Translationas a term and notion is of polysemantic nature, its common and most general meaning being mostly associated with the action or process of rendering/expressing the meaning/content of a source language word, word-group, sentence or passage (larger text) in the target language or with the result of the process/action of rendering. In other words with the work performed by the translator (cf. this is my translation).«Translation» is also used to denote the subject taught or studied, the examination in the subject (cf. we have translationin the time-table today; I have to pass translation tomorrow). «Translation» may refer to the title of the manual/ theoretical work on the subject (cf. I bought Translationby Ivanenko). Besides, the Romanization of proper nouns, geographical names, different internationalisms, etc., when Latin letters are used to convey the Ukrainian nouns, verbs, adverbs is «translation» too: Київ Kyiv, Бровари Brovary, Львів Lviv, Біла Церква Bila Tserkva, Полтава Poltava, Згурівка Zghurivka, Медвин Medvyn, algebra алгебра, geographerreorpadp, computer комп'ютер, opera опера, telephone (v) телефонувати, mechanically механічно, ignore ігнорувати, historically історично. «Translated» in this way, i.e., transliterated with the help of Cyrillic letters are many English and other foreign names and different terms. Cf.: Archibald Cronin Арчібальд Кронін, RobertFrosf Роберт Фрост, Ottawa Оттава, Mc/сНік, Susar/Сюзан, Helmut /<оп/Гельмут Коль, shilling шилінґ, pizza піцца, therapeutic терапевтичний, etc.

No less ambiguous is also the term «interpretation»which is synonymous to «translation»and is used to denote the way or manner of presenting the idea of the work in translation orally (as well as its aesthetic, religious, political, pragmatic background and other qualitative characteristics of the work under translation). These may be artistic, genre and stylistic peculiarities rendered by the translator in his particular way, which is somewhat different from that of the author's. The thing is that «interpretation», unlike «translation», admits some more freedom of the translator in his treatment (at least in certain places or cases) of the matter under translation. Hence,

the existence of free versifications (переспіви) and free adaptation (перелицювання) which are rightly treated as new creations (when they are of high artistic value). To the latter belong the famous free interpretations of Virgil's Aeneid in Ukrainian by I. Kotlyarevskyi or I. Franko's free adaptation of the German work Reineke Fuchs under the Ukrainian title «Фарбований лис», and many others both in our national literature and in world literature. Practically «adapted» (thought in a peculiar way and with the highest degree of faithfulness, i.e. interpreted according to our national literary tradition), are also Shakespearean masterpieces, Byronean writings and many other poetic and prose works. Consequently, «interpretation» may denote apart from the oral method of translation also a peculiar, pertained to a master of the pen and characteristic of him, as well as the only way of presenting a prose or poetic work in translation. («Interpretation» may also denote the style of a peculiar translator and his way of presenting a particular literary work).

Apart from the two mentioned above, there are some other terms in the theory of translation which may seen ambiguous to the inexperienced student. These usually common terms are: accurate or exact (to what degree?) translation точний переклад; faithful (or realistic) translation, адекватний/вірний переклад; faithfulness of translation/interpretation, адекватність/вірність перекладу/ тлумачення; fidelity (or faithfulness) of translation/interpretation вірність, адекватність перекладу; equivalent translation/interpretation еквівалентний переклад; free interpretation вільний переклад,перелицювання; free adaptation вільний переклад, переробка; free interpretation вільний переспів,перелицювання; free/loose translation вільний переклад, переказ; consecutive interpretation послідовний переклад, усне тлумачення; off-hand translation/ interpretation переклад/тлумачення без попередньої підготовки (з голосу чи з аркуша); rehash вільна переробка (вдала чи невдала) твору; sight translation/interpretation (translation at sight) переклад/ усне тлумачення з аркуша/тексту; simultaneous translation/ interpretation синхронний переклад; rough translation робочий варіант перекладу, чорновий переклад and some others.

Each of the above-mentioned terms may be understood and interpreted differently. Thus, «free interpretation» may mean both «free translation», «free adaptation» and sometimes even «loose translation». Similarly with the terms and notions as «faithful translation» and «equivalent translation» which are synonymous if

not identical by their general meaning thought not without some difference between them. The term «faithful translation» (адекватний, вірний переклад) is used to denote the highest level/degree of rendering the denotative or connotative meanings of words, the sense of word-groups and sentences, the content, the expressiveness, picturesqueness and the pragmatic subtext/intention of passages or works of the source language with the help of the available means of the target language. The term «equivalent translation» is nowadays practically used in the same meaning as «faithful translation» with one exception only: it also includes the necessity of quantitative and qualitative representation of all constitutive parts or elements of the source language units in the target language. Consequently, a «faithful translation» very often means the same as «equivalent translation» which can be best illustrated on single words, word-groups or sentences as the following: acre акр, democracy демократія, work праця, professors and students професори й студенти, fo work hard важко працювати, take part брати участь, throw light проливати світло, between Scilla and Charybdis між Сціллою і Харібдою, Ukraine celebrated her fifth anniversary in August 1996 Україна святкувала п'яту річницю своєї незалежності в серпні 1996 року.

Equivalent can also be considered the translation of the following English sentence which maintains in Ukrainian its main constituent parts, its content, expressiveness and picturesqueness: There was Penelope flying after me like mad. (W.Collins) За мною гналась, мов навіжена, Пенелопа.

In regard to the afore-said, there can be no equivalence but only faithfulness in the translation of such and the like English language units as: complexion колір обличчя, to take measures вживати заходів, little bird донощик («стукач»), live in the street рідко бувати вдома, one's sands are running out (idiom) тонко пряде/йому недовго ряст топтати, same here (colloq.) це ж саме (так само) і в мене (зі мною), те/це ж саме можу сказати і про себе or: це так само стосується і мене. In a large number of cases «translation» is traditionally applied to various substitutions of the source language constituents/images for the explicatory constituents and images of the target language, which helps achieve the necessary faithfulness in conveying their meaning. Cl: penny-in-the slot прилад/ пристрій-автомат для розрахунків за товари (торгівля); the land of golden fleece Австралія; red blood мужність, відвага, хоробрість

(когось); let George do it Іван киває на Петра (один спихає відповідальність на другого); agonic (геометрія) що не утворює кута, etc. Therefore, «faithfull» is not always «equivalent».

The term «translation» is used even to denote purely functional substitutions which have absolutely nothing in common with any expression/rendering of meaning of the source language sense units in the target language. A graphic example of this kind of «translation» can be the following passage: «There's the treein the middle... It could bark... It says «Bough-wough»...«That's why its branches are called boughs». (L.Carrol, Alice in Wonderland). In Ukrainian: Он Фікус стоїть!.. Ми тому й прозвали його Фі-Кус, що він кусається. It goes without saying that the lexical meaning of «tree» is not «Фікус» and «Bough-wough» or «boughs» do not correlate with «кусатись» which they were substituted for in this Ukrainian translation by H.Bushyna.

Similarly «translated» i.e. functionally substituted are different English and Ukrainian metaphorically used nouns, verbs and set expressions as in the examples knight of the pencil журналіст/ кореспондент, baby-snatcher стара жінка, що одружилася з молодим чоловіком, the Square Mile Лондонське Сіті (фінансовий центр Лондона), the Square Mile of Vice (Сою, район нічних розваг міста Лондона), soft head недоумкувата людина (дурник), etc.

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