ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Exercise IV. Translate the words and word-groups below into Ukrainian and identify which of them are genuine international or loan international, and which pseudo-international.



1. conjugation, co-ordination, subordination, the indicative (imperative, subjunctive) mood, syllabification (phonet.), proof-reader, spelling-book, versification; 2. The law of gravitation, the theory of relativity; addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, decimal fractions, equations, identity, root extraction (math.); 3. decontamination, engineering, hothouse effect, myopia, piston, storage-battery, traffic rules, welding; 4. horse power, income tax, black soil, land improvement, cereals, legumes; 5. growth rate, latitude, longitude, mass media, national economy, precipitation, weather forecast; 6. decathlon, pentathlon, fencing, penalty area, penalty kick, snow boarding, wrestling (sport); weightlessness, purification, traffic-light.

Exercise V. Translate the English words and word-groups below into Ukrainian. Point out which of them are loan internationalisms and which - pseudo-internationalisms (non-internationalisms):

a) abacus, actual, conductivity, corner-stone, copyright, decontaminate, equilibrium, ever-frost, refrigerator, hypersonic, ignition, jet-fighter, non-conductor, gymnasium, quadrilateral, ropedancer, sabre-rattling, second-class, self-preservation, shock-worker, self-defence, sleeping-bag, smoke-screen, smoking-carriage, sparking-plug, standard-bearer, subtitle, summarise, summation, superconductivity, supernatural, supersonic, superstructure, syndetic, thermostable,


thrashing-machine, tightrope-dancer, toolroom, turn-screw; argument, billet, bombard, buffet, brilliance, complexion, cream, cymbals, dispute, electric eye, ferment (v), genii, gastronome/r, implicitly, intelligence, liquor, locomotion, nocturnal, observation, occupant, officiant, partywall, replica, satin, satirize, technology, tripartite, unintelligible, zero-gravity, diesel locomotive, alternative current, .direct current, ionic rectifier, rate of exchange.

Exercise VI. Render the meaning of the English simple/ compound words below by substituting where possible the international lexemes for their synonymous international components in Ukrainian:

Model: jazz-band джаз(овий) оркестр, phrase-book словник ідіом.

1. athlete, school practice, cabin, configuration, debate, drawing-paper; 2. fashion-paper, gangster, guerrilla, idol; inch, jumper, lingo, motorist, music-case, music-hall, music-paper, navigation officer, new-fashion, occupational; 3. ration, saboteur, scenery, sound locator, storage-battery, symbol, tank, tank-truck, torpedo-boat, title-holder, training-college, variety, voluntaryism.

Exercise VII. Analyse and translate the international lexemes below. Define the possible ways of translating which help equivalently render the lexical meaning of the following genuine international words:

archaize, barbarize, blitzkrieg, cadet, caravanning, club (v), cocaine, compressible, congressional, corona, demonstrable, diagnose (v), disreputability, doctorate, electrifiable, epigrammatist, examinee, film (v), geologize, golf (v), incontrollable, landscaper, ladyship, lordship, mayoralty, monographer, monologize, navigable, outflank, overproduce, over-active, papery, pension (v), pulse (v), radio (v), robotics, realizable, schoolable, sportsmanship, studentship, syllabicate, teleview (v), uncivilizable, vandalize, verse (v), yacht (v).

Exercise VIII. Suggest corresponding Ukrainian variants for the following English sports terms which are genuine or loan internationalisms:

1. to feel fit; 2. modern pentathlon/decathlon, pantathlete/ decathlete; 3. aquatic sport, diving, sailing, rowing; 4. mountaineering; 5. cycling; 6. wrestling; 7. jumping; 8. tumbling; 9. weightlifting; 10. fencing; 11. skating, ski-jumping; 12. remedial (curative) gymnastics; 13. five-km event, to forge ahead, to move into the lead; 14. to win on points, to set up a record; 15. individual championship; 16. to make public the list of players; 17. track-and-field athletics,


medium/middle distance race, long-distance race, steeple-chase, relay-race, cross-country race, line-up, marathon race, high/Іоng jump, pole vault, discus/hammer throwing, javelin throwing, shot-put, trial run, running on the curve, joggling, final/speed race; 18. double game/ singles game, to deliver the ball, the right to serve, the toss/to toss, the racket; 19. left back/right back, right half-back/left half-back, outside right/outside left, right centre forward/left centre forward, left-centre back/right-centre back, goalie, to kick/hit the ball, to cheer for some team; 20. throw from running (the ball) at full speed, unhindered shooting, bouncing shot, two-hand overhead throw, a shot in the long/farther corner of the goal, a shooting for goals; 21. breast stroke/butterfly stroke, back stroke, front crawl stroke, to float/to float on back, competitive swimming, indoor/outdoor pool, inhalation/exhalation; 22. horizontal bar, sports gymnastics, callisthenics, tumbling, hoop, club, ribbon, skipping-rope; 23. to dodge the opponent, to keep the puck on the ice, to drop the puck, to work the puck, to pull out the goalie, face-off, to pull the opponent; 24. figure skating, speed skating, long-distance race, sprint, single skating, straight run, run in the curve, free skating, ice-dances; 25. giant slalom, downhill run, ski-jumping, relay race, ski-lift.

Exercise IX.Suggest possible ways of translation into English for each international word and proper name in the passage below.

ХТО ЩО ВИГАДАВ

1. Змивними туалетами користувалися ще за 2 тисячі років до нашої ери жителі острова Кріт. Каструлю-скороварку для швидкого приготування їжі під тиском винайшов француз Дені Папен (1679). Пневматичні шини, на яких їздять усі машини світу, були вперше застосовані для кінних екіпажів ще 1845 року в Англії Робертом Томпсоном. Для велосипеда такі шини вперше використав 1888 року ірландець Джон Данлоп. 2. Ручний фотоапарат веде свою історію від 1888 року, коли його винайшов у США Джордж Істмен (це прізвище залишилось у назві відомої фірми «Істмен-Кодак»), 3. Заслуга винаходу швейної машинки належить американцеві Еліасу Гоу (1846 рік), а не Ісааку Зінгеру, який лише вдосконалив її і пустив у масове виробництво (1851 року). 4. З початком ери електрики на межі нашого й минулого століть з'явилися і вентилятор (винайшов Ш.Вілер, США, 1882), пилосос - Гюберт Буг (Англія, 1891), пральна машина - Елва Фішер (США, 1906), електричний холодильник вперше виготовили


в Чикаго на фірмі «Домеле» (1913). Замок-блискавку вигадав 1891 року Вільям Джадсон, того ж року Кінґ Джіплет (США) запатентував безпечну бритву. Автором рецепту кока-коли є Джон Пелбертон (США, 1896), а мікрохвильової пічки- Персі Спенсер (1947). Понад 1000 винаходів належить Томасу Алва Едісонові: фонограф (1877), лампа розжарювання, удосконалений телеграф і телефон (1879), перша електростанція (1882) тощо. 5. Німець Ґабріель Фаренгайт вигадав 1714 року ртутний градусник. Норвежець Ерік Ротгаим-автор аерозольного балончика (1926). Відомий французький мандрівник і дослідник Жак-Ів Кусто разом з Емілем Каньяном мають патент на аквалані1 (1943). А таблеткою аспірину ми зобов'язані німецькому вченому Феліксові Гофманові. 6. Українці мають також світові винаходи. Прокопович П.І. придумав рамковий вулик (1828); Засядько О.Д. запровадив бойову порохову ракету (1817), а Кондраткж (Шангей) Ю.В. запропонував багатоступеневу космічну ракету (1929), В.Смакула (1936) - прилад нічного бачення.

TEXTS FOR INDEPENDENT CLASS AND HOME TRANSLATION

Exercise X. Identify the possible ways of faithful conveying the terms and units of international lexicon in the passages below and translate them into Ukrainian.

Macroeconomic Policies

Macroeconomic policy management has a large impact on investor confidence in the reforming country. Economic volatility raises uncertainty for investors, who look for stability and predictability. The basic elements of macroeconomic policy management for effective reform are the following.

Fiscal Policies.An important indicator of prudent fiscal management is a low, predictable rate of inflation. A lack of control over inflation points to macroeconomic and fiscal unbalances. The most extreme manifestation of this problem, hyperinflation, leads to the introduction of shock programs as a basis for stabilization. When countries impose shock programs, recessions often result, posing difficulties for local workers and consumers. By bringing inflation under control, countries establish a necessary precondition for stability and growth. The stabilization programs implemented by the survey countries had this fundamental objective in mind. For example, Argentina endured many bouts of high inflation, followed by wage and price freezes to arrest them. The controls only halted inflation temporarily,


as the root cause - excessive spending by the public sector - was not addressed. Now that public spending has been brought under control with the Cavallo Plan, Argentine inflation has subsided. Real positive interest rates (i.e., interest rates higher than the rate of inflation) are important in maintaining stability in the balance of payments and are a key element of sound fiscal management.

Appropriate Exchange Rates.Appropriate exchange rate policy adjusts the value of the local currency on a steady, predictable basis, which, again, contributes to economic stability and investor confidence. Countries that experience high rates of inflation typically have overvalued exchange rates, because adjustments in the value of the local currency lag behind the rate of inflation. However, local currencies that are overvalued hurt exports, which are more expensive in international markets compared to the exports from countries with cheaper currencies. Exchange rate reform usually entails a devaluation of the local currency, making the country's export more competitive in terms of price and the country itself more attractive for private investment.

Prices and Wages.As noted earlier, price and wage controls are often used to control inflation. While they may have the desired effect in the short-term, they almost always unravel and end up creating more inflation. When governments repeatedly employ wage and price freezes, consumers and businesses adjust their behavior in anticipation of the next round of controls by hoarding goods, raising wage demands or raising prices, leading to yet higher inflation. In Poland, prices and wages were set by the government for many years under the system of central planning. One of the first steps of the Balcerowicz Plan was to free all wages and prices as of January 1, 1990. This step marked a major event in the Polish transition to a market-oriented economy.





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