ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Exercise III. Read carefully the sentences containing some American/British nationally peculiar notions and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.



A. 1. USAir has gone to «sporks», a combination of fork and spoon to cut down on the number of utensils used. The USA Today asked some Road Warriors who are best described as «grumpy gour­mands» because they probably eat more meals on jets than at home. Here's what they say: «The scrambled eggs were OK, moist with decent flavour. The waffles were almost soggy. The coffee was good, but they always serve it in a Styrofoam cup, which drives me crazy.» (J.Y.Oakton) 2) «Breakfast was a Cheddar cheese omelette, it not only appeared to be stable - as compared to some that swim in unidentifiable liquid - but it also tasted like Cheddar cheese and eggs. It was enough cholesterol to have caused a block in my arteries, but it was good.» 3) «I had the grilled chicken, it was a good portion, but it was dry with a fake, smoked flavour. The salad was fresh and cresp. But it was served in a bowl, not on a plate. The wheat roll was moist and served with real butter. For dessert, I had chocolate cake. But, it was too sweet, which was good.» (K.W.) 4) «I had two choices for breakfast: cold cereal or an omelet. I had Quaker Oat Square, a small carton of 2 milk, low-flat peach yoghurt, orange juice and a banana.» 5) «This time, the plate had an ample amount of grapes, pineapple and orange slices, but only one strawberry. I didn't eat the yoghurt or the dry cereal, but I did have a warm blueberry muffin.» 6) «They served a health-food concoction that tasted like the cardboard box it came in. It was a sort of corn-flavored, crispy, chiplike thing, it had no flavour at all. We also had fruit. I like that they serve milk, but I hate that low-fat stuff, it insipid - all airline food is insipid.»

B. Translate the list of meals of a common American res­taurant.

1. Traditional barbeque foods: smoked brisket and ham, or turkey; pig picking pork, smoked chicken wings, baby back ribs (half-slab, full slab), spare ribs (short ends, long ends); grilled chicken and greens; Texas chicken, a boneless breast grilled with spicy Texas sauce, topped with thinly sliced smoked brisket and melted Cheddar cheese; burnt ends, smoked apple sausage or brisket. Smoked ribs... tender meaty ribs basket with maple - mustard, glaze, slow roasted and then lightly grilled; hickory chicken... 1/2 chicken smoked and basted with the original BBQ (barbecue) sauce; burnt ends... tender chunks of twice-smoked brisket drenched in our famous sauce;

Texas-size beef ribs marinated, slow-smoked and flame-grilled. 2. Garnishes: BBQ baked beans, cole slaw and potato salad, whole wheat, white bread or buns, pickled and barbecue sauce. 3. Apetizers: cheese and assorted crackers, French onion soup, onion straws, corn fritters (hot and fresh long ends), a hickory-grinned chicken breast sliced and served atop, fresh veggies and greens, with our honey-mustard dressing; assorted relishes; vegetable tray with dip. 4. Accompaniments: dirty rice, tossed salads. 5. Desserts: creamy cheesecake, chocolate peanut butter, ice-cream pie; old fashioned cheesecake, apple fritters served hot with powdered sugar and sweet honey butter.

Exercise IV. Suggest appropriate English variants for the following units of Ukrainian specific national lexicon:

голова колгоспу/сільради, дружинник, суботник, січовик, січові стрільці, запорожець, герої Крутів, тризуб, універсали (Центр. Ради); залік, залікова книжка, відкритий урок, педрада, табель успішності, похвальна грамота/лист, курсова/дипломна робота; кобза, кобзар, бандурист, гопак, повзунець(танець), веснянки, коломийки, боярин, дружка, весільний батько, бублик, вареники, галушки, голубці, бабка, коржі з маком/шулики, борщ, куліш, ряжанка, узвар, грубка, лежанка, піч (у хаті), скриня, свитка, кожух, кептар, вишиванка, плахта, чобітки, льох, хата, гривня, карбованець, десятина, «бігунець», профорг студентської групи, крашанка, писанка, думи, «Ще не вмерла Україна».

Exercise V. Explain the proper meaning of the particular English national notions below and translate them into Ukrai­nian.

A. №10. Downing Street, Whitehall, the Upper House, the Commons, the woolsack, speaker, teller, whip (Parliament), division of Parliament, the White paper, the Stock Exchange; John Bull, the British Lion; lobby; ladyship, lordship, peerage, coroner, proctor, ba­con, Yorkshire pudding, frankfurters, hot dogs; ale, gin; crown, far­thing, guinea, sixpence, private/independent school, comprehensive (grammar, modern) school, the 6th form; jeans, jersey, pullover, leg­gings, stretches, tweed; calumet, wigwam; bushel, foot, inch, pint, sheriff.

B. Suggest possible ways for faithful conveying the mean­ing of peculiarly American government offices and their princi­pal officials in the passage below. Identify the ways of transla­tion which you employ for the purpose.

The United States, unlike most other countries of Europe, Asia

173and America has no «government» but only an «administration» or to be more precise, a «president's administration». The latter in its turn has no ministries and consequently no «ministers» but depart­ments and secretaries performing the functions of ministries and ministers. Traditionally established in the USA are the following thir­teen departments: Agricultural Department, Commerce Department, Defence Department, Educational Department, Energy Department, Health and Human Services Department, Housing and Urban De­velopment Department, Interior Department, Justice Department, Treasury Department, and Veterans Affairs Department. Each of these government institutions is headed respectively by an appointed leader, as announced by the presidential secretary. The only excep­tion is the Justice Department which is headed not by a secretary but by the Attorney General. Almost all Secretaries have their Assistant Secretaries performing the functions of deputy ministers in other European and American governments. Exceptions from the list in­clude only four departments which have Deputy Secretaries instead. These are Commerce Department, Housing and Urban Development Department, Educational Department and Treasury Department. Still other departments in the U.S. administration government have Un­der Secretaries performing the duties of assistant secretaries which correspond to the government positions occupied by deputy minis­ters in other countries. To these departments belong the Commerce Department and Veterans Affairs Department. Secretary of the Inte­rior Department, contrary to all others, has an Inspector General for the first assistant. But certainly the most peculiar are the duties of the Interior Department which include building roads, and oversee­ing the national park system, and not keeping law and order and fighting criminals, which the ministries of the interior are responsible for in other countries. These functions are performed in the U.S.A. by the F.B.I. (Federal Bureau of Investigation).

Exercise VI. Pick out the nationally specific English no­tions in the text below and then translate them in viva voce into Ukrainian.

The former Beatle Paul McCartney was awarded a knight­hood in the New Year's honours list. Among other showbiz figures receiving honors. Sir Andrew Lloyd Webber, the composer of «Evita», «Phantom of the Opera» and «Jesus Christ Superstar» becomes Lord Lloyd Webber allowing him to sit in the House of Lords. Among others recognized: The actress Joan Collins, best known for her role as Alexis in the television show «Dynasty», received an QBE (Officer of the Order of the British Empire), white the playwright Alan Ayckbourn was knighted. Frederick Forsyth, whose best-sellers include «The Day of the Jackal», becomes a Commander of the Order of the.BriBsh Empire, which entitles him to add the initials CBE after his name. The racing driver Damon Hill, the current Formula One world champion, was given an QBE for services to auto racing, Exercise VII. Read through the text on the British Parlia­ment below and translate it point by point in viva voce into Ukrainian.

The Glimpse of Great Britain and Its Parliament Life

1. Great Britain or the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland as the country is officially called ranks among the oldest constitutional monarchies in Europe. The country's first con­stitution, the Magna Charta, was signed under the pressure of her Parliament by the despotic King John Lackland, son of King Richard the Lion Hearted, as far back as June 10,1215. The Magna Charta had a great influence on the country's parliamentary life and tradi­tions which have remained unchanged for centuries. Thus, the Pal­ace of Westminster where Parliament is held and which was built anew and rebuilt for several times is in the same place for more than 1,000 years. Besides the Parliament consists of two Chambers or Houses - the Upper Chamber or the House of Lords and the lower Chamber or the House of Commons.

2. The Upper House consists of over 1,100 Members belong­ing to one of the three unequally represented groups of peers: 1. Hereditary Peers. Marquises, Earls, Viscounts, Barons (almost half of all peers), and Peeresses in their own right (ab 20); 2. Life Peers and Life Peeresses; 3. Archbishops (2) and Senior Bishops (20).

The House of Lords is headed by the Lord Chancellor who is also the minister of Justice and Head of the High Court.

3. The House of Commons consists of 659 elected MPs (1997 elections). The House is headed by the Speaker. The number of seats in the House, however, covers the need of only two-thirds of the elected MPs, the rest using the «front benches», the «cross benches» and the «back benches».

4. There are nine Royal British orders of Knighthood. The high­est of them is the order of the Garter, which was founded by King Edward III in 1348. It consists of two parts - a collar gold chain worn around the neck with St. George killing the Dragon, and an eight-pointed star with the words Honi sort qui таї у pense (in French) meaning: Shame on them who think badly. The order is conferred to

175the members of the Royal family and 25 knights. The only commoner to have received the order was Sir Winston Churchill in 1957. This order gives the bearer the right to be buried in Westminster Abbey. The next important order is that of the Bath established during the reign of Henry IV (1399-1413). The name of the order comes from the ceremony of bathing (the symbol of purity) before being given. There are three different degrees of the order, the highest being the first: 1) G.C.B. (Grand Cross of the Bath); 2) K.C.B. (Knight Commander of the Bath), 3) C.B. (Commander of the Bath). The highest military award in Great Britain is the Victoria Cross instituted by Queen Victoria in 1856 to mark the victory in the Crimean War. It is a bronze Maltese Cross with a Lion in its centre and the inscription «For Valour» under it. The cross is made from the metal of the Rus­sian guns captured in Sevastopol during the Crimean War in 1855. 5. Several traditional ceremonies are held in the capital of Great Britain attracting the attention of many Londoners and their numer­ous domestic and foreign quests. One of them observed every day is the changing of the Household Guards quartered in the Chelsea and Wellington Barracks near the Buckingham Palace. The Brigade of Guards of the Queen (and the Royal family body-guards) consists of two regiments representing the nationalities of the United King­dom. The English Grenadiers wear the bear skin caps twenty inches high. The Scots Guards wear a wide black ribbon on the back of their uniform colour 15 cm wide and 25 cm long.

All the Guards wear scarlet or red tunics and black trousers except the Scots Guards wearing their traditional regimental cloth. The Irish Guards wear a triple row of brass buttons and distinctive plumes. The second ceremonial event which can be seen at 11 a.m. every weekday and at 10 a.m. on Sundays is Mounting the Guard. In this ceremony the Household Cavalry (the Royal .and Life Guards) take part. They wear breast and back shiny plates made of steel armour. The third ceremony is observed only once a year on the second Saturday in June at ab. 11.15a.m. and is called Trooping the Colour. The ceremony marks the «official» birthday of the Queen and presents an inspection parade of the Queen's own troops. This spectacular ceremony with the Queen riding side-saddle on a highly trained horse ahead of the Guards is watched by many hundreds of

people.

Among other old traditions the most prominent are the cer­emony of the Keys which is over 700 years old (since 1215 when King John was forced to sign the Magna Charta) and Lord Mayor's Show. The latter goes back to the mayoralty of Richard (Dick) Whittington, who was mayor four times (1396,1397,1406 and 1419). The Lord Mayor rides from the City in a splendid six horses-spanned coach through the streets of London and stops at Law Courts where he is presented to the Lord Chief of Justice, who hands him his sword of office after receiving a solemn promise to carry out his duties faith­fully. The procession4hen continues to Westminster, and then re­turns to the Mansion House, the official residence of the Lord Mayor.





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