Exercise I. Offer possible Ukrainian non-passive transforms/outer forms for the English passive voice constructions and translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. He was haunted by a fear. 2. Also he was rendered self-conscious by the company. (London) 3. It (furniture) was given to us as a wedding present by Mr. Bradley's father. 4. They entertained lavishly and were lavishly entertained. 5. Gregory Brabazov was in Chicago at the time the purchase was made and the decoration (of the house) was entrusted to him. 6. I had recently brought out a successful novel - and I had no sooner arrived than I was interviewed. 7. There are men who are possessed by an urge so strong to do some particular thing that they can't help themselves. 8. He was so incommunicable that I was forced to the conclusion that he had asked me to lunch with him merely to enjoy my company. 9. But here she encountered in her husband an obstinacy, which she had not for years been accustomed to. 10. She was puzzled by Isabel. 11. «I'm told she's rather good.» (Maugham) 12. She might have been asked to go too. 13. What luck that the boy had not been caught by that ghastly war. He might so easily have been killed, like poor Jolly twenty years ago out in the Transvaal. (Galsworthy) 14. «I'm afraid a lot of your private papers were burned.» (Leacock) 15. And when the Indian veteran came there, he was told the blunt truth. (D.Carter) 16. «I suppose in about a fortnight we shall be told that he has been seen in San Francisco.» (Wilde) 17. Immediately after their marriage Couperwood and Aileen journeyed to Chicago direct and they were given there the best room that Frencout provided for the time being. 18. Caroline, or Sister Carry - was possessed of a mind rudimentary in its power of observation and analysis. 19. In certain emergencies he was called to assist his father, and was paid for it. (Dreiser) 20. - only after a minute did she realize that she had been awakened by a knock at their saloon door. (Fitzgerald) 21. People have been asking those questions for thousands of years and they could be answered, surely they'd have been answered, by now. (Maugham) 22. «We've been sort of pals and it's not my business to talk unless I'm spoken to.» (J.K. Jerome) 23. Clovis was sent for in haste, and the development of the situation was put before him. (H.Munro) 24. We were ques-

tioned, all of us. (Defoe) 25. The door was opened by a tall and stout Negro butler with white hair and we were ushered into the drawing-room. 26. Most of the actors wanted to think Logan was crying because he was being arrested. (L.Hughes) 27. «I am urgently needed at Apia,» said Dr. Macphail. 28. «Young Bossiney has been run over in the fog and killed.» 29. «Water was given her.» (Galsworthy) 30. He was beaten. 31.1 was surprised that I had been asked to this party. 32. The two persons, who were hustled away, did not take it well. 33. They were made for the third Duke of Dorset and they're almost priceless. 34. She was a trifle taken aback that it had all gone so easily. 35 . «I presume that in a day or two we shall be fixed up for the rest of the season.» (Maugham) 36. «I was desired by that gentleman to identify the wearer of a very uncommon coat - a bright blue dress coat, with a gilt button, displaying a bust, and the letters «P.C.» (Dickens) 37. «Was Coleman being told here and now, as a newcomer, not to rock the boat?»1 (Hailey) 38. «Mr. Afghan North was robbed and he made a complaint.» 39. «The car had been built on a special chassis in America.» (Fitzgerald) 40. She was received only by Ting-a-Ling, who had his back to the fire, and took no notice beyond a stare. (Galsworthy) 41.1 was wired for. (C.Doyle) 42. Some things had been lost sight of. (Galsworthy) 43. The bed had not even been lain on. (Dickens) 44. She was told that a message could be left for him. (M.Wilson) 45. Do not pass judgement, that you may not be judged. 46. You either make both tree and fruit to be rotten; for the tree is known by its fruit. (Bible). 47. She hastened around to the side entrance and was taken up by the elevator to the fourth floor. (Dreiser) 48. «Not a word of it, in my interpretation, is actually spoken.» (S. Leacock) 49. «They're not the sort of people I've been brought up with.» 50. Isabel appeared to be delighted and Mrs. Bradley was reassured. 51. She was rather pretty and I was rather taken with her. 52. Face and neck were deeply burnt by the sun. (Maugham). 53. «Sophia, I'm not going to be talked to like this.» (Bennett) 54. One leg was gone and the other was held by tendons and part of the trousers and the stump twitched and jerked as though it were not connected. (Hemingway) 55. His coming had not been looked for. (Greene) 56. He was given up to his dream. (K.Mansfield) 57.1 was wanted in the dining-room. (Bronte)

1 to rock the boat (coll.) підривати авторитет установи.




As has been shown, there may be two types of transformations resorted to in the process of translation: 1. objectively required/ conditioned by the peculiarities of the target language, i.e., inevitable, and 2. subjectively introduced at the translator's own will and therefore not always unavoidable. Either of them requires structural/ outer alterations of the source language units in the target language. Moreover, each type of these transformations may be realized both on the syntactic as well as on the lexical level units. Cf. His holidays had been spent at Robin Hill with boy friends, or with his parents. (Galsworthy) - канікули він проводив у Робін Плі з товаришами чи з батьками. Here the passive voice syntaxeme had been spent must have been changed in Ukrainian into the active voice form. Objectively predetermined are also transformations of the objective with the infinitive or participle constructions/complexes, gerundial and nominative absolute participial constructions, national idioms, etc. In these cases a simple English sentence may turn into a complex sentence. Cf.:

«It (music) seems to be right «Здається, ніби музика в
in them.» (D.Parker) них просто в крові».

« When do you want me to do «Коли ви хочете, щоб я це
it?» (Maugham) зробив?»

The outer form/structure of the language unit may be deliberately changed in the target language, when it requires a concretiza-tion. As a result, the structure of the sense unit is often extended or shortened in the target language without changing its proper meaning. For example, the personal pronoun ft and the auxiliary verb do. when concretized in the Ukrainian translation may be substituted for a noun phrase and an objective word-group:

«Why did you do it?» the/she- «Ти навіщо підпалив
riff said. «I didn't do it,» Johnny будинок?» - запитав шериф. -
said. (Saroyan) «я не підпалював його.» -

відповів Джонні.

The predicative word-groups підпалив будинок and його не підпалював become necessary in Ukrainian in order to explicate

properly the meaning of the verb do and the pronoun it, which can be achieved only in a descriptive way, i.e., through transformation.

Also semantically and stylistically predetermined are all translator's transformations through addition, which are resorted to with the aim of achieving the necessary expressiveness. Additions become necessary in the target language either in order to express more clearly the content of the source language unit, or for the sake of achieving some stylistic effect. Cf.:

When a girl leaves her home Коли дівчина залишає
at eighteen. she does one of two домівку у вісімнадцять років, з
things - (Dreiser) нею трапляється одне з двох...

«I'm so glad you've asked me, «Я дуже радий, що ти мене
darling.» (Maugham) запитала про це. люба.»

The additions made in the first and in the second Ukrainian sentences are both lexical and syntactic, since the first of them completes the sentence through the formation of the attributive word-group (вісімнадцять років), and the second complements the objective verb and forms an objective word-group, which completes the object clause and the sentence as a whole (що ти мене запитала про це).

A semantic or syntactic addition used with the aim of concreti-zation may become necessary in the target language in order to maintain the peculiar way of expression or to complete the structure of the sense unit in the language of translation. For example:

There was just enough room У ящикові було місце лише для
for us two in the crate, and if the нас двох, і якщо бананова
straw was not evenly strewn, it підстилка не була рівномірно
made lumps under our backs, розгорнута, вона збивалася в
(Caldwell) жмутки і муляла нам у боки.

The objective word-group муляла нам у боки is a semantically stable expression in Ukrainian and it can not exist without the verb муляти, which functions as its syntactic head. Similar additions for the sake of concretization become inevitable in the target language when dealing with local place names and specifically national notions of the source language. For example:

Він мешкає у Києві на Подолі, а працює там на Сирці.

Не lives in the Podil district of Kyiv and works there in the Syrets' residential area of the city.

There is no mention in the В офіційній інструкції мініс-

Home Office list of any such in- терства внутрішніх справ і
dustrial desease. (Cronin) згадки нема про таке професій-

не захворювання (шахтарів).

The Home Office (list) has been concretized by way of an explicatory translation, i.e., by adding the word (noun) міністерство which is contextually required in the Ukrainian translation.

Often occurring among various translators' transformations are also omissions, which may be of two types: a) objectively required, i.e., inevitable and b) casual or subjectively introduced. The former are conditioned by the grammar phenomena which are not available in the target language. Thus, objectively omitted are auxiliary verbs, determining articles or pronouns (cf. he has his hands in his pockets він тримає руки в кишенях), individual barbarisms, as in the sentence below:

«Oh, I like them. I really do.» «О, вони подобаються мені.
(D.Parker) Справді.»

«Goodness, I'm so crazy «Боже мій, я у такій
about music and everything. І нестямі від музики, що мені
don't care what colour he is.» байдуже, якого він (артист)
(Ibid.) кольору.»

Here the sentence "I really do." is reduced to one-word sentence "Справді." The word «everything» in the second sentence is a barbarism of a character in the story, which the translator found obsolete, of no need to transplant it to the Ukrainian translation of this sentence.

Very often, however, a sense unit may be omitted in the language of translation for stylistic reasons, when it is necessary, for example, to avoid a repeated use of the same sense unit in adjacent sentences, as in the following sentence:

She turned aghast towards Вона з жахом/приголомшена
the bed. (Salinger) обернулась.

Since the noun bed was already mentioned in the preceding sentence of the passage, the translator found it necessary to omit it in the Ukrainian version, which could not be made, naturally, if the sentence were singled out (separated) from the text and translated as a separate language unit.

Casual subjective omissions of this kind usually do not change the general content of the sentence/passage, though they may alter

to some extent the author's emphasis made in the sentence of the source language, as can be seen in the following translation:

/ was learning fast, but І Я навчалася швидко, але не
learned not fast enough to real- настільки швидко, щоб
ize then the peril of our position, усвідомити, яка над нами
(London) нависла загроза.

The omitted adverbial modifier then in the Ukrainian translation changes the temporal emphasis of the author in his original version of the sentence where he pointed out the time («then») of «the peril».

A somewhat similar (and also deliberate) omission of the adverbial modifier, though for the sake of achieving faithfulness, can be observed in the Ukrainian sentence below:

Tamales are very good Tамали (товчена кукурудза

when the air grows chilly at з м'ясом) - дуже добра річ,

night. (Ibid) надто (...) коли ночі бувають


The translator (O.Senyuk) found the specifying adverbial modifier at night not explicatory enough for the Ukrainian reader or stylistically aggravating for the structure of the target language sentence. This way of economizing the lexical means on account of the original content could not, naturally, be justified, as the content of the Ukrainian version would be simplified. To avoid it, the translator employed an extension (коли бувають холодні ночі). Hence, the deliberate omission of the part of the sentence (at night) was made for the sake of achieving a more exhaustive faithful rendering of this English sentence. Reduction is often employed for stylistic reasons, especially in translations of belles-letters texts, when there exists an incompatibility between the structural forms of the syntactic units of the source language and their semantic and structural equivalents in the target language. The forms of reduction depend on the peculiarity of the language units under translation, on the means of expression or units to be reduced, and sometimes on the aims persued by the reduction1 . The most often occurring reductions are the following:

1 See about various transformations in the process of translation also Я.И.Рецкер. Теория перевода й переводческая практика. - М.: Международньїе отношения, 1974, p.p. 38-63, 80-113; Л. С. Бархударов. Язьік й перевод. - М.: Международньїе отношения, 1975, р.191-231.

1) Changing of an extended word-group into a simpler sense
unit {reduction or contraction):

She gave him a little smile and Вона грайливо посміхнулась
took his hand. (Maugham) і взяла його за руку.

The objective verbal word-group «gave him a little smile» may also be transformed in Ukrainian into other word-groups: 1) (вона) окинула його грайливою посмішкою 2) (вона) подарувала йому грайливу посмішку. Each of these two variants, naturally, would be quite acceptable, but the translator avoided them as stylistically and semantically less fitting in this particular sentence.

Shortening of syntactic units in the target language is often conditioned by the stylistic aim of individualizing the speech of some literary character as in the sentences below:

«What politics have you?» І «Ви за кого?» - запитав я.
asked, «lam without politics.» he «Я ні за кого.» - відповів
said. (Hemingway) старий чоловік.

Instead of the direct translation of the underlined English sentences «Яких політичних поглядів ви дотримуєтесь» and «Я ніяких політичних поглядів не дотримуюсь» the translator used a more natural for the old and seemingly uneducated shepherd, a shortened and an elliptical sentence characteristic of colloquial Ukrainian :»Ви за кого?" and logically natural «Я ні за кого».

2) Transformation of an English complex sentence into a simple
one in the target language because of the structural incompatibility
of the former in the Ukrainian language:

«That's what I say.» she said. «Оце така моя думка.» -
« That's the way I feel.» she said, сказала вона. «Отак я ставлюсь
(D. Parker) до
цього,» - підсумувала вона.

The first complex sentence with its predicative clause and the second complex sentence with its attributive clause have both been transformed into simple extended Ukrainian sentences and thus changed their outer structure and syntactic nature («Оце така моя думка,» «Отак я ставлюсь до цього», «Це так я ставлюсь до цього»).

3) Merger of two separate sentences into one composite sen
tence in the target language. This type of reduction may be required
by the content, as well as by the national Ukrainian way of expres
sion (and by the style of the text). For example:

1. Every once in a while Dave (1) Раз по раз Дейв ставав

got on his hands and knees and навколішки і розрівнював

turned the straw over. 2. It was руками (2) бананову

the banana straw, and it was підстилку, яка була сира

soggy and foul-smelling, (відсиріла), і від якої неприємно

(Caldwell) тхнуло.

It is easy to assert that each sentence in the source language is semantically and syntactically highly relevant. Nevertheless, only the first sentence can be completely transplanted to Ukrainian: Раз по раз Дейв ставав навколішки і розрівнював підстилку. The second sentence, however, when transplanted unchanged, would be structurally and stylistically irrelevant, i.e., not fit in the style and for the Ukrainian wayof expression in this particular context. Cf.: Це була бананова підстилка, і вона була волога і неприємно тхнула.

То avoid literalism and structural/syntactic awkwardness in Ukrainian, the translator reduced the second sentence or rather changed it into an attributive subordinate clause, which made the Ukrainian variant sound stylistically and semantically quite natural: Дейв розрівнював бананову підстилку, яка була мокра і неприємно тхнула.

One more example of contextual reduction (or extension) of English sentences through their merger in Ukrainian can be seen below. The only difference between this and the above-given sentence lies in the placement of the second English sentence, which in the Ukrainian translation is moved to the front position. This is required by the peculiarities of the Ukrainian way of expression and by the semantic/logical structure of its communicative units. Cf.:

«Oh, we have more argu- «О, ми стільки спере-ments about colored people. чаємось про кольорових.

I talk to him like I don't know Я як розійдуся, то такого
what. I get so excited.» йому наговорю, що й сама не
(D.Parker) знаю, що.»

These and the like purely subjective, at first sight, transformations are absolutely necessary in order to achieve a faithful expression of content of the English sentences and maintain the logical flow of thought characteristic of the natural Ukrainian speech. It goes without saying that such kind of transformations through reduction, extension or replacement can not always be treated as deliberate or exclusively subjective, because they are objectively required by the

peculiarly national ways of expression in the target language.

Always subjective, however, is the approach of the translator to the choice of some semantically and syntactically equivalent versions of the source language units as in the following sentence:

«They gave me a wrong book, and I didn't notice it, till I got back to my room.» (Salinger) This sentence can have two equally faithful versions in Ukrainian, each of which fully expresses its content:

1) Вони мені дали не ту 2) Мені дали не ту книжку, книжку, і я не помітив цього, і я помітив ие. аж коли аж доки не прийшов додому. прийшов додому.

The subjective transformations in the left hand Ukrainian definite personal clause Вони мені дали не ту книжку \s transformed into the indefinite personal sentence Мені дали не ту книжку,

2) the second co-ordinate clause/я не помітив цього is changed into the antonymic affirmative clause / я помітив це, and the adverbial subordinate clause аж доки не прийшов додому is changed into an affirmative clause (antonymic again) аж коли прийшов додому.

These subjectively introduced by the translator transformations have not in any way changed the syntactic nature or content of the English composite (compound-complex) sentence as a whole. Neither have they changed the order of words, though the plane of expression has undergone some alterations, the main of which is the employment of the antonymic device. It is expedient to term such kind of alterations in the structural plane of syntactic units as «inner transformations» as well. The latter involve only minor structural or lexico-semantic alterations without causing any cardinal changes in the structural form of the sense units under translation.

These were by far all the possible objectively required or deliberately introduced transformations of lexical and syntactic units called forth in the process of translation by the existing divergences between the means of expression in the source language and in the target language on one hand, or due to the translator's subjective approach to some types of sense units on the other.

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