

2) Не може бути, щоб вона послухалася тієї поради.

3) їй не треба було слухатися тієї поради.

As in the similar case with may/might plus the perfect infini­tive, there may be also other contextual meanings of must with the perfect or indefinite/continuous infinitive. These meanings can also be found in the compound modal predicates of sentences given in the exercises that follow.

Exercise I. Analyse each sentence first and offer a suit­able Ukrainian equivalent (мусити, повинен, треба, маю etc.) for the modal verb must. Then translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. «Accidents can happen to anybody, darling. You mustn't blame yourself.» (S.Sheldon) 2. «Only you must give me your clothes, too.» (A.Bierce) 3. «You mustn't stare at people when they pass,» continued mother. 4. To succeed one must do something - one must associate, at least seem to associate with those who were foremost in the world of appearences. (Dreiser) 5. «I'll telephone. They must see the faces of many people you've heard about.» (Fitzgerald) 6. This brings us to the last factor that must be kept in mind. 7. They must have local public support, because citizens vote directly on how much they want to pay for school taxes. (D.K.Stevenson) 8. «We must go as quickly as we can.» 9. In the meantime we must make the best of the situation. (C.Lewis) 10. «I must be left to myself fora while.» 11. «They mustn't take him into my house.» (Maugham) 12. «Adam, you must not leave the house.» 13. To be popular, one must be a mediocrity. 14. «I go on board to-night for India, and I must do my job first.» (Wilde) 15. «He must know that infatuation won't last.» 16. «He must be treated with infinite tact.» 17. «But you mustn't go with me, you wouldn't understand. I must show them to you myself.» (Christie) 18. «I must speak to you by such means as are within my reach.» (J.Austen) 19. «But according to your category I must be merely an acquaintance.» (Wilde) 20. «Still I must sleep.» (Hemingway) 21. An articled clerk must pass the necessary exami­nations held by the Law Society. (I.Tenson) 22. «I must acquit you of criminality.» (A.Bierce) 23. «But we mustn't talk here.» (Galsworthy)

Exercise H. Translate the sentences containing the modal verb must with different forms of the infinitive. Use one of the following (or some other) fitting Ukrainian equivalents for the purpose: повинен, певне, мабуть, треба, змушений, зобов'язаний, маю, etc.

1. «She must be in New York by now.» (M.Wilson) 2. They must be in a bad way truly. 3. «It must cost a good deal to live here, don't you think?» 4. «It must be nice to be famous,» said the girl softly. 5. The neighbourhood they lived in must be very poor. 6. Mrs. Gerhardt commented upon this repealing again and again: how good he must be or how large must be his heart. (Dreiser) 7. «Must be interesting?» he said. (Christie) 8. «We heard it from three people, so it must be true.» (Fitzgerald) 9. The boy must be forty by now.


(Galsworthy) 10. «You must be too hard,» he smiled back. (Hemingway) 11. Alcohol must help somewhat in fighting arterioscle­rosis. (D.K.Stevenson) 12. «You must know, Gatsby.» 13. Some words of this conversation must have reached Wilson swaying in the office door... 14. She must have seen something of this expression for she turned abruptly away... 15. She must have broken her rule against drinking that night. 16. «You must have gone to church once.» 17.1 must have felt pretty weired at that time, because I could think of nothing else. 18. It (the car) must have killed her instantly. 19. He must have looked up at the unfamiliar sky. (Fitzgerald) 20. «He must have been in the river,» the woman said. (S.Barstow) 21. But even when she laughed she must have'been one of the servants. (Maugham) 22. These must have been expensive cigars. (J.Priestley) 23. But you must have seen pictures of her. (Christie) 24. «You must have got mixed up in something in Chicago.» (Hemingway) 25. What he saw in that room must have frightened him terribly. (J.Kierzek) 26. «I have read your feelings, and I think you must have penetrated mine». (J.Austen)

4. The modal verb have (to) is of common lexical nature in English and Ukrainian, where its meaning in all substyles corresponds to the verb мати as in the following examples:

a) «Oh, I have to tell you «О, мамо, я маю вам щось something, mamma.» (Dreiser) сказати/розповісти.»

«Don't forget, we have to pay «Пам'ятай, що ми маємо
the library. (Hemingway) платити бібліотеці.»

b) Depending on the lexical meaning of the infinitive that forms the compound modal predicate with it, the modal verb have (to) may often become close to that of the Ukrainian modal verbs повинен, мусити, to the stative треба or to the modal adverb потрібно/ необхідно:

«Бачите, нам, бідним худож­никам, треба/необхідно показу-ватися час від часу на людях.» «Ми маємо/повинні робити все, що можемо.» «Вам треба буде/ доведеться взавтра попрацювати/взятись краще, ніж оце зараз.»

«You know we, poor artists, have to show ourselves in soci­ety from time to time. (Wilde)

«We have to do everything we can.» (Hemingway)

«You'll have to pull harder than this tomorrow. (Hemingway)

c) In some contextual environment, however, the meaning of have to may be very close if not equivalent to must (мусити/ повинен):

«I have to leave you here.» «Я змушений/повинен покину-
(Fitzgerald) ти/залишити тебе тут.»

«І have to tell you I find your «Повинен/мушу сказати, твоя
work just a little too stark.» робота/праця видається мені
(Hemingway) трохи заважкою.»

d) The modal meaning of the verb have to may be predeter­mined by the peculiarity of usage and singularity of expressing the same modal meaning in the source language and in the target lan­guage, which may sometimes coincide as in the sentence below:

«And what have we to do with «А що нам/маємо робити з
the lives of those who toil for us?» життями тих, котрі як чорні
(Wilde) воли важко працюють на нас?»

As can be seen, translation of the modal verb have (to) may be influenced by various factors which should be taken into consid­eration while choosing its lexical equivalent in Ukrainian.

Exercise I. Suggest an appropriate lexical equivalent for the modal verb have (to) in the sentences below and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. «You don't have to do it.» 2. «You have to go back to school.» (Salinger) 3. «If you gain anything, you will have to fight for it.» 4. «Times are hard ... I have my family to keep.» 5. «You will have to wait until you hear from me again.» (Dreiser) 6. «We've got to go to bed.» 7. «She's not to know about it.» (Fitzgerald) 8. «Hadn't we better put a little bit of stick or something between each word.?» (Kipling) 9. «Doris, I've got something to say to you.»10. «He'd have nothing more to do with the woman and Macomber would get over that too.» (Hemingway) 11. «... under my oath I've got to try to catch the criminal.» (Saroyan) 12. «Shan't we have to risk it?» (C.S.Lewis) 13. «Well, we've got a little business to talk about,» said Boom con­fidently. (W.Jacobs) 14. «All I had to look forward was doing the same old thing day after day.» (Maugham) 15. «How long did you have to stay there?» (F.Cooper) 16. «You don't have to be an alcoholic to hurt your baby; you just have to be drinking enough while pregnant.» (Alcohol, the Legal Drug) 17. «I must write stories and they have to be stories that will sell.» (Salinger) 18. «Bob has to be on duty at the


hospital at nine o'clock.» (J.King) 19. «You have to take it.» (Dreiser) 20. «She and Diana, have a lot to arrange together.» 21. «... you've still got to take it easy.» (F.King)

5. Together with the common in both languages modal verbs of generally isomorphic nature there is one conspicuous for its us­age. This is the synonymous to the modal verb have to English modal verb to be (to) which has some meanings that are realized depend­ing on the form and lexical meaning of the infinitive following it. This modal verb may express obligation or necessity resulting from an arrangement or from a prearranged agreement/plan. The Ukrainian equivalents for these meanings of to be (to) are usually the modal verbs мати, повинен, мусити:

a) «Remember, Joe, you are «He забувай, Джо, що ти
to run
the laundry according to маєш керувати пральнею

those old rules you used to lay down. (London) According to the agreement rent was to be paid strictly in ad­vance. (Ibid.)

згідно тих старих правил, які ти сам колись виробив.»

Згідно угоди, комірне (квартплатня) повинне було сплачуватись обов'язково наперед.

When to be (to) expresses the meaning of inevitability of some action or event, it is translated into Ukrainian as the modal verb мати:

«Якщо вже це мало скоїтись. то воно мало скоїтись саме так, а не інакше.»

«If the thing was to happen, it was to happen in this way ...» (E.Wharton)

The modal verb to be (to)may also express a meaning corre­sponding to the Ukrainian stative треба:

«It was to be expected.» Mrs. «Цього і треба було чекати.»
Mors said gently. (London) - стиха промовила пані Морз.

с) Sometimes the modal meaning of the verb to be (to)is faithfully conveyed by means of the Ukrainian infinitival predicate of the sentence and the strictly logical position of the parts of the sen­tence, as in the rhetorical questions below:

What am I to do now? Що мені тепер робити? (Maugham)

How was President Kravchuk Як президентові Кравчуку

to have won the re-election? було перемогти на повторних
(F.News) виборах?

d) When expressing order or instruction (usually in reported speech) the modal verb to be (to)is translated into Ukrainian either with the help of the modal verbs бути повинним/мати, or with the help of a subordinate clause respectively. For example:

«Я йому скажу, щоб він більш не приходив/шоб його ноги не було біля цього будинку.»

«You are to stay in bed until «Ви не повинні вставати.
you are allowed to get up.» (Du доки лікар не дозволить (доки
Maurier) вам не дозволять).

«I'm going to tell him he's not to come to the house anymore.» (W.Jacobs)

e) When expressing possibility, the modal verb to be (to)is translated with the help of the modal verbs можна, мати, or with the help of the modal word можливо:

There is a good training to be Там можна пройти гарну
had there. (Dreiser) практику/вишкіл.

... in the basement of the ... у підвальному приміщенні Diggby Avenue, Congregational на Ліґбі Авеню мали відбутися Church, there was to be held а збори конґреґаційної церкви з social with refreshments. (Ibid.) частуванням.

f) When expressing an assumptive or suggested possibility, the meaning of the modal verb to be (to) is mostly rendered with the help of a peculiar logical sentence structure. The meaning of the modal verb to be (to) in such sentences may have reference either to present or to future. For example:

«I am to have the priviledge «Мені випадає щаслива
of sitting next to you.» нагода сидіти поруч з вами/Я
(Maugham) матиму приємність посидіти

поруч з вами.»

g) Somewhat clearer is the reference to future, however, when the modal verb to be(to) is used in the subjunctive mood as in the underlined conditional clauses below:

If anything were to happen, it Якби що-небудь мало
would cost me my place all right, скоїтися/скоїлося, я неодмінно
(Dreiser) втратив би своє місце.


If he were to come, he would certainly have arrived already. (S.Sheldon)

Якби він мав приїхати, він би вже напевне приїхав/він був би вже приїхав.

There may also be other contextual modal meanings of the verb to be (to) in English, which can be ascertained from the sen­tences in the given exercise below.

Exercise I. Translating the sentences into Ukrainian state the meaning of the modal verb to be to in each of them.

1. «Is he to take it that everything is O.K.?» (Salinger) 2.1 was to catch them and hand them over to her. (C.Lewis) 3. «There is only one thing to be done.» (Cronin) 4. We made a list of things to be taken. (J.K.Jerome) 5. «If I were to marry Guilliandum, the Church would never stand for it.» (J.Fowler) 6. But all his meals were to be taken outside his working hours and he was to report promptly in uniform for line-up and inspection by his superior... 7. This daughter of poverty, who was now to fetch and carry the laundry of this citizen, was a creature of a mellowness of temperament. 8. They were to be seen upon the principal streets of Kansas City flitting to and fro like flies. 9.... he was to be held back by any suggestion which his mother could now make. 10. She could give him seventy five dollars cash in hand, the other forty to be paid in one week's time. 11. Anything to be as carefully concealed as possible. 12. ... they were to be turned over to Clyde with the suggestion that he try them. 13. But Clyde, in spite of this honest and well-meant condition, was not to be dissuaded. 14. ... there had been a development which was to be effected by this very decision on the part of the Griffiths. 15. And yet, if the prob­lem were on this account to be shifted to him, how would he make out? 16. From this Clyde wondered how long he was to be left in that dim world below the stairs. 17. ... there was to be staged on June twentieth the annual intercity automobiling floral parade and contest, which this year was to be held in Lycurgus and which was the last local social affair of any consequence. 18. Plainly, it was an event to be admitted to the presence of such magnificence. (Dreiser) 19. The polling stations were to have been closed at 8 p.m. (News from Ukraine)

6. The modal verb ought to like the modal verb should ex­presses moral obligation, presupposition, desirability, advisability and some other meanings. Its meaning in Ukrainian is mostly very close

to that of the stative треба or modal verb слід, потрібно, which can be seen from the following sentences:

«Oh, I've forgotten, I ought to have asked Iris about her cook.» (F.King) He ought never to have given it (the flute) up. (Galswothy) «Every man ought to be mar­ried.» (Hemingway)

«О, а я й забув: я ж мав/ повинен був запитати Айріс про її кухарку.»

Йому нізащо не треба було кидати гру (на флейті).

«Кожному чоловікові слід одружуватись.»

As can be understood from the content of the second sen­tence, the meaning of ought to may equally be expressed through the modal verb необхідно: Кожному чоловікові необхідно одружуватись.

b) The content of the sentence may often display a still stronger meaning of the modal verb ought to. which corresponds to that of the modal verbs повинен, мати, мусити:

«We're going to Greece...» «Миїдемо до Греції.» «Зараз
«...It ought to be lovely at this там мусить/повинно бути
time of year.» (Maugham) прекрасно в цю пору року»

«You ought to know that you «Ти повинен/мусиш знати,
can't have to steal.» (J. Cheever) що красти не можна.»

c) Apart from the above-mentioned, the modal verb ought to may acquire some other meanings in different contextual environ­ments. These may be as follows:

1) that of the assumptive duty or obligation, necessity, as­sumption, which is expressed in Ukrainian through the particles 6/ би, щобand the corresponding infinitive of the verbal predicate or subordinate clause:

«You ought to be working now.» (J.Joyce) By this time it ought to have been over. (Christie) I don't think she ought to be in that place alone. (Galsworthy)

«Тиж повинен би працювати/ мав би бути на роботі зараз.»

На цей час/під цю пору все мало б давно вже скінчитися.

He думаю (навряд чи), щоб вона була там сама.

2) The conditional subjunctive meaning expressed through the particles б/би and the notional finite verb without the subordinate conjunctions якби or якщо б, as in the following examples:

«You ought to have seen her «Бачили б ви його в Ті


tie he had on.» (Dreiser)

«God. You ought to hear Walter on the subject of you.» (Fitzgerald)

краватиі»/Треба було бачити його...»

«Боже. Чула б ти, що про тебе каже/говорить Волтер.»


3) When ought to expresses desire or affirmation, assumption, its modal meaning is rendered into Ukrainian through the modal adverbs and modal words певне, напевне, мабуть:

«She ought to have been thinking about spending her money on theatres already ...» (Dreiser)

«She's said to be very beautiful by people who ought to know.» (Fitzgerald)

Вона мабуть/певне

подумує вже про те, як потратити свої гроші на театр...»

«Люди, які напевне/мабуть-таки знаються на вроді, кажуть, що вона дуже вродлива.»

4) The meaning of the modal verb ought to may sometimes be rendered into Ukrainian through peculiar word forms (mood forms) of the verbal predicate as in the sentence below:

«If you're a poor driver, you «Якщо ти поганий водій/
oughtn't to try driving at night.» шофер, то не їздь (не треба
(Fitzgerald) їздити/уникай їзди) вночі.»

Some other contextual realizations of the modal meanings pertained to ought to are not excluded either, which can be seen from the English sentences of the exercise that follows.

Exercise I. Offer faithful Ukrainian equivalents for the meanings of the modal verb ought to in the sentences below and translate these sentences into Ukrainian.

1. «Someone ought to go for the police.» 2. «Well, I think you ought to send it to her.» (Maugham) 3. «We don't think you ought to let him, dear.» 4. «Well, I think we ought to be starting ...» 5. «She ought to be very happy.» (Galsworthy) 6. «It is her birthday and she ought to have first choice.» (J.Priestley) 7. «We ought to make terms with him.» 8. «You ought to take care of yourself.» (Galsworthy)

9. «A strong party ought instantly to be thrown into the block-house.»

10. «Have I said anything I oughtn't?» asked Harvey Birch. 11. «You
think I ought to have thrown White to the wolves?» (J.F.Cooper)
12. But I was wondering whether I ought to be getting back. 13.... he
ought at least to be violently attacked by some party within it.

14. «You ought to be ashamed of yourself...» (C.Lewis) 15. «It ought to be better out in the country than in Town.» (Hemingway) 16. «That ought to be a beauty.» (Bates) 17. «He says so and he ought to know,» was the answer. 18. «You ought to care,» she answered with blazing eyes. (London) 19. «You ought to know all about statues and things.» 20. «He ought to have put a spoke in the wheel of their marriage.» (Galsworthy) 21. «You ought to ask for a transfer to a more civilized school,» Leslie said. (I.Shaw) 22. «You ought to see the baby.» 23. «You ought to live in California,» began Miss Baker. 24. «Either you ought to be more eyeful, or you oughtn't to drive at all.» (Fitzgerald) 25. Life ought to be lived, as he lived it... 26. «Well, she ought to know bettter than to want to go out alone.» 27. ... he ought to be compelled to continue at this very manual form of work any longer. (Dreiser)

7. The modal verb need is known to have two forms of realization, e.g., that of a defective verb and that of a regular verb with modal meaning. The double morphological nature of needdoes not influence in anyway its lexical meaning, which remains in both cases identical. Hence, when used in its paradigmatic forms with the personal endings or with the auxiliary verb do/does and the infinitive with the particle to,the verb need is translated in quite the same way as its defective form in the present or past tense, always maintaining the meaning of треба, потрібно, необхідно. This can be seen from the following illustrative sentences:

a) «That needs a bit of think- «Над цим треба ще трохи
ing.» (Christie) подумати.»

«He need say no more to «Йому не треба більше їй
her.» (Ibid.) нічого казати.»

«May I ask you to take care «Можна попрохати тебе
of me?» «I didn't need any ask- заступитися за мене?» «Не
ing.» (E. Wharton) треба прохати мене.»

The meaning of the modal verb needmay be rendered in the last sentence implicitly, i.e., by employing semantic transformation:

Нічого/нема чого прохати мене.

b) Similar semantic transformations are observed when rendering the meaning of resolute/negative advice or indignation:

«Why need we defend it?» «Навіщо/чого це нам захи-

(Maugham) щати це?»

« You need not worry about it». « Тобі нічого турбуватись

(Ibid.) про це»

с) There may be other contextual meanings equivalents of the modal verb need as in the sentence below where its Ukrainian equivalent is the modal verb бути повинним/мусити.

« Well, nobody needn 't know «Але ніхто не повинен будь-
about it...» (W.Jacobs) що знати про це.»

The meaning of need in this sentence may also be expressed with the help of prosodic means (intonation and stress): «Тільки щоб 'ніхто не 'знав про це.»

Exercise I. Identify the meaning of the verb need in fhe sentences below and translate them into Ukrainian.

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