By Translation of Componental Parts and Additional Explication of the Units of the Nationally Biased Lexicon

The proper meaning of some specific units of the national lexi­con can be faithfully rendered by way of regular translation of all or some of their componental parts and explication of the denotative meaning pertaining to the source language unit. The combined ap­proach in the treatment of this group of specific national lexicon units is called forth by the complexity of meaning inherent in the source language units. It is also due to the inadequacy of componental trans­lation, which does not reveal the essentials that are absolutely indis­pensable for correct comprehension of the real meaning of the cul­turally biased lexical units of the source language.

Due to this way of rendering the meanings of this kind of units practically involves two simultaneous performances. The first is a regular translation of the main, if not all, componental parts and the next, which follows it, is a more or less exhaustive explanation of the essence pertained to the specific national element of the source language. The extent of the explanation in the target language is prede­termined by the nature of the specific unit of national lexicon, by the purpose of translation, and also by some characteristic possibilities of the text in which the unit is used. When translating at language level (out of context) the explanation may be practically unrestricted: Battle of Britain Битва за Англію (повітряні бої англійської авіації з гітлерівськими бомбардувальниками над територією Великої Британії, особливо в районі Лондона і Південної Англії 1940-1941рр.); bull's eye бичаче око (круглий великий різноколірний м'ятний льодяник); collective membership тимчасове колективне членство в лейбористській партії (наприклад, на час виборів) профспілок, кооперативних товариств; члени цих організацій автоматично стають членами лейбористської партії); ginger ale, імбірний ель/імбірне ситро (базолкогольний газований напій); inner Cabinet «внутрішній кабінет» (кабінет у вузькому складі) до якого входять керівники найважливіших міністерств на чолі з прем'єр-міністром.

Such and the like explanations can not, naturally, be made in the text of a translation, hence they are given usually in the foot­notes:

«Well, I can tell you anything «Ну, я тобі можу розповісти that is in an English bluebook, все, що написано в англійській Harry.» (O.Wilde) «Синій книзі. »1 Labour Day was past, but День Праці2 був позаду summer still pressed down on (минув), а літня спека the city. (M.Wilson) продовжувала зморювати. Frances wanted very little: а Франсіс хотіла зовсім небагато: salad, toast melba, no wine, салат, грінки «мельба»3, без only ice water. (A.Cronin) вина, а тільки воду з льодом.

When the lexical meaning of the unit of specific national lexi­con is not so complex, it is usually explained in the target language text. The explanation, of course, is not always as exhaustive as it can be in a footnote:

Keep your fingers crossed for Щоб мені була вдача, склади me! (M.Wilson) навхрест (хрестиком) _______ пальці!.

1 «Синя книга» - збірник документів, що видається з санкції парламенту Великої Британії в синіх палітурках.

2 «День Праці» - офіційне свято в США (відзначається у перший понеділок вересня).

3 На ім'я австралійської співачки Н. Мельби.

163(I) Knew the Professor before he turned into a wooly West-Ender. (A.Cronin) Though veneered by his thirty years in the Civil Service - he had worked his way from boy clerk to principal - Gill was human underneath. (A.Cronin) I will be in the Ladies Gallery tomorrow night at half past eleven. (O.Wilde) Левкові чи не вперше за своє парубкування стало чомусь тоскно. (М. Стельмах) Згадав він поради свої... і сільські весілля, на яких він грав весільного батька. (М. Коцюбинський)

Я знав цього професора ще до того, як він став багатієм аристократичного Вест-Енда. Пройшовши за тридцять років служби в державному апараті від розсильного до завідуючого відділом, Джіл у душі і все ж залишався людиною. Завтра о пів на дванадцяту я буду на жіночій гальорці в палаті громад. It was probably for the first time in all his mature boyhood that Levko felt somewhat dull. He recollected the pieces of advice he had once given - and the rural weddings at which he would perform the honorary duty of the missing bridegroom's or bride's father.

A fuller and more detailed explanation of the kind of nationally specific notions as given above is not desirable, since it would con­siderably extend the text of the translation. That is why the student should be warned not to unnecessarily enlarge the explanation of the culturally biased notions, unless required for their exhaustive and correct comprehension. Laconism, therefore, should be the prevail­ing principle when dealing with the kind of specific national elements, but not to the detriment of explicitness/lucidity and faithfulness of translation.

5. By Ways of Word-for-Word or Loan Translation

When the componental parts making up the units of the na­tionally specific lexicon are at the same time the main transparent bearers of their proper sence expressed through their meaning, a faithful translation of such sense units may be achieved either by way of word-for-word translation or by way of loan translation. Each of these ways can be well exemplified in English and Ukrainian.

A.Translated word-for-word are the specific national units of lexicon as first (second, third) reading перше (друге, трете) читання (офіційне внесення законопроекту в англійський парламент); secondary grammar school (середня граматична школа); стінгазета wall newspaper; студентське наукове товариство Students' Scientific/Research Society; щоденник (учнівський) student's record book.

В. The denotative meaning of many units of the specific na­tional lexicon may be rendered by way of loan translating as well: from English: Salvation Army (USA, Gr. Britain) Армія порятунку; the Order of the Garter/of the Bath орден Підв'зки/Лазні; the Order of St. Michael and St. George орден св.Михаїла і св.Георгія; fan club клуб прихильників/уболівальників (артиста, спортсмена тощо); from Ukrainian: орден Ярослава Мудрого the Order of Yaroslav the Wise/Yaroslav the Wise Order; орден св. княгині Ольги Київської the Order of St. Olga Princess of Kyivan Rus. The denota­tive meaning of these and many other English/Ukrainin specific units of national lexicon of the kind will undoubtedly be correctly under­stood by the target-language speakers. And yet neither of the two ways of translating can often provide an exhaustive expression of all the extralingual details of meaning inherent in most of the units in the source language. Thus, the aim and purpose of issuing our «wall newspaper», which was a regular practice in all state institutions of the former USSR as well as in this country today would scarcely be understood by the British or Americans. Neither do most of our people understand the whole complexity of meaningful semes pertained, for example, to the British Order of the Bath. Hence, such culturally biased notions are to be explicated more detailed in the target lan­guage. .

A considerable number of specific units of the national lexi­con, both in English and in Ukrainian, consist of the component parts with seemingly transparent lexical meaning. But when conveyed ver­bally or word-for-word, however, they may lose their proper meaning together with their nationally specific nature. That happens, because the real connotative meaning inherent in the seems, bearing the na­tional peculiarity can not be achieved via these methods of transla­tion. For example, the «House of Lords» when translated as будинок лордів completely perverts the real meaning of the collocation as «House» here, like in the «Upper House» (or simply the «House» when capitalized) always preserves the connotative meaning of палата. Likewise with the «House of Commons» where both com­ponents are also endowed with a nationally peculiar meaning and can not be translated as будинок простих людей but only as «Палата громад».

This method of translating is also widely employed when deal­ing with former Sovietisms as «Герой Соціалістичної Праці», «соціалістичне змагання», etc. Here too the verbal translating of «праця», «змагання» like other notions of the kind would completely distort the proper sense of the collocations which they are compo­nents of. The variant *Hero of Socialist Work* would also be inad­equate stylistically, because the componental part «work» belongs to the neutral style lexicon. Similarly in case with the former term «socialist competition» in which the noun component had nothing to do with the meaning or «competition» proper. Therefore, a faithful translation of the kind of units of lexicon is predetermined by the correct choice of equivalent units for the semes bearing the national peculiarity. The latter may be expressed both verbally/word-for-word and by means of translation loans, which should be resorted to when verbal translating ruins the national peculiarity of the source language culturally biased units. The number of English genuine translation loans in Ukrainian and Ukrainian in English is considerable. So is the number of verbal and word-for-word translations, as can be seen from some of the examples below: English:cornflakes кукурудзяні пластівці; English Industrial Revolution промисловий переворот в Англії (18-19 століть); skyscraper хмарочос;,supermarket універсальний магазин (універсам); brain washing промиваная мозку (ідеологічна обробка); oat-flakes вівсяні пластівці (геркулес). Ukrainian:карбованець karbovanets', гривня hryvnia, Верховна Рада Verkhovna Rada (Ukraine's Parliament), Герой України Hero of Ukraine; заслужений діяч мистецтв України the Merited Worker of Arts/Ukraine's Merited Worker of Arts; голова районної/обласної Ради народних депутатів, Chairman of the District/Region Rada of People's Deputies; медаль за трудову доблесть the Medal for Labour Distinction; орден Богдана Хмельницького 1,11,111 ступеня the Order of Bohdan Khmelnytskyi (First, Second, Third Degree).

It is worth mentioning that some of the above-given and other Ukrainian units of the kind may be translated into English either as asyndetic structures or as syndetic (prepositional) word-groups. The latter are absolutely predominant in conversational English, the former are more common in written (or official) language: заслужений учитель/артист України the Honoured Teacher/Artist of Ukraine or Ukraine's Honoured Teacher/Artist; медаль «За трудову відзнаку» the medal for Labour Distinction or the Labour Distinction Medal. But: герой України Hero of Ukraine.

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