ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

I. By Transcription or Transliteration Exclusively



The units of the nationally specific lexicon, whose meanings

are rendered at the phonological level, usually belong to genuine

internationalisms and comprise social and political units of lexicon in

the main (cf. lord, lady, mister, shilling, kozak, hryvnia, etc.). This can

_.o be observed on the following examples: New classified rates per word Нові тарифи на рекламу в for ads in hryvnias in the Kyiv гривнях за слово в газеті Post. «Київ Пост»

«It's a poor coloured woman's place and you are a grand gentleman from Cape Town.» (RAbrahams) «You're a supercilious half-baked snob.» (Cronin) Andrew put out some bottled beer and asked Christine to prepare sandwiches. (Ibid.)

Це кімната для бідної

кольорової жінки, а ти ж

великий джентльмен із

Кейптауна.

Ти насправді зарозумілий і

обмежений сноб.

Ендрю дістав кілька пляшок

пива і попросив Крістін

приготувати йому сандвічі.

 

2. By Transcription or Transliteration and Explication of Their Genuine Nationally Specific Meaning

In many a case the lingual form of a unit of nationally specific lexicon conveyed through transcription or transliteration can not pro­vide a full expression of its lexical meaning. Then an additional expli­cation of its sense becomes necessary. It happens when the unit/ notion of the culturally biased lexicon is introduced in the target lan­guage for the first time or when it is not yet known to the broad public of the target language readers/listeners. The explanation may be given either in the translated passage/speech flow, where the cultur­ally biased unit is used or in a footnote r- when a lengthy explication becomes necessary: They took her to the Tower of London. (Jerome K.Jerome) Downing Street is guarded outside by a single policeman. (London Illustrated) As the dawn was just breaking he found himself close to

Covent Garden. (O.Wilde) He said that Wall Street and Threadneedle Street between them could stop the universe. (R.AIdington)

Вони показали їй стародавню лондонську фортецю Тауер. Резиденцію прем'єр-міністра Великої Британії охороняє один полісмен. Щойно стало розвиднятися, а він уже був неподалік від ринку Ковент-Ґарден. Він сказав, що Волл-Стріт і Треднідл-Стріт1 удвох (об'єднавши сили) спроможні зупинити всесвіт.

It goes without saying that the transcribed or transliterated forms of Downing Street, Covent Garden or Threadneedle Street can not be sufficient for many foreign readers to obtain a fairly cor­rect idea of what really each of them denotes. Hence, some explica­tion of their specific connotative meaning in footnotes becomes in­evitable. Footnotes or lengthy explications should always be used when the culturally biased notions are not yet well-known in the tar­get language. For example, surfing when only transliterated/tran­scribed as серфінґ will not express its denotative meaning which it in reality is - «the sport of riding waves into shore on a surfboard». Hence, a combined translation must be resorted to: серфінґ (ковзання на широкій овальній дошці по високій морській хвилі до берега); similarly with snow boarding which denotes спуск із гори на широкій лижві.

The kind of explication, naturally, can be acceptable in a dic­tionary but scarcely acceptable in a broader text. That's why foot notes become helpful here, though a frequent usage of them should be avoided as well, since footnotes may divert the reader's attention from the content of the passage/work in which the specific national notions occur.

1 Треднідл-Стріт - вулиця в лондонському Сіті, де розташовані кілька головних банків Великої Британії.

 

A combined translation may often be resorted to when a short excerpt or sentence contains some specific notions of the kind: A number of restaurants and caf- У Києві чимало ресторанів та eterias in Kyiv specialize in varenyky (dumplings), kulish (a thick meal stew) and other dishes. (News from Ukraine) No. 11 Downing Street is

guarded outside by a single policeman too. (London Illus­trated)

кафетеріїв, що спеціалізуються на приготуванні вареників, кулішу та інших страв. Будинок N 11 на Даунінг стріт (резиденція міністра фінансів Великої Британії) охороняється знадвору також одним полісменом

Anybody in this country can see from the definition above that вареники are not simply dumplings, i.e., small balls of dough which can be cooked in soup or stew but a piece of flat dough wrapped around some salted/sweetish curd with fresh egg boiled and served hot with butter and sour cream. Varenyky can also be dumplings wrapped around mashed potatoes/stewed sauerkaut, etc. And also boiled and served hot with butter or small pieces of fried bacon and onions respectively1. Neither is куліш something like a thick meal stew. Besides, kulish apart from some other features, not reflected in the translation above, is not always and not in all regions of Ukraine prepared thick, it may also be thin (soup-like).

3. By Descriptive Explaining/Explication OnlyFor some reason or other the orthographic form of a consider­able number of sense units belonging to the nationally specific lexi­con of the source language can not be rendered into the target lan­guage. That happens mostly when the transcription/transliteration can not be helpful in expressing the sense of the culturally biased national unit, or when it might bring about an unnecessary ambiguity in the target language narration/text cf.: matron завгосп у навчальному закладі (суміщає економку і медсестру); Pilgrim Fathers Батьки-прочани - перші колоністи з Англії, що прибули 1620 року до Північної Америки на вітрильнику «Мейфлауер»;

1 Note: in some American restaurants Ukrainian varenyky are called ravioli (Ital.).

prorogation офіційне розпорядження монарха про відновлення/ закінчення сесії парламенту Великої Британії; quartermaster старшина-стерновий у морській піхоті (and also квартирмейстер) в англ. армії.

It goes without saying that such lenthy explications of «матрона» or «Батьки прочани» as well as «квартирмейстер» may be considered superfluous, as their use in translation would aggra­vate to some extent the elucidation of their proper meanings.

There is no need to emphasize, however, that such lengthy explanations of specifically national notions are always required in the text of the translation/interpretation. And not are all culturally bi­ased/specific units of national lexicon are so «heavily» loaded with information so that they have to be explicated in a footnote. Quite often an explanation within the target language text may be sufficient enough too, as in the following examples: 1 thought of Phuong who would Я думав про Фуонґ, яка зараз

be haggling over the price of fish in the third street down on the left before going for her elevenses to the milk-bar. (G.Greene)

No coffins were available, so they wrapped George in a blanket and in the Union Jack. (RAIdington)

The Tommies were numbered, formed fours, right turned and marched away. (Ibid.)

I've got some shepherd's pie for lunch today - that you used to like so much. (A.Cronin)

He's upset because we don't run Jim Crow buses. (B.Gerry)

Усі бачили, як ми у церкві на рушник стали. (П. Мирний) Пісок був теплий, як нагріта лежанка. (С. Руданський)

відчайдушне торгується за рибу на третій вулиці, в центрі лівої частини міста, перш ніж зайти до молочного бару біля одинадцятої і сяк-так/нашвидкоруч поснідати У них не було готових домовин, тож вони замотали Джорджа у ковдру та в прапор Великої Британії.

Рядових солдатів

порахували, вишикували по

чотири, повернули праворуч і

відвели геть.

Але ж я приготувала

картопляну запіканку з

м'ясом і цибулею, яку ти

колись так любив.

Він дуже засмутився,що в нас

не ходять автобуси тільки

для негрів.

Everybody saw me and you

being married in the church.

The sand was warm like a clay

stove of a country cottage.

161As can be seen, not all the details constituting the semantic structure of the translated above units of specific national lexicon have been fully conveyed in English and Ukrainian translations. Thus, the «clay stove» does not sufficiently explicate the proper role of лежанка, for any stove predominantly implies its being used for cook­ing. In reality, however, the «clay stove» was designed in Ukrainian country cottages (khata) for heating and wanning purposes only. Simi­larly with the former (historical) specific American racists' contemp­tuous unit «Jim Crow buses», which is not simply автобус для негрів because «Jim Crow» was a contemptuous name for a Negro. When translated into Ukrainian simply as негр (автобус для негрів) the collocation would loose its connotative (contemptuous) meaning which is inherent in it. The same uan be said about the Ukrainian culturally biased notion of рушник which is certainly not quite equiva­lent to the descriptive meaning of «embroidered in national colours towel», because it is an indispensable item in every folk rite like birth­day, weddings or burials. Besides, рушник is used in Ukraine on any other solemn or ceremonial occasion. That is why its translation in the above sentence is not fully faithful. To convey the complexity of meaning contained by the national lexicon units of the kind, foot­notes may be resorted to as well. That is one more proof of the diffi­culties which the student sometimes has while dealing with some specifically national units of lexicon, which are always culturally bi­ased notions.





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