The student, who followed the preceding pages with attention, could not have failed to notice that some sense units of the source language retained their sense and structure in the target language unchanged, whereas others had retained only their content/meaning unchanged, but altered or completely changed their original/source language form. The kind of major and minor alterations in the structural form of language units performed with the aim of achieving faithfulness in translation are referred to as translator's transformations. They are carried out either because of the incompatibility of the target language means of expression, which makes the transplantation of some source language units to it impossible, or in order to retain the style of the source language passage and thus maintain the expressiveness of the source language sense units. Naturally, not all sense units need to be structurally transformed in the process of translation, a considerable number of them are also transplanted to the target language in the form, meaning and structure of the original, i.e., unchanged or little changed. Among these, as could be seen on the foregoing chapters, are the following classes of language/sense units:

1) Most of genuine internationalisms (words, word-groups, sen
tences), some idiomatic expressions, culturally biased notions. For
example: begon/a бегонія, computerization комп'ютеризація, mar-
/cef/пдмаркетині1, electron електрон, іґіеогегтеорема, gentleman,
джентльмен, chemical reaction, хімічна реакція, democratic sys
tem демократична система, finita la commedia фініта ля комедія
(ділу кінець), veni, vidi, viciприйшов, побачив, переміг, etc.

2) Many loan internationalisms which maintain in the target
language the same meaning and often the same structural form but

have a different phonetic structure (sounding). Cf.: agreement/concord (gram), узгодження, adjoinment/juxtaposition прилягання, word-formation словотвір, the complex sentence складнопідрядне речення, subordination підрядний зв'язок, longitude (geogr.) довгота, latitude широта, horse power кінська сила, standard of living життєвий рівень, etc. 3) Almost all proper nouns of various subclasses (names of people, family names and geographical names, etc.): An/id Арвід, Dora Дора, Floy Флой, Сгопіп Кронін, Newton Ньютон, Longfellow Лонґфелло, Boston Бостон, Newfoundland Ньюфаундленд, Ohio Огайо, Hyderabad Гайдерабад, General Motors Corp. корпорація «Дженерал Моторз», Playboy Magazine журнал «Плейбой», etc.

Some proper names and family names, as well as geographical names, names of companies/corporations, firms, titles of newspapers, magazines/journals, as has been shown already in Chapter II, do not always completely retain their source language form in the target language, e.g.: Mary Stewart Марія Стюарт. Charles V король Карл П'ятий, Lorraine Лотарінґія. Munich Мюнхен, Cologne Кельн, Leghorn Ліворно, Continental Airlines американська авіакомпанія «Контінентал ейрлайнз», Boston Globe and Mail Бретонська газета «Ґлоуб енд мейл», USA Today американська газета «Ю-Ес-Ей Тудей», «Sports» американська спортивна газета «Спорте», etc. These and many other proper nouns acquire in the target language a somewhat different sounding and additional explication (cf. американська газета), which often extend their structure as compared with that in the source language (cf. Reuters інформаційне агентство Великої Британії «Рейтер»). As a result, there is not always the same structural «dimension» (because of transformation) of the source language units in the target language, where they are partly transformed, as a rule.

A considerable number of different proper nouns do not maintain their form or structure due to the historic tradition or because of the lack of the corresponding sounds in the target language. Cf.: Варшава Warsaw, Москва Moscow, Запоріжжя Zaporizhya, Харків Kharkiv, etc. The lingual (sounding) structure of these and some other geographical names somewhat differs from that in the source language, because Zaporizhya, Kharkiv or Khrushch do not fully reflect their authentic Ukrainian sounding. But since the English language has no [г, й, ц, ц', х, р, дз'] sounds/phonemes and the Ukrainian language has no [9,6, a , r), r, h] and other sounds, the spelling forms like Tsarenko for Царенко, Zayarya for Заяр'я or Текерей. Рут for

Thackerey, Ruth should be considered as justified and, therefore, correct, in other words faithfully turned in either of these two languages. Such and the like (or more complicated) alterations and changes constantly take place in the process of translation both at word level and at syntactic level. Hence, from what was shortly shown on the examples above, one can draw an irrefutable conclusion that translation of sense units at the language level, i.e., at the level they belong to in the source language, represents nothing else than a process of constant transformations. The most regular if not the most frequent of these are the following two:

1) «inner» or implicit transformations taking place at the lexi
cal/semantic level of the target language as compared with the corre
sponding source language units;

2) «outer» or explicit transformations causing some alterations
in the target language as compared with the structure of the corre
sponding sense units of the source language units.

A vivid illustration of «inner» transformation is realized in genuine internationalisms through their synonymous or polysemantic meanings. For example, the noun icon apart from its direct Ukrainian meaning ікона may have in some context also the meanings зображення, портрет, статуя. Any of the last three forms of the word ікона represents an implicit/inner transformation of icon. Similarly with the noun idea which may mean apart from its genuine international sense ідея also думка, задум, гадка. When realised in its faithful translation through any of these three last meanings, it exemplifies an inner/implicit translators' transformation.

Similar «deviations» from the direct and main meaning may be observed in many more translated English genuine internationalisms. For example: idiomatic ідіоматичний/фразеологічний but also властивий/ характерний, притаманний, специфічний. (Cf. idiomatic English англійська мова з характерними їй рисами, властивостями, but not англійський текст, що складається з ідіоматичних виразів); illumination ілюмінація, освітлення and also пояснення/оздоблення (рукопису, книжки); illustration ілюстрація, малюнок and also пояснення, приклад.

Sometimes the meaning («inner form») of an internationalism or any other language unit may be absolutely unexpected for an unexperienced translator or interpreter. Cf.: imitation 1. імітація; 2. наслідування and сурогат, заміна, замінник Cf.: imitation coffee замінник кави, ерзац-кава; intonation 1. інтонація; 2. модуляція голосу and спів речитативом/співання перших слів пісні; militia

1. міліція; 2. народне ополчення (іст.) в Англії; militiaman (іст.)
ополченець and also міліціонер; national 1. національний;

2. народний and державний, збройний (CL: national forces of Ukraine
збройні сили України); nationalist 1. націоналіст, 2. борець за права
свого народу, за незалежність своєї батьківщини, за її
i.e. патріот своєї батьківщини; realize
1. реалізовувати, здійснювати', 2. уявляти собі, розуміти чітко
and давати прибуток, нагромаджувати кошти, багатство.
Therefore, inner or implicit transformations disclose the semantic
potential of the source language units in the target language. The
oute//axp//crttransformation is performed in the process of translation
practically on any type of the source language sense unit; already the
change of the Roman type (шрифт) for the Ukrainian or Arabic one
presents an explicit or outer transformation (cf. Львів Lviv, Чоп Chop).
A kind of combined explicit and implicit transformation may some
times take place too. Thus, the proper name John, for example, may
have three outer/contextual explicit realizations of its implicit mean
ings in Ukrainian: 1. Джон as in Джон Буль, Джон Кітс; 2. Іван as in
Pope John Paul II папа Іван Павло Другий; 3. Іоанназіп King John
І король Іоанн І, John the Baptist Іоанн Хреститель.

Apart from the notionals many functionals may undergo inner/ implicit transformations in the process of their translation as well. For example, the word yet may realize its lexical potential as follows: adverb (need you go yet? Тобі вже треба йти?); conjunction (though young yet experienced хоч і молодий, але/протедосвідчений); the word ncwwhich may be adverb (he is here now); noun (he is there by now Він уже там на цей час); conjunction (we may start, now the work is over Ми можемо вирушати, оскільки робота закінчена). Even the functional word the has two different realizations: 1. that of the grammatical determiner (definite article) and that of a particle as in the sooner the better чим швидше, тим краще. Inner transformations, therefore, may be performed on most sense units.

Outer/explicit transformations may sometimes change the structural form of the sense unit under translation. Thus, the noun the Orkneys becomes a word-group Оркнейські острови and the Hebrides becomes Гебрідські острови, whereas Labrador becomes півострів Лабрадор, and vice versa: some Ukrainian and English word-groups, proper names are transformed in the target language into single words: Ладозьке озеро - Ladoga, Онезьке озеро - Onega, Уральські гори - the Urals, the Antarctic Continent - Антарктика, the Artctic Region - Арктика, etc.

A peculiar type of outer transformation is observed at the phonetic/phonological level, when conveying different types of proper names, internationalisms and some lexical units designating specifically national (culturally-biased) elements of the source language. The outer transformation of the source language units in this case finds its expression only in adopting their spelling and sounding forms to the corresponding target language phonetic/phonological system, which usually differs from that of the source language. For example: acoustics [g'kuistiks] акустика, assembly [ a'sembli] асамблея, ceremony ['serimani] церемонія, discussion [dis'k/Jn] дискусія, etc.

A great number of phonetic/phonological transformations of the kind had been performed in the course of our history of translation. As a result, different types of various proper and other nouns have been already adopted by our language both directly and through mediating languages (Polish or Russian).

In the process of this adoption many different proper names of people and geographical names have acquired in Ukrainian a partly transformed phonetic/phonological, i.e., outer structural form. Cf.: Ireland [aialand] Ірландія, Maine [mein] Мен (штат Мен), Ulster [Alsta] Ольстер, Thessaly [беззіі] Фессалія, Thesalonica [9esal8'nai:ka] Салоніки, Фесалоніки, Rwanda [ru:'anda] Руанда, etc. Others acquired a unified outer form to express different notions: Algeria [ael'djieri'e] Алжир (країна), Algiers [eel'crjiaz] Алжир (столиця), Tunisia Туніс (країна), Tunis Туніс (столиця).

The observant reader could not have missed to notice that the outer forms of some of the above-given nouns were not everywhere linguistically justified, as their outer presentation contradicts the latest rule of Romanization of Ukrainian proper names and the rule of Ukrainization of foreign proper names respectively. In accordance with these rules the U.S. state of Maine, should be Мейн, Ulster should be Альстер or Алстер, and Thessalia, Thesalonica -Тессалія and Тесалоніка. Nevertheless, the outerform of these and many other nouns still remains in their traditional presentation, which was in some period of the past introduced in a wrong translators' transcription, cf.: Athens Афіни instead of Атени (as терапевт), etc.

A lot of other language units have either completely or partly changed their outer form according to the requirements of the target language. Cf.: arcuate аркоподібний, bachelor бакалавр, charter хартія, de/7/епродефілювати, frterapeuf/стерапевтичний, etc. Many loan internationalisms, on the other hand, maintain their inner and outerform in Ukrainian. Cf.: сазевідмінок, tense formnacoBa форма,

syntactic relations синтаксичні відношення, syntactic connection синтаксичний зв'язок, etc.

The outer form of many language units of the source language may, naturally, differ from its structural presentation in the target language. Thus, the sense of several simple words may be expressed through word-groups: асЛ/алсе_робити успіхи, drive просуватись уперед, quantify визначати кількість/встановлювати кількість; зарибити to put young fish into the pond, збити to knock down/to knock down together, перемерзати/перемерзнути to get chilled, to be nipped by the frost.

Compound words on the other hand may 1) maintain their outer form/structure in the target language: 1) easy-going добродушний, first-rate першорядний, fireproof вогнетривкий, fourfold чотирикратний, free-thinker вільнодумець; 2) they may be transformed into semantically corresponding word-groups: dew-fall випадання роси, bed-fast прикутий до ліжка (хворобою), spotlight прожектор для підсвічування, squaw-man(Атег.) білий/одружений з індіанкою; 3) they may turn in Ukrainian into simple words: ear-rings сережки, dress-coat фрак, mother-in-law свекруха/теща, ink-pot чорнильниця, operating-room операційна, son-in-law зять, glass-house теплиця/оранжерея, go-aneacf заповзятливий, etc.

Similar outer (structural) and inner (lexico-semantic) transformations are often resorted to when rendering the meaning of specific notions of national lexicon, namely: 1) when a single-word notion of the source language is translated by means of a single word (when the notions are internationalisms): mister, miss, lady, lord, barter, etc., містер, міс, леді, бартер тощо. 2) when a word-group notion is conveyed through a common word: little /Wa/y(jocul.) шлунок, Lord Harry чорт/чортяка, the outward man одежа (людини), for ever and a day назавжди /навіки, to turn one's way зникнути (втекти). 3) when a word-group structure of a specific source language notion is rendered through a sentence structure: Nosy Porker людина/той що втручається в чужі справи; Lazy Зизалстолик, на якому розвозять/ подають бутерброди/до чаю; doctor Fell людина, що викликає до себе антипатію; the Centennial Stateiujai Колорадо, який увійшов до складу США 1876 р. в сторіччя проголошення незалежності США; K-ration (milit. Amer.) індивідуальний військовий пайок, що складається виключно з консервів. Very often, the structural (outer) forms of some sense units may also coincide. Thus, the word-group structures of the source language are not changed in the target language: straight А «кругле» п'ять (оцінка), London particular (co\\oq.)

густий лондонський туман, sane andsouncf(jocul.) живий і здоровий, in one's birthday suit (jocul.) «в Адамовій одежі» (голий), the Sunflower sfafe(colloq. American) соняшниковий штат (Канзас), etc. But complete transformations are often performed when rendering the meaning of idiomatic expressions, especially of those based on specific notions of the national lexicon. Cf.: the Dutch have captured НоІІапдце всі знають, це всім відомо (пор. «відкрив Америку»); Queen Ann is cteac/це вже старе/це вже чули; the boot is on the other Іедце зовсім не так, усе якраз навпаки; or in Ukrainian: курям на сміх for cats and dogs to laugh at, у нього (неї) всі кози в золоті he/she presents things much better than they in reality are, he/she bounces too much boasts or: pretends to have something in abundance, etc.

All these outer transformations were prearranged by the semantic aims, i.e., they were used to express as fully and faithfully as possible the sense of the source language units in the target language. The translator here is mostly free to deliberately choose any sense unit of any structural form in order to convey faithfully the meaning of the source language unit. Thus, when translating the word trifle as a unit of the English culturally biased lexicon the translator is free to choose deliberately any of the three possible equivalents: 1) солодка страва; 2) солодкі бісквіти; 3) солодкі бісквіти, просочені вином (часом із варенням). The choice of this or that Ukrainian equivalent transform among these three is also conditioned by the personal preference of this or that equivalent and by the context requiring correspondingly a more or less extended information of the reader about this or that English specific national notion.

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